“Garrison’s fluke infection”
(Photograph by S.J. Upton)
Human echinostomiasis is caused by digenetic trematodes of the genus Echinostoma (“echino” = spiny; “stoma” = mouth). Garrison first discovered this food-borne, intestinal, zoonotic, snail-mediated parasitosis in 1907 in Manila (Go, 2003). Many echinostome trematodes are found in the intestines of birds and mammals throughout the world. At least 16 different species of this intestinal fluke is attributed to human cases of echinostomiasis with E. ilocanum as the most common cause of human echinostomiasis. In humans, it is usually seen as a rare intestinal parasite of little clinical importance except in heavy infections.
- Some of the species of Echinostoma:
o E. ilocanum
o E. malayanum
o E. revolutum
o E. hortense
o E. caproni
o E. paraensei
o E. trivolvus
Carlo Denegri Foundation, http://www.cdfound.to.it/HTML/eilo1.htm
Carney, WP, 1991. “Echinostomisas—a snail-borne intestinal trematode zoonosis.” Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 22: 206-211.
Eduardo, SL, 1991. “Food-borne zoonoses in the Philippines.” Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 22: 16-22.
Go, Chi Hiong U, 2003. “Intestinal flukes.” eMedicine, http://www.emedicine.com/MED/topic1177.htm
Graczyk, TK and Fried, B, 1998. “Echinostomiasis: a common but forgotten food-borne disease.” American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 58(4): 501-504.
Graczyk, TK and Fried, B, 1994. “ELISA method for detecting anti-Echinostoma caproni (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) immunoglobulins in experimentally infected ICR mice.” Journal of Parasitology Aug 80(4): 544-9.
Kansas State University, http://www.ksu.edu/parasitology/classes/625digene07.html
Kansas State University, http://www.ksu.edu/parasitology/625tutorials/Trematodes03.html
Li, X, 1991. “Food-borne zoonoses in the People’s Republic of China.” Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 22: 31-35.
Markell, Edward K., David T. John, & Wojciech A. Krotoski. Medical Parasitology, 8th ed. W.B. Saunders Co: Philadelphia, 1999.
Ohio State University, http://www.biosci.ohio-state.edu/~parasite/echinostoma.html
Olympus Digital Microscope Website, http://www.mic-d.com/gallery/darkfield/echinostomarevolutum2.html