Winter Quarter 2016

Perspectives in Assistive Technology


David L. Jaffe, MS
Tuesdays & Thursdays at 4:30pm - 5:50pm
Classroom 110 in Thornton Center

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Candidate Team Projects - 2016

Team Projects are for suitable for 1, 2, or 3 students taking the course for three credit units.

Many of these projects will be "pitched" in class on Thursday, January 7th

Small red dot  - new or updated project description for 2016
Small black square  - project to be "pitched" by the project suggestor
Small blue diamond  - project to be "pitched" by Dave
?   - project "pitch" status to be determined

Project contacts are listed on the handout.

Team Projects suggested this year:

Small red dot Small blue diamond Walking Stick Project
Small red dot Small blue diamond Improved Walker Project
Small red dot Small black square Power for Veterans Project
Small red dot Small black square Authoring Grade School Lessons on Disability and/or Assistive Technology
Small red dot Small black square Support System to Destigmatize Mental Health in the Black Community
Small red dot Small black square Knee Brace Project
Small red dot Small black square Jogging and Running Aid for the Blind and Visually Impaired

Team Projects suggested last year:

Small black square Art Tools Project
Small red dot Small black square Aesthetic Brace Fairing Project
Small black square Educational Design Challenge Kit for Children with Disabilities
Small black square iPhone and Me Project
Small red dot Small black square Horseback Riding at Home Project

Team Projects suggested in past years:

Small red dot Small blue diamond Wheelchair Backup Alert
Small blue diamond Creative Expression
Small blue diamond Designing Your Afterlife
? Project employing the Leap Motion Controller
Small blue diamond Enhanced bed control for veterans with spinal cord injury
Small blue diamond Enhanced access to touch screen devices
Small black square Magical Bridge Playground Project
Small red dot Small black square Customize Abby's Scooter Project
Small blue diamond Student-defined Team Projects

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Small red dot  Walking Stick Project

Background: A walking stick is an assistive mobility device used by many people with moderately reduced balance or strength to facilitate walking. It can improve balance, reduce pain, increase mobility and confidence, help redistribute weight from a lower leg that is weak or painful, improve stability by increasing the base of support, and provide tactile information about the ground to improve balance. In the US, 10 percent of adults older than 65 years use canes and 4.6 percent use walkers.

In contrast to crutches, walking sticks are generally lighter, but, because they transfer the load through the user's unsupported wrist, they are unable to offload significant loads from the legs.

Barbara is a 91 year-old designer and pioneer in occupational therapy. She uses walking sticks everyday to help with her balance. She fashioned the grips on her device by building up layers of duct tape.

Problem: Walking sticks must be fitted, adjusted, and personalized for its user - including its appearance, height, grip, and type of tip.

Aim: Explore a custom walking stick design for Barbara.

Design Criteria:
comfortable grips
forward illumination
enhanced visibility
improved aesthetics
"rocker tips"



Walking Sticks

photo of walking sticks in use photo of walking stick's left grip photo of walking stick's right grip

In use

Left grip

Right grip

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Small red dot  Improved Walker Project

Background: A walker or walking frame is an assistive technology product for people with mobility disabilities or older adults who need additional support to maintain balance or stability while walking. A rollator is a wheeled walker.

Problem: Users of walkers are often seen somewhat slouched or bent over as they walk. This creates posture problems and discomfort.

Aim: Explore an aftermarket addition to a standard walker that would encourage better posture and improve balance.

Design Criteria: The solution should adapt to a standard walker, encourage correct posture, offer stability, and promote confidence in its use.


Tips for Walker Use

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Small red dot  Power for Veterans Project


Problem: Veteran in-patients at the VA Palo Alto Health Care System (which wards?) have a desire to power and recharge all their personal devices (such as ...) including assistive technologies within reach at their bedside. However the proliferation of these devices and chargers often requires extension cords and multiple power strips which are strictly prohibited by the Joint Commission Environment of Care standards.

Aim: Explore designs which would allow patients to power and recharge all their personal devices within easy reach of their bedside while being in compliance with Joint Commission regulations.

