BRUCE E. DEAL

 

1992-Present: STANFORD UNIVERSITY
Stanford, California
Consulting Professor, Electrical Engineering Department

Provides technical advice and support to various professors and students regarding all
aspects of semiconductor technology.

1989-1992: ADVANTAGE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY, INC.
Sunnyvale, California

1991-1992: Technical Advisor

1989-1991: Vice President - Development

Directed activities related to development and optimization of vapor phase processes used in advanced semiconductor process reactors, with emphasis on wafer cleaning and etching. Chairman of the Technical Advisory Board.

1988-1989: NATIONAL SEMICONDUCTOR CORPORATION
Santa Clara, California

1988-1989: Principal Technologist, Fairchild Research Center

Directed Surface Physics and Oxidation project, including cooperative effort with Stanford University. Participated in various corporate activities and committees, including University Interactions, Technical Seminars and Training, Patent Committee, Technical Publications, Government Contract Procurement Committee, and Technical Information Committee.

1963-1988: FAIRCHILD SEMICONDUCTOR CORPORATION
Palo Alto, California

1987-1988: Manager, Technology Research

Directed all activities in Fairchild Research Center concerning development of new device technology, associated process and equipment research, and circuit research. Included was advanced VLSI wafer fab facility.

1985-1987: Scientific Consultant

Coordinated Fairchild-University relationships and interactions, including university grants. Responsible for various technical activities concerned with special programs such as the Fairchild Research and Engineering Seminar, Technical Informational Services Committee, and special research projects concerning semiconductor surface physics and chemistry.

1982-1985: Manager, Advanced Technology and Facilities

Responsible for various technical activities concerned with special programs such as the Fairchild Key Technologists Seminar, Technical Informational Services Committee, and Health/Safety Programs. Directed operation of the Facilities Department at The Research Center. Responsibilities of latter included design and construction of ultra-clean wafer fabrication facilities for developing advanced VLSI processes and circuits.

1972-1974, 1975-1982: Manager, Device Technology

Directed various materials and process technology groups, with emphasis on developing new processes for VLSI device applications. Both MOS and Bipolar technologies were included in these activities. Areas of research and development included semiconductor materials, CVD technology, thermal oxidation, ion implantation, patterning, advanced lithography, interconnect technology, and materials analysis. Also supervised Technical Library and Publications Group.

1974-1975: Technical Director, MOS Process and Product Engineering

Directed all process and product engineering activities -in MOS Division. Responsible for three sections: process engineering for sustaining Mt. View MOS production line; product engineering for all standard products; n-channel process engineering and development. Also responsible for liaison between R&D, CCD, CMOS, and Wappinger Falls MOS technologies.

1968-1972: Manager/Director, Materials and Processes Department

Supervised Research and Development Department consisting of four or more sections concerned with all phases of semiconductor technology. The department also included all wafer fabrication and assembly service facilities as well as the R&D Technical Library, publications group and other services.

1967-1968: Head, Dielectric Films Section,
Materials and Processes Department

Directed projects involving all types of dielectric passivation of silicon devices. Dielectric films included thermal oxides, vapor deposited oxides and nitrides, sputtered dielectrics and sedimented glasses.

1963-1967: Member of Technical Staff, Physics Department

Project leader in physics and chemistry surface studies of silicon. Work included developing an understanding of silicon thermal oxidation and control of cHRGes associated with dielectric used to passivate MOS devices. Part of a team that developed present industry-wide MOS and MIS technology.

1959-1963: RHEEM SEMICONDUCTOR CORPORATION
(Raytheon Company after December 1, 1961)
Mountain View, California

Project leader in Research Department. Studied diffusion, epitaxial deposition of silicon, and thermal oxidation of silicon. Developed low-temperature process for oxidation and passivation of semiconductor materials, and hot wall, Si-epi process.

