History, Research, and Development  
Current Developments

"Female Phlebotomus Sandfly"

Vector Vaccines

The results of animal trials have provided evidence that components of sandfly saliva are inolved in the progression of Leishmania infection after a sandfly bite. Thus it is hypothesized that pre-exposure to the saliva of an uninfected sandfly can induce some degree of immunity to the saliva and thus be protective against future Leishmania infection. As such the possibility of a sandfly saliva based vaccine in humans is being pursued.

Reservoir Vaccines:
The end of Canine Leishmaniasis?->

Since dogs are a major reservoir for a host of Leishmania species, a great deal of research has been conducted with respect to the development of a canine vaccine. As of yet no vaccination has been approved for general veterinary use, however, vaccine trials in dogs have yielded many of the same results as trials in humans. In particualr multi-component DNA vaccines have induced partial immunity in the form of a delayed type hypersensitivity response and they have helped to decrease parasitic load in Leishmania infected dogs. It is hoped that in the future a vaccine will be derived particularly for canine Visceral Leishmaniasis strains, given the pathology of these strains in humans.

PHOTO CAPTION: " Dogs, as seen here, can also develop ulcers and become reservoirs of infection." - WHO/TDR/Mark Edwards