Introduction and History


Clinical Presentation in Humans

Transmission and Vector


Incubation Period and Morphology

Diagnostic Test

Management and Therapy

Epidemiology and Country Information

Public Health and Prevention Strategies

Useful Web Links



Tara Kirk Parasites and Pestilence Human Biology Stanford University


Artis, David and Richard K. Grencis. "T Helper Cell Cytokine Responses During Intestinal Nematode Infection: Induction, Regulation and Effector Function." Parasitic Nematodes. Ed. M. W. Kennedy and W. Harnett. Wallingford: CABI, 2001. 331-332.

Chowdhury N. and A. Alonso Aguirre., ed. Helminths of Wildlife. Enfield: Science Publishers, 2001. 219-221.

Chowdhury N. and I. Tada., ed. "Genetic Variation in Helminths and It's Epidemiological Significance" Helminthology. Delhi: Narosa, 1994. 153.

"Disease Information - Trichostrongylus" Merial. 12 may 2002.

Johnstone, Colin. "The Trichostrongyloidea" Parasites and Parasitic Diseases of Domestic Animals. 12 may 2002.

Marcial-Rojas, Raśl A., ed. "Trichostrongyliasis." Pathology of protozoal and helminthic diseases, with clinical correlation. Baltimore : Williams & Wilkins 1971. 753 - 755.

Neva, Franklin A. and Harold W. Brown. Basic clinical parasitology. 6th ed. Norwalk, Conn. : Appleton & Lange, 1994. 138-139.

Rand, Michael S. Zoonotic Diseases. 2 May 2002.

"Trichostrongylus" Veterinary Pathology. University of Sydney. 12 may 2002. (this web page is currently unavailable)

"Cows" Vermont Living Magazine. 16 May 2002.