Social networks underly a broad range of social and economic research questions that are increasingly being understood through large-scale computational analyses. In particular, the study of social influence and information diffusion on social networks have rich modeling histories, while opportunities in online instrumentation and experimentations are now providing tremendous advances in our abilities for theory testing as well as theory development. This tutorial will provide a brief overview of models of social networks and social influence, and then focus on giving an overview of recent evidence for how these processes behave empirically in diverse online settings. A particular emphasis will be placed on efforts to approach these problems through causal inference, moving beyond "big data" to "big experimentation".
(Not all these references are mentioned on the slides; some came up extemporaneously during discussions at the EC tutorial.)
- J Moreno (1934) "Who shall survive?: A new approach to the problem of human interrelations."
- B Ryan, N Gross (1943) "The diffusion of hybrid seed corn in two Iowa communities," Rural Sociology.
- P Lazarsfeld, B Berelson, H Gaudet (1948) "The People's Choice. How the Voter Makes up His Mind in a Presidential Campaign"
- E Katz, P Lazarsfeld (1955) "Personal Influence, The part played by people in the flow of mass communications".
- E Katz (1957) "The Two-Step Flow of Communication: An Up-To-Date Report on an Hypothesis". Political Opinion Quarterly.
- J Coleman, E Katz, H Menzel (1957) "The diffusion of an innovation among physicians", Sociometry.
- F Bass (1969) "A new product growth for model consumer durables". Management Science.
- M Granovetter (1978) "Threshold models of collective action," AJS.
Part I: From Theory to Data
- W Zachary (1977) "An information flow model for conflict and fission in small groups," J Anthropological Research.
- KE Campbell and BA Lee (1991) "Name generators in surveys of personal networks," Social Networks.
- M Resnick et al. (1997) "Protecting adolescents from harm: findings from the national longitudinal study on adolescent health," JAMA.
- J Shi, J Malik (2000) "Normalized cuts and image segmentation," IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence.
- P Domingos, M Richardson (2001) "Mining the network value of customers," KDD.
- LA Adamic, E Adar (2003) "Friends and neighbors on the web," Social networks.
- D Kempe, J Kleinberg, E Tardos (2003) "Maximizing the spread of influence through a social network," KDD.
- MEJ Newman, M Girvan (2004) "Finding and evaluating community structure in networks," Physical Review E.
- D Liben-Nowell et al. (2005) "Geographic routing in social networks," PNAS.
- G Kossinets, D Watts (2006) "Empirical analysis of an evolving social network," Science.
- L Backstrom, D Huttenlocher, J Kleinberg, X Lan (2006) "Group formation in large social networks: membership, growth, and evolution," KDD.
- J Leskovec, LA Adamic, BA Huberman (2006) "The dynamics of viral marketing," EC.
- S Fortunato, M Barthelemy (2007) "Resolution limit in community detection," PNAS.
- J Leskovec et al. (2007) "Cost-effective outbreak detection in networks," KDD.
- D Watts, P Dodds (2007) "Influentials, Networks, and Public Opinion Formation," Journal of Consumer Research.
- D Centola, V Eguiluz, M Macy (2007) "Cascade dynamics of complex propagation," Physica A.
- D Centola, M Macy (2007) "Complex contagions and the weakness of long ties" AJS.
- NA Christakis, J H Fowler (2007) "The spread of obesity in a large social network over 32 years," New Engl J Med.
- JP Onnela et al. (2007) "Structure and tie strengths in mobile communication networks," PNAS.
- J Leskovec, E Horvitz (2008) "Planetary-Scale Views on a Large Instant-Messaging Network," WWW.
- J Ugander, B Karrer, L Backstrom, C Marlow (2011) "The Anatomy of the Facebook Social Graph," arXiv.
- J Ugander, L Backstrom, C Marlow, J Kleinberg (2012) "Structural Diversity in Social Contagion," PNAS.
- B Ball, MEJ Newman (2013) "Friendship networks and social status," Network Science.
- E Mossel, J Neeman, A Sly (2014) "Stochastic block models and reconstruction," Probability Theory and Related Fields.
- AZ Jacobs, SF Way, J Ugander, A Clauset (2015) "Assembling thefacebook: Using Heterogeneity to Understand Online Social Network Assembly," WebSci.
- E Bakshy, S Messing, L Adamic (2015) "Exposure to ideologically diverse news and opinion on Facebook," Science.
Part II: Causal Inference and Experimentation
- P Rosenbaum, D Rubin (1983) "The central role of the propensity score in observational studies for causal effects," Biometrika.
- D Rubin (2006) "Matched sampling for causal effects"
- N Christakis, J Fowler (2007) "The Spread of Obesity in a Large Social Network over 32 Years," New England J of Medicine.
- S Aral, L Muchnik, A Sundararajan (2009) "Distinguishing influence-based contagion from homophily-driven diffusion in dynamic networks," PNAS.
- D Centola (2010) "The spread of behavior in an online social network experiment," Science.
- C Shalizi, A Thomas (2011) "Homophily and contagion are generically confounded in observational social network studies," Sociological Methods & Research.
- D Centola (2011) "An experimental study of homophily in the adoption of health behavior," Science.
- E Bakshy et al., (2012) "Social Influence in Social Advertising: Evidence from Field Experiments," EC.
- S Aral, D Walker (2012) "Identifying Influential and Susceptible
Members of Social Networks," Science.
- Bond et al. (2012) "A 61-Million-Person Experiment in Social Influence and Political Mobilization," Nature.
- A Banerjee, AG Chandrasekhar, E Duflo, MO Jackson (2013) "The diffusion of microfinance," Science.
- P Aronow, C Samii (2013) "Estimating average causal effects under interference between units," arXiv.
- C Manski (2013) "Identification of treatment response with social interactions," The Econometrics Journal.
- J Ugander, B Karrer, L Backstrom, J Kleinberg (2013) "Graph Cluster Randomization: Network Exposure to Multiple Universes," KDD.
- D Eckles, B Karrer, J Ugander (2014) "Design and analysis of experiments in networks: Reducing bias from interference," arXiv.
- D Kim et al. (2015). "Social network targeting to maximise population behaviour change: a cluster randomised controlled trial," Lancet.
- J Bjelland et al. (2015) "Investigating Social Influence Through Large-Scale Field Experimentation," NetMob.
- S Athey, D Eckles, G Imbens (2015) "Exact P-values for Network Interference," arXiv.