Design Criteria:

  • must be electrically safe
  • must be in compliance with regulations
  • must not interfere with medical treatments
  • must not interfere with transfers to/from bed
  • must not create a tripping hazard
  • must be an aesthetically-appealing design



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Small red dot  Authoring Grade School Lessons on Disability and/or Assistive Technology

Background: Nearpod is a mobile learning platform that helps teachers deliver classroom instruction using iPads and other mobile devices. It combines interactive presentation, collaboration, and real-time assessment tools into one integrated solution.

Problem: Although thousands of Nearpod lessons have been authored, teachers currently don't have access to engaging and interactive lessons about Disability and/or Assistive Technology.

Aim: Author Nearpod lesson modules on Disability and/or Assistive Technology suitable for use in a grade school classroom.

Design Criteria:


Graphite - Nearpod Editorial Review
Nearpod video (1:13)
Making Tech Simple - Nearpod Introduction
Edshelf - Nearpod Review (with video 0:40)

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Small red dot  Support System to Destigmatize Mental Health in the Black Community

Background: According to the US Department of Health and Human Services: Office of Minority Health, African Americans are 20% more likely to report having serious psychological distress [1]. Also African Americans living below the poverty level, as compared to those over twice the poverty level, are three times more likely to report psychological distress. Some of the main psychological disorders that African Americans experience are major depressive disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, suicide, and PTSD. African Americans are also more likely to experience homelessness and exposure to violence, which are both correlated to increasing the likelihood of developing a mental health disorder.

Problem: African Americans are 50% less likely to receive mental health treatment or counseling and 60% less likely to receive prescription medication for mental health treatment or counseling. Of the African Americans who have had a major depressive episode, they are 20% less likely to receive treatment. Some of the main factors that create this gap are:

  • Lack of understanding, misinformation, and stigma about mental health in the black community
  • Faith, spirituality, and community beliefs
  • Reluctance and inability to access mental health services
  • Differences in metabolizing medications
  • Provider bias and inequity of care [2]

Aim: Create an information support system that destigmatizes mental health in the black community.

Design Criteria: The system's design must:

  • Consider mental health stigmas within the black community
  • Be culturally sensitive
  • Understand the unique challenges that mental health in the African American community poses as compared to other communities


[1] Mental Health and African Americans
[2] African American Mental Health

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Small red dot  Knee Brace Project

Background: Knee bracing is a common orthopedic treatment for a variety of conditions including stabilization from torn ligaments, prevention of knee injury in contact sports, and unloading the knee on one side to relieve arthritis pain.

Problem: Knee braces are generally well tolerated, however many people who need them the most cannot use them for a few very specific reasons:

  1. For a user who lacks good calf musculature or has a conical shaped limb, a brace is very difficult to suspend in the correct location.

  2. If the user has knee instability due to weak quadriceps, a simple knee brace will not provide enough stability to prevent falling, unless it is locked all the time. This is unacceptable for most people.

  3. Many braces are too bulky - they do not fit under standard pants.

Aim & Design Criteria: Explore brace designs that stay in place, incorporate a mechanism that locks the knee when needed, unlocks the knee when not needed, and is not too bulky.



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Small red dot  Jogging and Running Aid for the Blind and Visually Impaired

Background: There are few products that serve the exercise and sporting needs of people who are blind or visually impaired.

Problem: It is challenging for runners who are blind or visually impaired to independently navigate a running environment as the common walking navigation technique using a long cane is not effective at running speeds and sighted running guides are often not available.

Aim: Explore designs for an aid that runners who are the blind or visually impaired can employ to during running or jogging to enhance their running experience.

Design Criteria:

  • the aid could be entirely mechanical or employ electronic components
  • the aid must be safe for the runner and others
  • the aid must provide the runner confidence in navigating the running environment


AMD Rectangle

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Small red dot  Project title




Design Criteria:



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Small red dot  Art Tools Project

Background: Abilities United ensures that thousands of people with developmental and physical disabilities fully participate in community life. They support children and adults, their families and the community, and champions a culture in which all members of society are included and appreciated for their distinctive contributions.

Several participants who Abilities United serve have significant range of motion and muscle / motor control challenges but greatly enjoy art. The artists, all of whom also have a developmental disability, have a unique way of expressing their artistic interpretation of their subjects. Their joy of art and life is expressed in works created with acrylic paint, watercolor, paper, and other mediums.

Problem: Currently the Abilities United staff needs to provide several of its artists with personal full-time assistance during art activities. Even with this level of attention, they can only help the artists in a very limited way.

