HISTORY OF DISEASE:

  • 1550BC - Hookworm described in Egyptian Papyrus Ebers.

  • The ancient Chinese, Hippocrates, and Lucretius all describe symptoms of the condition
  • .
  • N. americanus was probably introduced from Africa with the slave trade.

  • 1843 - Milan physician Angelo Dubini discovers A. duodenale.

  • 1878 - In Europe, Grassi shows that hookworm infection can be diagnosed microscopically by searching for eggs in a stool sample.

  • 1880 - Anemia outbreak during construction of St. Gotthard tunnel between Italy and Switzerland. Attributed to hookworm. Later spread by workers to mines throughout Europe.

  • 1888 - Lutz discovers N. americanus species in Brazil.

  • 1902- C.A. Bentley makes connection between “ground itch” and A. duodenale skin penetration.

  • 1904 - German helminthologist Arthur Loos elucidates hookworm transmission while in Cairo.

  • 1909 - Rockefeller donates $1 million to found the Rockefeller Sanitary Commission for the Eradication of Hookworm Disease.

  • 2000 - Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation gives $18 million to the Albert B. Sabin Vaccine Institute to develop a genetically engineered hookworm vaccine.

 

Source: http://info.med.yale.edu/pediat/PedID/Cappello/Labsite/gallery.html