[RESERVOIRS]

Photo courtesy of Lincoln Park Zoo

Anseriform birds are the most common reservoirs.


[VECTOR]


Photo courtesy of www.yamagiku.co.jp

Crustaceans, mostly snails, serve as the intermediate host and spread the infection by releasing the developed cercariae into water.


[AGENT]


Photo courtesy of www.yamagiku.co.jp

Schistosoma, ornithobilharzia, gigantobilharzia, austrobilharzia, trichobilharzia, and orientobilharzia are some of the over 20 species of flukes worldwide that have been implicated in this disease.

Genus
Location
Intermediate Host
Final Host
Schistosomatinae
     
Heterobilharzia
North America
Mammals
Orientbilharzia
Asia
Mammals
Schistosoma
Worldwide
Mammals
Schistosomatium
North America
Rodents
Austrobilharzia
Worldwide
Birds
Bilharzienllinae
Bilharziella
Northern Hemisphere
Birds
Trichobilharzia
Worldwide
Birds

Gigantobilharziinae

Gigantobilharzia
Worldwide

Birds


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