Exposure to X-Rays and Nuclear Medicine Studies During Pregnancy



The inadvertent participation of an unborn child in a radiological study can be an emotional experience for both the mother and her physicians. The word "radiation" understandably invokes fear and uncertainty.

Such exposures must be prevented whenever possible. If they occur, they must be quantitatively evaluated and the risk put into perspective. Click on one of the links below for tabulations of fetal radiation dose consequential to common radiological procedures, and other information.

Sometimes fetal radiation exposure is necessary to protect the life or health of the mother.


Fetal Radiation Doses From Nuclear Medicine Procedures
Fetal Radiation Doses From Plain Film, Fluoroscopic and CT Procedures
What is the Risk?
Credits and References

Important Note Concerning This On-line Material

This material is for use by Stanford University Medical Center physicians and staff only. It is intended to be a convenient reference on fetal radiation exposure in a clinical context, and should not be used as a primary source of information regarding radiation dosimetry, radiation biology or fetal radiation risks. Interested readers are encouraged to consult the original sources. Stanford University and Stanford Environmental Health & Safety make no warranty as to its suitability for any other purpose. The opinions expressed are those of the author(s), and do not necessarily reflect those of Stanford University or Stanford Environmental Health & Safety.

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