1955-1959: KAISER ALUMINUM AND CHEMICAL CORPORATION
Department of Metallurgical Research,
Spokane, Washington

Research chemist in cHRGe of programs involving chemical and electrochemical surface reactions of aluminum alloys, including anodizing mechanisms and development of new processes. Developed new "Kalcolor" process for producing colored and abrasion resistant anodic finish. (Patented)

1950-1955: IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY,
Ames Laboratory, AEC
Ames, Iowa

Research performed half-time for AEC as a research assistant in conjunction with graduate studies. Major effort involved investigation of oxidation phenomena of uranium, thorium and lithium by water vapor.

 

EDUCATION

AB, Chemistry, Nebraska Wesleyan University, 1950

MS, Physical Chemistry, Iowa State University, 1953

PhD, Physical Chemistry, Iowa State University, 1955 (Minors: Inorganic Chemistry and Mathematics)
Thesis topic: "Kinetics of the Reaction Between Thorium and Water Vapor"

 

TECHNICAL SOCIETIES

Fellow, The Electrochemical Society - President (1988-1989)
Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science
Fellow, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Life Fellow, Franklin Institute
Sigma Xi
Phi Kappa Phi

AWARDS

1 . Technical Achievement Award for 1973, The Electrical/Electronic Insulation Conference, October 3, 1973.

2. Electronic Division Technical Award for 1974, presented at The Electrochemical Society meeting, May 14, 1974.

3 . Certificate of Merit, The Franklin Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, October 19, 1975

4. Callinan Award for 1982, Dielectrics and Insulation Division, presented at The Electrochemical Society meeting, May 11, 1982

5. Who's Who in America, 1990-91 (and subsequent) Edition, A.N. Marquis, publisher.

6. Solid State Science and Technology Medal, presented at the Electrochemical Society meeting, May 16-20,1993, Honolulu, HI.

 

ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES

Consulting Professor, Electrical Engineering Department, Stanford University,
1976-present.

Instructor with Continuing Education Institute, Los Angeles, CA and Finspang,
Sweden, 1982-90.

Adjunct Professor, Electrical Engineering Department, Santa Clara University,
1988-present.

Technical Advisory Board, FSI International, Chaska, MN, 1992-present.

Board of Directors, Balazs Analytical Laboratory, Sunnyvale, CA, 1992-present.

 

PUBLICATIONS

1 . B.E. Deal and H.J. Svec, "Metal-Water Reactions. II. Kinetics of the Reaction Between Lithium and Water Vapor," J. Am. Chem. Soc., 75, 6173 (1953).

2. B.E. Deal and H.J. Svec, "Metal-Water Reaction Between Thorium and Water Vapor," J. Electrochem. Soc., 103, 421 (1956).

3. B.E. Deal, "A Method for Determining Abrasion Resistance of Thick Anodic Coatings on Aluminum," Platin2, 46, 823 (1959).

4. B.E. Deal, "Epitaxial Deposition of Silicon in a Hot-Tube Furnace," J. Electrochem. Soc., 109, 514 (1962).

5. B.E. Deal, "The Oxidation of Silicon in Dry Oxygen, Wet Oxygen and Steam," J. Electrochem. Soc., 110, 527 (1963); J. Electrochem. Soc., I 10, 1292 (1963).

6. B.E. Deal, G.H. Kissin, and R.V. Paulson, "Anodizing Characteristics of Commercial Aluminum Alloys in Sulfuric Acid," Chapter 2 in The Finishing of Aluminum, G.J. Kissin, Editor, Reinhold Publishing Corp., New York (1963).

7. A.S. Grove, E.H. Snow, B.E. Deal and C.T. Sah, "Simple Physical Model of the Space-CHRGe Capacitance of Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Structures," J. Appl. Phys., 35, 2458 (1965).

8. A.S. Grove, B.E. Deal, E.H. Snow, and C.T. Sah, "Investigation of Thermally Oxidized Silicon Surfaces Using Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Structures," Solid State Electron., 8. 145 (1965).

9. B.E. Deal, A.S. Grove, E.H. Snow, and C.T. Sah, "Recent Advances in the Understanding of the Metal-Oxide-Silicon System," Trans. AIME, 233, 524 (1965).