Aim: Explore designs that would allow these artists to be more independent and increase their ability to participate in art.

Design Criteria: The design should:

  • be simple tools or adaptations
  • avoid creating a mess
  • be easy to set up and put away
  • minimize the need for staff assistance
  • permit artists to pursue their craft independently

Other: Artwork is available for purchase.

Abilities United
Palo Alto's Abilities United teaches independent living skills
Making art, building lives
Teacher Tips to Adapt Art Projects for Special Ed
Art Supplies for the Special Education Classroom
Working with Special Needs Students in Art
Activities for Disabled Adults

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Small red dot  Aesthetic Brace Fairing Project

Background: "In 1989, at the age of 8, I was struck by a semi-truck, resulting in massive trauma to my right leg. Because the injury happened at such a young age, in addition to losing a significant portion of the lateral side of my right leg, I experienced growth deformities overtime. I am not an amputee as I still have my full limb; however it has significantly less girth, has abnormal contours from muscle trauma, sits at an abnormal angle, and has an abnormal rotation. Millions of people like me live with disfigured limbs resulting from congenital diseases, growth deformities, and trauma. Even when wearing a leg brace, these factors are noticeable." - Max

Problem: While there are solutions to address functional deficiencies in limbs, there are none that directly address the aesthetic damage. The psychological impact of the visual appearance of a disfigured limb can be catastrophic to those so affected. It can affect their willingness to be seen in public, to participate to certain activities, and otherwise live a normal life. Imagine someone with a disfigured leg wanting to wear shorts on a hot day or go swimming but not doing so because they don't want to deal with people staring at their limb. Some products - called fairings - exist for prosthetic artificial limbs, but none for orthotic braces.

Aim: "Explore brace attachment designs that address these superficial deficiencies in my right leg - specifically the lack of girth, the abnormal angle, and the abnormal shape - essentially hiding the disfigurement. The brace attachment itself can be noticeable (and look good), but must hide the underlying disfigurement."

Design Criteria: The limb brace attachment must:

  • Look great. When wearing the device, it must visually appear like a normally leg or as normal as possible given the extent of the underlying limb disfigurement. The attachment does not need to look like actual skin it only needs to copy the shape and "pattern" of a leg. It could have the aesthetic of an article of clothing.
  • Be easy to put on and take off.
  • Allow the limb to "breathe". The design cannot result in the limb becoming excessively hot.
  • The attachment must allow the user to walk and move normally, without restricting the limb's motion in flexion or rotation.
  • The design does not need to address structural deficiencies of the limb (e.g stability or function).
  • Ideally, the specific design methods employed could be transferable to other uniquely disfigured limbs, ie, the product should be able to be replicated for different users with different disfigurements.

Other: Here are some fairings that have been created for prosthetics:

Prosthetic Fairings

photo of a prosthetic fairing photo of a prosthetic fairing photo of a prosthetic fairing

Brave the Woods

Bespoke Innovations

Miller Design

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Small red dot  Educational Design Challenge Kit for Children with Disabilities

Background: The Resource Area for Teaching (RAFT) is a non-profit organization that creates innovative hands-on Activity Kits which are used by 12,000 educators to help nearly one million K-8 students master important educational concepts and work skills. These kits are particularly popular with educators because they seem to "open up" students with physical, mental, or emotional disabilities and get them excited about learning and participating.

RAFT would like to introduce a new Educational Design Challenge Kit that is hands-on, open-ended, and covers multiple subject areas. Teachers will use the new kit to stimulate learning, teamwork, and creative thinking in their classrooms.

Problem: Current Activity Kits are not always accessible to children with disabilities.

Aim: Explore ideas for an Educational Design Challenge Kit that will engage children (grades 6 to 8) including those with moderate sight, mobility, or dexterity limitations and evaluate their effectiveness in a classroom setting.

Design Criteria:

  • The Educational Design Challenge Kit must be accessible to all children, both with and without disabilities.
  • Activities employing the Kit must promote learning, teamwork, and creative thinking.
  • The Kit must be appropriate for the intellectual and disability level of the students.
  • The Kit must address at least two subject areas such as science, math, art, language, engineering, programming, etc.
  • The Kit can take the form of a toy, product, game, story, work of art, etc.
  • The materials comprising the Kit must be low cost and safe to use and can a variety of interesting surplus items available at RAFT such as foam, cloth, wood, paper, corks, bottle caps, and CD's as well as other readily-available items such as tape, paperclips, and string.
  • The finished Kit must be compact, easy to store, ship, set up, explain, and use.
  • The project report must include a comprehensive instruction guide and educational plan for teachers.

