Header image





  1. http://www.dpd.cdc.gov/dpdx/HTML/Schistosomiasis.htm
  2. http://www.path.cam.ac.uk/~schisto/ (nice site for in depth info)
  3. http://www.who.int/tdr/diseases/schisto/
  4. PEARCE, E.J., JAMES, S.L., HIENY, S., LANAR, D.E. & SHER, A. (1988). Induction of protective immunity against Schistosoma mansoni by vaccination with schistosome paramyosin (Sm97), a nonsurface parasite antigen. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 85, 5678-82.
  5. Da’dara, Akram A; Harn, Donald A.  DNA vaccines against tropical parasitic diseases.  Expert Review of Vaccines, Volume 4, Number 4, August 2005, pp. 575-589(15)
  6. E Nascimento, IC Leão*, VRA Pereira, YM Gomes, P Chikhlikar*, T August*, E Marques*, N Lucena-Silva: Protective Immunity of Single and Multi-antigen DNA Vaccines against Schistosomiasis. Vol. 97(Suppl. I): 105-109, 2002
  7. André Capron, Monique Capron, David Dombrowicz, Gilles Riveau.  Vaccine Strategies against Schistosomiasis: From Concepts to Clinical Trials. International Archives of Allergy and Immunology 2001;124:9-15.
  8. Michael Lebens, ­Jia-Bin Sun, ­Cecil Czerkinsky, ­Jan Holmgren. Current status and future prospects for a vaccine against schistosomiasis. Expert Review of Vaccines, June 2004, Vol. 3, No. 3, Pages 315-328
  9. McManus DP. The search for a vaccine against schistosomiasis--a difficult path but an achievable goal. Immunol Rev. 1999 Oct;171:149-61.
  10. Bergquist NR. Schistosomiasis vaccine development: progress and prospects. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 1998;93 Suppl 1:95-101.
  11. Maizels, R.M., Holland, M., Falcone, F., Zang, X.X. and Yazdanbakhsh, M. (1999) Vaccination against helminth parasites : the ultimate challenge for immunologists? Immunological Reviews 171 :125-148.
  12. Bergquist NR, Leonardo LR, Mitchell GF 2005. Vaccine-linked chemotherapy: can schistosomiasis control benefit from an integrated approach? Trends Parasitol 21: 112-117.
  13. http://www.who.int/tdr/publications/tdrnews/news71/schisto.htm
  14. Acta Trop. 2002 May;82(2):183-92.
  15. Parasitology Today, Volume 14, Number 3, March 1998, pp. 97-99(3
  16. http://www.biology.ed.ac.uk/research/groups/macdonald/papers/NRISchistoreview.pdf
  17. Defining a schistosomiasis vaccination strategy - is it really Th1 versus Th2.  Parasitol Today. 2000 Nov;16(11):497-501.
  18. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dpd/parasites/schistosomiasis