10. B.E. Deal, A.S. Grove, E.H. Snow, and C.T. Sah, "Observation of Impurity Redistribution During Thermal Oxidation of Silicon Using the MOS Structure," J. Electrochem. Soc., 112, 308 (1965).

11. B.E. Deal and M. Sklar, "Thermal Oxidation of Heavily-Doped Silicon," J. Electrochem. Soc., 112, 430 (1965).

12. E.H. Snow, A.S. Grove, B.E. Deal, and C.T. Sah, "Ion Transport Phenomena in Insulating Films," J. Appl. Phys., 36, 1664 (1965).

13. B.E. Deal and A.S. Grove, "General Relationship for the Thermal Oxidation of Silicon," J. Appl. Phys., 36, 3770 (1965).

14. A.S. Grove, E.H. Snow, and B.E. Deal, "Stable MOS Transistors--The Drift Mechanism," Electro-Technology, p. 40 (Dec. 1965).

15. E.H. Snow and B.E. Deal, "Polarization Phenomena and Other Properties of Phosphosilicate Glass Films on Silicon," J-. Electrochem. So-c., 113, 263 (1966).

16. C.A. Mead, E.H. Snow, and B.E. Deal, "Barrier Lowering and Field Penetration at Metal-Dielectric Interfaces," Appl. Phys. Letters, 9, 53 (1966).

17. B.E. Deal, E.H. Snow, and C.A. Mead, "Barrier Energies in Metal-Silicon Dioxide--Silicon Structures," J. Phys. Chem. Solids, 27, 1873 (1966).

18. B.E. Deal, E.H. Snow, and A.S. Grove, "Properties of the Silicon Dioxide--Silicon System," Solid-State Technol., 9, No. 11, 25 (1966).

19. B.E. Deal, M. Sklar, A.S. Grove, and E.H. Snow, "Characteristics of the Surface-State CHRGe (Qss) of Thermally Oxidized Silicon," J-. Electrochem. Soc., 114, (1967).

20. B.E. Deal, P.J. Fleming, and P.L. Castro, "Electrical Properties of Vapor Deposited Silicon Nitride and Silicon Oxide Films on Silicon," J. Electrochem. Soc., 115, 300 (1968).

21. E.H. Snow and B.E. Deal, "Polarization Effects in Insulating Films on Silicon--A Review," Trans. Metall. Soc. AIME, 242, 512 (1968).

22. B.E. Deal, E. MaKenna, and P.L. Castro, "Characteristics of Fast Surface States Associated with SiO2-Si and Si3N4-SiO2-Si Structures," J. Electrochem. Soc., 116, 997 (1969).

23. B.E. Deal and B. Yurash, "A Method for Determining Sodium Content of Semiconductor Processing Materials," J. Electrochem. Soc., 115, 1191 (1969N).

24. B.E. Deal, "Measurement and Control of Dielectric Film Properties During Semiconductor Device Processing," ASTM/NBS Symposium on Silicon Device Processing-Symposium Proceedings, June 2, 1970.

25. P.L. Castro and B.E. Deal, "Low Temperature Reduction of Fast Surface States Associated with Thermally Oxidized Silicon," J. Electrochem Soc., 118, 280 (1971).

26. B.E. Deal, "Current Concepts in the Passivation and Encapsulation of Semiconductor Devices," Proc. IEEE Electrical Insulation Conference, Sept. 19-23, 1971.

27. B.E. Deal, "The Current Understanding of CHRGes in the Thermally Oxidized Silicon Structure," J. Electrochem. Soc., 121, 198C (1974).

28. T.I. Kamins and B.E. Deal, "Characteristics of Si-SiO2 Interfaces Beneath Thin Silicon Films Defined by Electrochemical Etching," L Electrochem. Soc.., 122, 557 (1975).

