The clinical manifestations of toxoplasmosis vary greatly, producing a range of nonspecific symptoms. In immunocompetent patients, infection is usually asymptomatic or very mild. Common symptoms include cervical lymphadenopathy and other symptoms of generalized infection. These include fever, malaise, night sweats, myalgia, sore throat and maculopapular rash.
The clinical course in immunocompromised patients can be much more severe. These infections usually stem from reactivated latent infection, rather than newly acquired infection. Important symptoms include encephalitis, myocarditis and pneumonitis, with death being almost certain if the disease is left untreated. In AIDS patients, toxoplasma encephalitis is especially frequent, occurring in 10-50% of seropositive patients with CD4 T-cell counts less than 100/μL.
Toxoplasmosis in congenitally infected newborns can present in a nonspecific manner with a wide range of symptoms, some of which can also be quite severe. These include chorioretinitis, blindness, epilepsy, mental retardation, anemia, jaundice, encephalitis, pneumonitis and others. Complete recovery is very rare.
Mandell, Bennett and Dolin.