Interactive maps: New technology to evaluate parasite epidemiology

PARASITES

Parasites are an ideal candidate for using the latest mapping technology as many parasites are confined to specific regions, involve a variety of human behaviors and environmental conditions, and often develop into hot spots that can be effectively targeted even with scarce resources. The following are a few major parasites with current maps on their global distribution.

Malaria

Mapped entity: Anopheles mosquito distribution

Scale: Global

Explanatory Variables: Temperature

Projection: Spatial and Temporal

For more information about malaria, visit

http://www.cdc.gov/malaria/biology/index.htm

Trypanosomiasis

Mapped entity: Tsetse Density

Scale: Local

Explanatory Variables: Soil and vegetation moisture

Projection: Spatial

For more information about trypanosomiasis, visit http://www.stanford.edu/class/humbio103/ParaSites2006/T_cruzi/

Onchocerciasis

Mapped entity: Human Cases

Scale: Regional

Explanatory Variables: Forest cover, land use class

Projection: Temporal, behavioral

For more information about onchocerciasis, visit http://www.stanford.edu/class/humbio103/ParaSites2006/Onchocerciasis/index.htm

Schistosomiasis

Mapped entity: Human Cases

Scale: Regional

Explanatory Variables: NDVI, temperature

Projection: None

For more information about schistosomiasis, visit

http://www.stanford.edu/class/humbio103/ParaSites2006/Schistosomiasis/index.html

Leishmania, visceral

Mapped entity: Human Cases

Scale: Regional

Explanatory Variables: NDVI, temperature

Projection: None

For more information on leishmaniasis, visit http://www.stanford.edu/class/humbio103/ParaSites2006/Leishmaniasis/Index.htm

Lymphatic Filariasis

For more information on lymphatic filariasis, visit

http://www.stanford.edu/class/humbio103/ParaSites2006/Lymphatic_filariasis/index.htm

Martens,W.J.M. et al. (1995) Potential impact of global climate change on malaria risk. Environ. Health Perspect. 103, 458–464

Martens, P. et al. (1999) Climate change and future populations at risk of malaria. Global Environ. Change 9, S89–S107

Rogers, D.J. and Randolph, S.E. (1991) Mortality rates and population density of tsetse flies correlated with satellite imagery. Nature 351, 739–741

Thomson,M.C. et al. (2000) Satellite mapping of Loa loa prevalence in relation to ivermectin use in west and central Africa. Lancet 356, 1077–1078

Bavia, M.E. et al. (2001) Use of thermal and vegetation index data from earth observing satellites to evaluate the risk of schistosomiasis in Bahia, Brazil. Acta Trop. 79, 79–85

Werneck, G.L. et al. (2002) The urban spread of visceral leishmaniasis: clues from spatial analysis. Epidemiology 13, 364–369

 


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