29. D.W. Hess and B.E. Deal, "Kinetics of the Thermal Oxidation of Silicon in 02/N2 Mixtures at 1200C," J. Electrochem. Soc., 122, 579 (1975).

30. D.W. Hess and B.E. Deal, "Effect of Nitrogen and Oxygen/Nitrogen Mixtures on Oxide CHRGes in MOS Structures," J. Electrochem. Soc.. 122, 1123 (1975).

31. B.E. Deal, "Identification of Integrated Circuit Process Areas Amenable to Diagnosis and Control by Analytical Beam Techniques," Proc. ARPA/NBS Workshop on "Surface Analysis for Silicon Device," April 23-24, 1975.

32. B.E. Deal, "New Developments in Materials and Processing Aspects of Silicon Device Technology," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 16-1, 29 (1977).

33. B.E. Deal, "CHRGe Effects and Other Properties of the Si-SiO2 Interface: The Current Understanding," Semiconductor Silicon 1977, H.R. Huff and E. Sirtl, Editors, The Electrochemical Society, Princeton, New Jersey, p. 276 (1977).

34. D.W. Hess and B.E. Deal, "Kinetics of Thermal Oxidation of Silicon in 02/HCI Mixtures," J. Electrochem. Soc., 124, 735 (1977).

35. J.D. Meindl, R.W. Dutton, K.C. Saraswat, J.D. Plummer, T.I. Kamins, and B.E. Deal, "Silicon Epitaxy and Oxidation," in Process and Device Modeling for Integrated Circuit Design, P. Van de Wiele, W.L. Engl, and P.G. Jespers, Editors, pp. 57-113, Noordhoff-Leyden (1977).

36. B.E. Deal, D.W. Hess, J.D. Plummer, and C.P. Ho, "Kinetics of the Thermal Oxidation of Silicon in 02/H20 and 02/CL2 Mixtures," J. Electrochem. Soc., 125, 339 (1978).

37. B.E. Deal, "Thermal Oxidation Kinetics of Silicon in Pyrogenic H20 and 5% HCI/H20 Mixtures," J. Electrochem. Soc., 125, 576 (1978).

38. C.P. Ho, J.D. Plummer, J.D. Meindl, and B.E. Deal, "Thermal Oxidation of Heavily Doped Phosphorus Doped Silicon," J. Electrochem. Soc., 125, 665 (1978).

39. B.E. Deal, A. Hurrle, and M.J. Schulz, "Chlorine Concentration Profiles in 02/HCI and H20/HCI Thermal Silicon Oxides Using SIMS Measurements," J. Electrochem. Soc., 125, 2024 (1978).

40. B.E. Deal and J.M. Early, "The Evolution of Silicon Semiconductor Technology," J.Electrochem. Soc., 126, 20C (1979).

41. B.E. Deal, "Properties and Measurements of CHRGes Associated with the Thermally Oxidized Silicon System," Proc. Microelectronics Measurements Technology Seminar, p. 39, San Jose, CA Feb. 6-7, 1979.

42. R.R. Razouk and B.E. Deal, "Dependence of Interface State Density on Silicon Thermal Oxidation Process Variables," J. Electrochem. Soc., 126, 1573 (1979).

43. P.J. Caplan, E.H. Poindexter, B.E. Deal, and R.R. Razouk, "ESR Centers, Interface States, and Oxide Fixed CHRGe in Thermally Oxidized Silicon Wafers," J. Appl. Phys., 50, 5847 (1979).

44. J.J. Bames, J.M. DeBlasi, and B.E. Deal, "Low Temperature Differential Oxidation for Double Poly-Silicon VLSI Devices," EEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-27. 606 (1980); L Electrochem. Soc., 126, 1779 (1980).

45. B.E. Deal, "Standardized Terminology for Oxide CHRGes Associated with Thermally Oxidized Silicon," EEEE Trans. Electron Devices, ED-27, 606 (1980); L Electrochem. Soc., 127, 979 (1980).