Suggested Activities:

  • Brainstorm possible "design challenges" for students (example: Can you make a plane that flies using commonly-found materials?).
  • Convert the top concept into a series of Educational Design Challenge prototypes.
  • Test the new Kit with children in grades 6 to 8, including those with moderate sight, mobility, or dexterity limitations.
  • Evaluate the outcome of tests, iterate the design, and recommend further improvements which RAFT can include if they decide to commercialize the prototype into a new educational product.

Other: Access will be provided to teachers for their input and feedback and to children to test the classroom effectiveness of the Educational Design Challenge Kit.


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Small red dot  iPhone and Me Project

Background: "I used to be right-handed. But after a stroke that took my motor skill and ability to feel on the entire right side, I had no choice but to depend on my left hand exclusively. Because I lost not only function, but also the sense of touch on one side, I literally have to keep an eye on my right hand so as not to touch sharp items or a hot kettle, for example." - Sachiko

Problem: "I recently purchased an iPhone, but I can not use it on the go. I need to put the it on a table to securely hold it when I swipe or type so it will not slide away."

Aim: Explore designs that would enable Sachiko to handle and effectively operate an iPhone with one hand.

Design Criteria: The design should not damage the iPhone or allow it to fall or slip out of her right hand.



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Small red dot  Horseback Riding at Home Project

Background: The non-profit organization, Ability Production, provides services, information, and resources for individuals managing their spinal cord injuries as well as those experiencing MS, Parkinson's, or recovering from a stroke and their support communities who want to maximize their health and quality of life. The research and experience shared by Ability Production can benefit anyone, with or without a traumatic injury.

Horseback riding is an ideal activity for maximizing and stimulating movement in a "compromised body". The benefits of hippotherapy include improvements in balance, muscle strength, gait, posture and symmetry, joint mobility, sensory processing, and motor planning.

Problem: Most people are unable to pursue adaptive riding due to lack of local access, the high cost, their unfamiliarity with (or fear of) horses, inclement weather, or the difficulty of traveling to a riding venue.

Aim: Explore designs for an alternative to horseback riding that would provide similar benefits in a home or clinic environment for people with compromised bodies.

Design Criteria: The horseback riding alternative must:

  • be "bouncy", but stable (limited side-to-side and front-to-back movements)
  • include support "handles" for additional rider stability
  • accommodate the project suggestor, but consider designs to adapt the design for a range of rider's sizes and abilities
  • be portable through its ability to be disassembled, transported, and reassembled
  • allow rider access from the side and rear
  • accommodate riders who would mount and dismount from/to a wheelchair

Design Suggestion: Explore "Peanut Physioballs" as a seating alternative. They feature a unique design which limits movement along one axis to create a more stable, reliable, and consistent motion during use. Their round shape is advertised to provide rolling movements that engage the body's core muscles and deliver a safe, effective workout. The physioball allows up-and-down, side-to-side, forward-and-back, and diagonal movements that stimulate the neurological system; provide massage for the legs, gluts, and pelvic floor; improve postural alignment; and engage lymphatic movement.


Ability Production
Hippotherapy for People with Disabilities
American Hippotherapy Association
Physioball links:
Balls 'n' Bands - PhysioRoll Peanut Ball
Therapro - Physio Rolls (AKA Deluxe Peanut Balls)
Walmart - Sportime Physio-Roll Exercise Ball
Special Needs Toys - Peanut Balls
Dynaflex - Fit-Chair with Base

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Small red dot  Wheelchair Backup Alert

Background: A few veterans with spinal cord injury at the VA Palo Alto Health Care System use power wheelchairs with head array controllers. (Head array controllers allow an individual without hand or arm function to drive their wheelchairs using their head position.)

Problem: Individuals who use a head array controlled wheelchair often do not have a sufficient range of neck motion to check for obstacles behind their wheelchair while backing up. The array controller itself may obstruct their view to the rear. These situations create a potential safety hazard as the user could unintentionally collide with objects or people.

