The agents of dirofilariasis include members of the Dirofilaria genus within the Nematoda phyla.  Human dirofilariasis is caused mainly by two Dirofilaria species: 1-Dirofilaria immitis, which is associated with pulmonary dirofilariasis and some rare cases of extrapulmonary dirofilariasis (Skidmore, et al), and 2-Dirofilaria repens, which is mainly associated with subcutaneous and conjunctival dirofilariasis.  Other members of the genus that have been found to be the infectious agents of subcutaneous dirofilariasis in humans include: Dirofilaria ursi, Dirofilaria tenuis, Dirofilaria striata, Dirofilaria lutrae,and Dirofilaria subdermata.

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