46. P.J. Caplan, E.H. Poindexter, B.E. Deal, and R.R. Razouk, "EPR Defects and Interface States on Oxidized (111) and (100) Silicon," in The Physics of MOS Insulators, G. Lucovsky, S.T. Pantelides, and F.L. Galeener, Editors, pp. 306-310, Pergamon Press, New York (1980).

47. B.E. Deal and P.A. Crossley, "Microstructure Fabrication in Electron Devices,"
Ann. Rev. Material Science 11, 321 (1981).

48. E.H. Poindexter, P.J. Caplan, B.E. Deal, and R.R. Razouk, "Interface States and Electron Spin Resonance Centers in Thermally Oxidized (111) and (100) Silicon Wafers," J. Appl. Phys., 52, 879 (1981).

49. B.E. Deal, "Current Trends in the Fabrication of Integrated Circuits Used as Computer Components," Proc. Symposium on "Chemical Engineering in the Manufacture of Computer Components," AICHE Meeting, Detroit, Michigan, Aug. 18, 1981.

50. R.R. Razouk, L.N. Lie, and B.E. Deal, "Kinetics of High Pressure Oxidation of Silicon in Pyrogenic Steam," J. Electrochem. Soc., 128, 2214 (1981).

51. J.W. Rouse, C.R. Helms, B.E. Deal, and R.R. Razouk, "Auger Sputter Profiling Studies Of SiO2 Grown in 02/HCI Mixtures," J. Sci. Technol., 18, 971 (1981).

52. R.R. Razouk and B.E. Deal, "Hydrogen Anneal Effects on Metal-Semiconductor-Work Function Difference," J. Electrochem. Soc., 129, 806 (1982).

53. L.N. Lie, R.R. Razouk, and B.E. Deal, "High Pressure Oxidation of Silicon in Dry Oxygen," J-. Electrochem. So-c., 12-9, 2828 (1982).

54. B.E. Deal, "The Thermal Oxidation of Silicon," Proc. "Tutorial on Semiconductor Technology," Montreal meeting of the Electrochemical Society, May 9-14, 1982.

55. J.D. Plummer and B.E. Deal, "Thermal Oxidation: Kinetics, CHRGes, Physical Models, and Interaction with Other Processes in VLSI," Proc. NATO Advance Study Institute on "Process and Device Simulation for MOS-VILSI Circuits," Sogesta-Urbino, Italy, July 12-23, 1982.

56. J.W. Rouse, C.R. Helms, B.E.Deal, and R.R. Razouk, "Auger Sputter Profiling and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry Studies Of SiO2 Grown in 02/HCI Mixtures," J-. Electrochem. Soc., 131, 887 (1984).

57. C.D. Wagner, A. Joshi, L. Gulbrandsen, and B.E. Deal, "Screening Energy Variations in Silicon, Silicon Dioxide, and Silicides," J. Vac. Sci. Tech., B-2, 107 (1984).

58. B.E. Deal and D.B. Kao, "The Physics and Chemistry of Thin 'Native' Oxide Films on Silicon," Proc. Workshop on Tungsten and Other Refractory Metals for VLSI Applications, Palo Alto, CA, Nov. 12-14, 1986, p. 27-39.

59. J.M. delarios, C.R. Helms, D.B. Kao, and B.E. Deal, "Effect of Silicon Surface Cleaning Procedures on Oxidation Kinetics and Surface Chemistry," Appl. Surf. Science, 30, 17, (1987).

60. J.M. delarios, D.B. Kao, C.R. Helms, and B.E. Deal, "Effect of SiO2 Surface Chemistry on the Oxidation of Silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett., 54, 715 (1989).

61. B.E. Deal, "Historical Perspectives of Silicon Oxidation," in "The Physics and Chemistry of SiO2 and the Si-SiO2 Interface," C.R. Helms and B.E. Deal, Eds., pp. 5-16, Plenum Publishing Corp., New York (1988).

