clinical presentation


Figure 7: Cross section of adults in bowel

clinical features & symptoms

C. philippinensis: Patients suffer from diarrhea, abdominal pain, progressive weight loss, weakness, and emaciation.
If left untreated, the infection may grow progressively more severe due to autoinfection.

Cachexia and death may occur as a result of heart failure, low electrolytes, or secondary bacterial infections due to malnourishment.

C. hepatica: acute and subacute hepatitis

C. aerophila: fever and coughing

pathogenesis & pathology

The adult worms cause damage to the epithelium and submucosa of the small intestines as they continually weave in and out of the intestinal mucosa.

Histological examination, such as by small bowel series or colonoscopic study, often reveals mild dilatation and thickened mucosa of jejunum and ileum.  These clinical features suggest malabsorption.

Indeed, laboratory findings may reveal anemia, malabsorption of fats and sugars and low levels of potassium, sodium, calcium and total protein in serum.


introduction   biological agent   history & epidemiology   life cycle & transmission  diagnosis    treatment & prevention