Bogitsh, B.J. and Cheng, T.C.  Human Parasitology.  Second Edition.  Academic Press, 1998, pp. 50-51, 56-57, 77-80.


“DPDx – Balantidiasis.”  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Departemtn of Parasitic Diseases.  <>  Accessed 10 May 2003.


Esteban, J-G., Aguirre, C., Angles, R., Ash, L.R., and Mas-Coma, S.  Balantidiasis in Aymara Children from the Northern Bolivian Altiplano.  American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.  59(6), 1998, pp.922-927.


Frey, R.J.  “Balantidiasis.”  <>  Accessed 20 May 2003.


Juckett, G.  Intestinal protozoa.  American Family Physician.  53(8), 1996, pp. 2507-2516.

Markell, EK, John, DT, and WA Krotoski.  Markell and Voge’s Medical Parasitology.  Eighth edition.  W.B. Saunders: Philadelphia, 1999.

Marquardt, W.C., et al.  Parasitology and Vector Biology.  Second Edition.  Academic Press, 2000, pp. 122, 127-129.


Melhorn, H.  Encyclopedia Reference of Parasitology.  Second Edition.  Spring, 2001.  Volume I (pp. 47, 78), Volume II (pp. 71)





The Parasite


Life Cycle


Animal Reservoirs

Clinical Presentation





Public Health Interventions


Glossary of terms

References and links