Aim: Explore mechanical or electronic designs to provide rearward visibility and warning while backing up.

Design Criteria: The solution should not involve drilling into the wheelchair frame or modifying its controller.


Permobil C300 wheelchair

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Creative Expression

Background: Most everyone has a need and desire to be creative through activities such as writing, painting, sculpture, pottery, jewelry, quilting, photography, singing, dancing, and music.

Problem: Existing tools supporting creativity are often lacking for people with disabilities. Movement difficulties may prevent an individual from fully participating in their chosen activity.

Aim: Explore ways to enhance creative expression for people with disabilities. This could include the creation of new activities or fabrication of new tools.


  • Convert the user's existing assistive technology device into a creative "paintbrush" or musical "instrument"
  • Use non-traditional inputs such as residual movements or brain waves


Chris Chafe - Director of CCRMA

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Designing Your Afterlife

Background: Death is the most severe form of disability as one is no longer able to interact with people or physical objects in the living world. What remains are only frozen static artifacts - images, writings, and the recollections of others. Gone are one's personality, beliefs, expertise, humor, vision, memories, insights, and intellect.

Problem: With one's death, it is impossible to provide a full and accurate representation of whom they were, what they believed in, and how they acted. The recollections of family and friends fade and disappear with time, leaving the departed one's legacy at the mercy of the living.

Aim: Explore ways to preserve one's essence after death. In the technology extreme, this might manifest itself as an interactive system that responds to queries, retells stories, relates experiences, shares expertise, and expresses humor. The pre-dead user would be able to create and program his / her eternal computer-based persona before her / his demise.


Adobe Mobile Apps:
Voice - produces story-telling videos from pictures and audio
Slate - produces rich and interactive content in a album-like format
Clip - produces video and audio sequences on the fly
Adobe Desktop / Laptop Applications:
Digital Publishing Solution: Course Apps - a high-level solution for courses
Captivate - creates high-level e–learning content
Presenter - produces compelling and interactive presentation, starting from Microsoft PowerPoint
3-D Hologram Technology Will Make it Possible to Virtually Connect with People After They’re Gone

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Project employing the Leap Motion Controller

Background: The Leap Motion Controller senses and tracks the movement of hands and fingers in 3D: pointing, waving, reaching, and grabbing. Advertised applications for this USB device include control of a computer to: browse the web, read articles, flip through photos, play music, draw, paint, design, play video games, and create music.

Aim: Explore an application for a person with a disability using the Leap Motion Controller product. Examples include enhanced computer control and accessibility for those with limited manipulation abilities, physical therapy coach, control of household appliances (lights, TV, music system), operation of Bluetooth devices (iPhone), and implementation of an on-screen keyboard.

Design Criteria: The device should be appropriate for the user's abilities and be simple to configure and use.


Leap Motion
Leap Motion Controller
V2 Tracking Software
Leap Motion forums
Gesture-Based Design Engineering (with video 3:27)
Four Deaf Students Launch a Revolutionary Way To Communicate - MotionSavvy
Helping People with Disability and Parkinsons Disease (video 5:00 in Spanish)
Tiny Device, Huge Potential: How Leap Motion Will Change Computing
Using the Leap Motion to enhance software accessibility

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Enhanced bed control for veterans with spinal cord injury

Background: Veterans with spinal cord injury at the Palo Alto VA Health Care System use electric beds equipped with a pendant that controls their operation: head up/down, bed up/down, and foot up/down.

Problem: The buttons on the controller are difficult to activate as they are concave and require considerable pressure.

Aim: Explore solutions that would enable veterans to more easily operate their beds, including voice activation.

Design Criteria: Solutions could consist of a replacement bed control pendant or an overlay to the existing pendant.


Bed manufacturer

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Enhanced access to touch screen devices

Background: Touch screen devices - tablets, phones, kiosks, and computers - are becoming increasingly popular in everyday life, from personally-owned devices to those found in stores and polling places.

Problem: Many people with limited hand control have trouble getting their touch screen device to accept their 'tap' or interpret their gestures correctly. Sometimes the problem is caused by dry hands or fingers, but more often it's related to a user's mild fine motor problems. In one situation, this issue causes them to unintentionally slide their finger across the screen when they desire to tap, resulting in the touch screen device misreading this action as a swipe. Or they may inadvertently hold their finger on the selection too long, leading to misinterpretation as a precursor to selecting or copying a block of text.

