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Additional Information and References

The field of nanotechnology is rapidly evolving. The following entities provide additional information regarding the research efforts underway by governmental agencies and other institutions to fill in knowledge gaps.


Barlow PG, Clouter-Baker AC, Donaldson K, MacCallum J, Stone V [2005]. Carbon black nanoparticles induce type II epithelial cells to release chemotaxins for alveolar macrophages. Particle and Fiber Toxicol 2, 14 pp [open access].

Brown DM, Wilson MR, MacNee W, Stone V, Donaldson K [2001]. Size-dependent proinflammatory effects of ultrafine polystyrene particles: A role for surface area and oxidative stress in the enhanced activity of ultrafines. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 175(3): 191-199.

Daigle CC, Chalupa DC, Gibb FRMorrow PE, Oberdorster G, Utell MJ, Frampton MW [2003]. Ultrafine particle deposition in humans during rest and exercise. Inhalation Toxicol 15(6):539-552.

Donaldson K, Aitken R, Tran L, Stone V, Duffin R, Forrest G, Alexander A. [2006] Carbon Nanotubes: a Review of Their Properties in Relation to Pulmonary Toxicology and Workplace Safety. Toxicol Sci. 92(1): 5-22.

Duffin R, Tran CL, Clouter A, Brown DM, MacNee W, Stone V, Donaldson K [2002]. The importance of surface area and specific reactivity in the acute pulmonary inflammatory response to particles. Ann Occup Hyg 46:242-245.

Duffin R, Tran L, Brown D, Stone V, Donaldson K [2007]. Proinflammogenic effects of low-toxicity and metal nanoparticles in vivo and in vitro: highlighting the role of particle surface area and surface reactivity. Inhal Toxicol 19(10):849-856.

Helland A, Wick P, Koehler A, Schmid K, Som C [2007]. Reviewing the Environmental and Human Health Knowledge Base of Carbon Nanotubes. Environ Health Perspectives 115(8):1125-1131.

Geiser M, Rothen-Rutishauser B, Kapp N, Schurch S, Kreyling W, Schulz H, Semmler M, Im Hof V, Heyder J, Gehr P [2005]. Ultrafine particles cross cellular membranes by nonphagocytic mechanisms in lungs and in cultured cells. Environ Health Perspectives 113(11):1555-1560.

ICRP [1994]. Human respiratory tract model for radiological protection. Oxford, England: Pergamon, Elsevier Science Ltd., International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication No. 66.

Jaques PA, Kim CS [2000]. Measurement of total lung deposition of inhaled ultrafine particles in healthy men and women. Inhal Toxicol 12(8):715-731.

Kim CS, Jaques PA [2004]. Analysis of total respiratory deposition of inhaled ultrafine particles in adult subjects at various breathing patterns. Aerosol Sci Technol 38:525-540.

Kreyling WG, Semmler M, Erbe F, Mayer P, Takenaka S, Schulz H, Oberdorster G, Ziesenis A [2002]. Translocation of ultrafine insoluble iridium particles from lung epithelium to extrapulmonary organs is size dependent but very low. J Toxicol Environ Health 65(20):1513-1530.

Lison, D., C. Lardot, F. Huaux, G. Zanetti, Fubini B [1997]. Influence of particle surface area on the toxicity of insoluble manganese dioxide dusts. Arch. Toxicol. 71(12): 725-729.

Maynard AM, Kuempel ED [2005]. Airborne nanostructured particles and occupational health. J Nanoparticle Research 7(6):587-614.

Moller W, Hofer T, Ziesenis A, Karg E, Heyder J [2002]. Ultrafine particles cause cytoskeletal dysfunctions in macrophages. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 182(3): 197-207.

Moller W, Brown DM, Kreyling WG, Stone V [2005]. Ultrafine particles cause cytoskeletal dysfunctions in macrophages: role of intracellular calcium. Part Fibre Toxicol. 2:7, 12pp.

Oberdörster G, Ferin J, Gelein R, Soderholm SC, Finkelstein J [1992]. Role of the alveolar macrophage in lung injury—studies with ultrafine particles. Environ Health Perspect 97:193-199.

Oberdörster G, Ferin J, Lehnert BE [1994a]. Correlation between particle-size, in-vivo particle persistence, and lung injury. Environ Health Perspect 102(S5):173-179.

Oberdörster G, Ferin J, Soderholm S Gelein R, Cox C, Baggs R, Morrow PE [1994b]. Increased pulmonary toxicity of inhaled ultrafine particles: due to lung overload alone? Ann. Occup. Hyg. 38(Suppl. 1): 295-302.

Oberdörster G, Sharp Z, Atudorei V, Elder A, Gelein R, Lunts A, Kreyling W, Cox C [2002]. Extrapulmonary translocation of ultrafine carbon particles following whole-body inhalation exposure of rats. J Toxicol Environ Health 65 Part A(20):1531-1543.

Oberdörster G, Sharp Z, Atudorei V, Elder A, Gelein R, Kreyling W, Cox C [2004]. Translocation of inhaled ultrafine particles to the brain. Inhal Toxicol 16(6-7):437-445.

Oberdörster G, Oberdörster E, Oberdörster J [2005a]. Nanotoxicology: an emerging discipline evolving from studies of ultrafine particles. Environ Health Perspect. 113(7):823-839.

Pritchard DK [2004]. Literature review—explosion hazards associated with nanopowders. United Kingdom: Health and Safety Laboratory, HSL/2004/12.

"Safe Nanotechnology in the Workplace - An Introduction for Employers, Managers, and Safety and Health Professionals" [Feb. 2008]. National Institutes of Health. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2008-112.

Semmier M, Seitz J, Erbe F, Mayer P, Heyder J, Oberdorster G, Kreyling WG [2004]. Long-term clearance kinetics of inhaled ultrafine insoluble iridium particles from the rat lung, including transient translocation into secondary organs. Inhal Toxicol 16(6-7): 453-459.

Takenaka S, Karg D, Roth C, Schulz H, Ziesenis A, Heinzmann U, Chramel P, Heyder J [2001]. Pulmonary and systemic distribution of inhaled ultrafine silver particles in rats. Environ Health Perspect 109(suppl. 4):547-551.

Tran CL, Cullen RT, Buchanan D, Jones AD, Miller BG, Searl A, Davis JMG, Donaldson K [1999]. Investigation and prediction of pulmonary responses to dust. Part II. In: Investigations into the pulmonary effects of low toxicity dusts. Contract Research Report 216/1999 Suffolk, UK: Health and Safety Executive.


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