62. D.B. Kao, B.E. Deal, J.M. delarios, and C.R. Helms, "The Effects of Chemical Cleaning on the Kinetics of Thermal Oxidation," in The Physics and Chemistry of SiO2 and the Si-SiO2 Interface, C.R. Helms, and B.E. Deal, Eds., pp. 421-428, Plenum Publishing Corp., New York (1988).

63. B.E. Deal, "The Thermal Oxidation of Silicon and Other Semiconductor Materials," in Semiconductor Materials and Process Technoloizy Handbook, G.E. McGuire, Ed., pp. 46-79, Noyes Publications, Park Ridge, NJ (1988).

64. C.R. Helms and B.E. Deal, Eds., "The Physics and Chemistry Of SiO2 and the Si-SiO2 Interface," Proceedings of Symposium held at the Atlanta meeting of the Electrochemical Society, May 15-20, 1988, Plenum Publishing Corp., New York (1988).

65. B.E.Deal, "Electrical Properties of Thermally Oxidized Silicon," Proceedings of Symposium on "Electronic Materials and Processing," pp. 41-47, held in conjunction with The 1988 ASM World Materials Congress, Chicago, IIL, Sept. 24-30, 1988.

66. D.B. Kao, B.E. Deal, J.M. delarios, and C.R. Helms, "A Study of the Breakdown Testing of Thermal Silicon Oxides and the Effects of Preoxidation Surface Treatment," Proc. Int. Rel. Phys. Symp., April 10-13, 1989, Phoenix, AZ, pp. 9-16.

67. J.M. delarios, C.R. Helms, D.B. Kao, and B.E. Deal, "Parallel Oxidation Model for Si Including Both Molecular and Atomic Oxygen Mechanisms," Appl. Surface Science 39, 89 (1989).

68. B.E. Deal, M.A. McNeilly, D.B. Kao, and J.M. delarios, "Vapor-Phase Wafer Cleaning, Oxide Etching, and Thin Film Growth," Proc. First International Symposium on Cleaning Technology in Semiconductor Device Manufacturing, Full Meeting of the Electrochemical Society, Hollywood, FL, Oct. 15-20, 1989, Abs. No. 393, p. 121.

69. C.R. Helms, B.E. Deal, J.M. delarios, and D.B. Kao, "The Effect of Aqueous Chemical Treatments on Silicon Surface Chemistry and Oxidation Kinetics," Proc. First International Symposium on Cleaning Technology in Semiconductor Device Manufacturing, Fall Meeting of the Electrochemical Society, Hollywood, FL, Oct. 15-20, 1989, Abs. No. 410, p. 283.

70. B.E. Deal, M.A. McNeilly, D.B. Kao, and J.M. delarios, "Vapor Phase Wafer Cleaning and Integrated Processing: Technology for the 1990s," Proc. Institute Environmental Sciences, New Orleans, LA, April 23-27, 1990, p. 273.

71. B.E. Deal, M.A. McNeilly, D.B. Kao, and J.M. delarios, "Vapor Phase Wafer Cleaning: Processing for the 1990s," Solid State Tech., 33(7), 73 (1990).

72. C.R. Helms, B.E. Deal, and M.A. McNeilly, "Mechanisms of the HF/H20 Vapor Phase Etching Of SiO2," Proceedings of the Institute of Environmental Sciences, San Diego, CA, May 6-10, 199 1.

73. J.M. delarios, D.B. Kao, B.E. Deal, and C.R. Helms, "Effect of Aqueous Chemical Cleaning on Si (100) Dry Oxidation Kinetics," J-. Electrochem. Soc.., 138, 2353 (1991).

74. B.E. Deal, M.A. McNeilly, and D.B. Kao, "New Techniques in Vapor Phase Wafer Cleaning," Solid State Devices and Materials, Extended Abstracts, No. SB6, p. 496, Yokohama, Japan, Aug. 27-29, 1991.

75. B.E. Deal, "Integrated Circuit Technology: Future Directions," Denki Kagaku, 59, 1018 (1991).

75a. B. E. Deal, "The Effects of the Electronics Industry on the Global Environmental Evolution," Proc. ECS Japan Electronics Materials Committee, Tokyo, Japan (1991).

