Markell and Voge's Medical Parasitology 8th Edition, Edward K. Markell, David T. John, Wojciech A. Krotoski, 1999.

Color Atlas of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 4th Edition, W. Peters, HM Gilles, 1995.

Thomas C. Orihel and Lawrence R. AshÕs Parasites in Human Tissues. ASCP Press 1995.

William and WilkinsÕ Parasitic Disorders: Pathology, Diagnosis, and Management. Second edition. 1999.

Primary References and Review Journal Articles:

1. Anthony, P.P. et al. (1972). Helminthic pseudotumours of the bowel: thirty-four cases of helminthoma. Gut. 13: 8-16.

2. Barrowclough, H. et al. (1978). Oesophagostomiasis in man. Tropical and Geographical Medicine. 31: 133-138.

3. Blotkamp, J. (1993) Observations on the morphology of adults and larval stages of Oesophagostomum sp. isolated from man in northern Togo and Ghana. Journal of Helminthology. 67: 49-61.

4. Bogers, J.J. (2001). Human oesophagostomiasis: a histomorphometric study of 13 new cases in northern Ghana. Virchows Arch. 439: 21-6.

5. Djemila, S.S. et al. (1999). Geographic distribution and epidemiology of Oesophagostomum bifurcum and hookworm infections in humans in Togo. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 61: 951-5.

6. Elmes, B et al. (1953). Helminthic abscess, a surgical complication of oesophagostomes and hookworms. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology. 48: 1-7.
7. Gigase, P. et al. (1987). Frequency of symptomatic human oesophagostomiasis (helminthoma) in northern Togo. Helminth Zoonoses. 223-236.

8. Gordon, J.A. et al. (1969). Abdominal emergency due to an oesophagostome. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology. 63: 161-164.

9. Haaf, E. et al. (1964). Oesophagostomiasis in man in north Ghana. Tropical and Geographical Medicine. 16: 49-53.

10. Jacques, J.E. et al. Massive oesophagostomiasis of the colon. Gut. 5:80-82.

11. Kaminsky, R.G. et al. (1977). Oesophagostomum sp. from Kenya, identification through tissue sections. East African Medical Journal. 54: 296-297.

12. Krepel, H.P. (1992). Egg production of Oesophagostomum bifurcum. A locally common parasite of humans in Togo. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 46: 469-472.

13. Krepel, H.P. (1992). Human Oesophagostomiasis infection in northern Togo and Ghana: epidemiological aspects. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology. 86: 289-300.

14. Krepel, H.P. (1995). Reinfection patterns of Oesophagostomum bifurcum after antihelmintic treatment. Tropical and Geographical Medicine. 47: 160-163.

15. Leiper, R.T. et al. (1911). The occurrence of Oesophagostomum apistomum as an internal parasite of man in Nigeria. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 14:116-118.

16. Leoutsakos, B. et al. (1977). Rectal bleeding due to Oesophagostomum brumpti. Report of a Case. Disease of the Colon and the Rectum. 20: 632-634.

17. Lothe, D.F. et al. (1958). An immature Oesophagostomum sp. from an umbilical swelling in an African child. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 52: 12.

18. Karim, N. (1992). Oesophagostomiasis in man: report of the first Malaysian case with emphasis on its pathology. Malays Journal of Pathology. 14: 19-24.

19. Pits, D.S. (1999). Diagnosis of Oesophagostomum bifurcum and hookworm infection in humans: day-to-day and within-specimen variation of larval counts. Parasitology. 118: 283-8.

20. Pits, D.S. Geographic distribution and epidemiology of Oesophagostomum bifurcum and hookworm infections in humans in Togo. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 61:951-5.

21. Pits, D.S. (2000). The capacity of the third-stage larvae of Oesophagostomum bifurcum to survive adverse conditions. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2000 94: 165-71.

22. Pits, D.S. (2001). Parasite-specific antibody and cellular immune responses in human infected with Necator americanus and Oesophagostomum bifurcum. Parasitol Res. 87:722-9.

23. Polderman, A.M. (1998). Human Oesophagostomiasis: A Regional Public Health Problem in Africa. Parasitology Today. 12: 129-130.

24. Romstad, A. (1997). Characterization of Oesophagostomum bifurcum and Nector americanus by PCR-RFLP of rDNA. Journal of Parasitology. 83: 963-966.

25. Thomas, H.W. (1910). The pathological report of a case of oesophagostomiasis in man. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology. 4: 57-88.

26. Verweij, J.J. (2000). PCR assay for the specific amplification of Oesophagostomum bifurcum DNA from human faeces. Int J Parasitol. 2000 30: 137-42.

27. Verweij, J.J. (2001). Determining the prevalence of Oesophagostomum bifurcum and Necator americanus infections using specific PCR amplification of DNA from faecal samples. Trop Med Int Health. 6:726-31.

Life Cycle
Clinical Manifestations
Return to Home Page