Aim: Explore ideas that would enable users to make their selections more accurately on their personal touch screen devices.

Design Criteria: The solution should be an external adapter that can be used with an unmodified touch screen device. Light weight, low cost, and compact size are key features.


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Small red dot  Magical Bridge Playground Project

Background: Magical Bridge hss building the nation's first fully accessible and socially inclusive playground designed specifically for children with disabilities as well as children of parents who have a disability.

The City of Palo Alto designated 1.3 acres of underutilized public land in Mitchell Park, located at 600 East Meadow Drive in Palo Alto, for the site of the Magical Bridge Playground. The playground is adjacent to Abilities United and close to the Mitchell Park Library.

The playground opened last April and has been very popular with both kids and parents, with some families traveling long distances to experience it.

Problem: The park's play equipment has been well-received, but some aspects of the play areas could be modified for better access. In addition, replacement play areas are sought to update the park with fresh attractions every few years.

Aim: Explore designs to offer a new and innovative play and educational experiences incorporating multiple senses, actions, and outcomes.

Design Criteria: Designs should be fun, safe for everyone, accommodate children and parents with disabilities, durable, non-electrical, and magical.

Other Information: Students will build and test a scaled prototype of their design.


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Small red dot  Customize Abby's Scooter Project

Background: Abby is an artist, a retired art teacher (grades K-College), a psychiatric social worker, and a computer graphic designer. She is an individual with multiple disabilities: a mobility challenge, a bipolar disorder, and a visual impairment. She is passionate about making a difference and advocating for individual rights. She is on the Consumer Advisory Council of NAMI (National Alliance on Mental Illness) in Santa Clara County and volunteers in their Connection Recovery Support Group and the Peer PAL Program, volunteers for the Vista Center for the Blind and Visually Impaired, and is on the Board of Directors for SVILC (the Silicon Valley Independent Living Center).

Problem: Individuals, such as Abby, who use wheelchairs, scooters, or walkers have little opportunity to extend their personal sense of fashion and aesthetics to these devices. This is exacerbated by the fact that the equipment covered by health insurance or Medicare is often the most "basic" version with a plain design. Whereas one's choice of clothes, shoes, accessories, and jewelry are made on a daily basis, users of these devices have to "wear" the same equipment everyday and for every occasion.

Aim: Explore ways to add a personal aesthetic to Abby's scooter.

Design Criteria:

  • The design should not alter or permanently deface or damage the physical structure of the scooter.
  • The customization should be able to easily be installed, removed, changed, cleaned, and washed by the user.
  • The design should work on a number of popular / standard scooters covered by insurance and Medicare.
  • Consider different user personas and aesthetics (e.g. refined / elegant, modern / contemporary, smart / sporty, premium / luxury, male / female, as well as the age of user, etc).
  • Consider fabrics, metal finishes, colors, patterns, lights, textures, and text elements.
  • Consider a variety of usage occasions (e.g. in-home, outdoors, party, tailgater, etc).
  • The design should be inexpensive and easy to fabricate.
  • Consider designs that would enhance scooter visibility at night and when crossing streets.
Design Flair for the Least-Stylish Devices
Icon Wheelchairs
Amazing Halloween Costumes around a Wheelchair
'Magical Wheelchair' Offers Unforgettable Halloween for Disabled Kids

TravelScoot Folding Mobility Scooter
Abby's scooter on Elizabeth's TravelScoot
The Inglis Foundation
Canine Partners for Life (CPL)

Abby, her scooter, and Service Dog Inglis

Photo of Abby on her scooter

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Student-defined Team Projects

Meet with course instructor to discuss and agree upon the specifics of the project. Interview, observe, and discuss assistive technology problems with an individual with a disability or older adult. Address their desire to participate in one of the following activities by designing an adaptation to an existing device / tool or creating a new, more useful one. Projects could address:
  • Activities of Daily Living - cooking, showering or bathing, dressing, cleaning, housework, yard work, employment, education, shopping, commuting, etc

  • Sports and Exercise - walking, running, indoor and outdoor sports, etc

  • Leisure Activities and Hobbies - collecting, model making, crafts, board games & videogames, etc

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Other project ideas

Project Coach:
David L. Jaffe, MS

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Updated 12/30/2015

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