76. D.B. Kao, D.H. Choe, G.L. Nobinger, J.M. delarios, W.C. Krusell, B.R. Cairns, B.E. Deal, and M.A. McNeilly, "Vapor-Phase Wafer Cleaning for VLSI Applications," Proc. Semicon/Korea 91 Tech. Symposium, p. II-107, Seoul, Korea, Sept. 26-27, 1991.

77. D.B. Kao, B.R. Cairns, and B.E. Deal, "Vapor-Phase Pre-Cleans for Furnace-Grown and Rapid-Thermal Thin Oxides," Proc. Symposium on Cleaning Technology in Semiconductor Device Manufacturing, p. 25 1, The Electrochemical Society, Phoenix (1991).

78. C.R. Helms and B.E.Deal, "Mechanisms of the HF/H20 Vapor Phase Etching Of SiO2," Proc. Symposium on Cleaning Technology in Semiconductor Device Manufacturing, p. 267, The Electrochemical Society, Phoenix (1991).

79. C.R. Helms and B.E.Deal, "Mechanisms of the HF/H20 Vapor Phase Etching Of SiO2," J. Vac. Sci. Tech., A10, 806, (1992).

80. B.E. Deal and C.R. Helms, "Vapor Phase Cleaning of Silicon Wafers," Proc. Symposium on Chemical Surface Preparation, Passivation, and Cleaning for Semiconductor Growth and Processing, Vol. 259, p. 361, Materials Research Society, San Francisco (1992).

81. C. R. Helms and B. E. Deal, "Mechanisms of the HF/H20 Vapor Phase Etching Of SiO2," J. IES, 25jal 21 (1992).

82 C. R. Helms and B. E. Deal, Eds., "The Physics and Chemistry Of SiO2 and the Si-SiO2 Interface-2," Proceedings of Symposium held at St. Louis, MO meeting of The Electrochemical Society, May 18-21, 1992, Plenum Publishing Corp., New York (1992).

83. B.E. Deal and C.R. Helms, "Vapor Phase Wafer Cleaning Technology," in Handbook of Semiconductor Wafer Cleaning Technology, W. Kern, Ed., pp. 274-339, Noyes Publications, Park Ridge, NJ (1993).

84. B. E. Deal, "Future Directions of Gas Phase Wafer Cleaning," Proc. Semicon West Tech. Conf., San Francisco (1994).

PATENTS

I . B.E. Deal and L. Swanson, U.S. Patent No. 3,031,387, "Anodic Oxidation of Aluminum," April 24,1962.

2. B.E. Deal and W. Peterson, U.S. Patent No.3,098,763, "Chemical Reactor," July 23, 1963.

3. H. Martin, B.E. Deal, and L. Swanson, U.S. Patent No. 3,153,278, "Method of Forming a Composite Aluminum Article," October 20, 1964.

4. B.E. Deal, U.S. Patent No. 3,426,422, "Method of Making Stable Semiconductor Devices," Feb. 11, 1969.

5. B.E. Deal, U.S. Patent No. 3,550,256, "Control of Surface Inversion of P- and N-Type Silicon Using Dense Dielectrics," December 29, 1970.

6. B.E. Deal, U.S. Patent No. 3,620, 850, "Oxygen Annealing," Nov. 16, 197 1.

7. B.E. Deal and D.C. Hu, U.S. Patent No. 4,027,380, "Complementary Insulated Gate Field Effect Transistor Structure and Process for Fabricating the Structure," June 7, 1977.

8. W.I. Lehrer and B.E. Deal, U.S. Patent No. 4,442,229, "Binary Germanium Silicon Interconnect and Electrode Structure for Integrated Circuits," April 10, 1984.

9. W.I. Lehrer, B.E. Deal, and J.M. Pierce, "I/Method of Improving Interface Electrical Properties of Metal Silicide Structures on Silicon Dioxide," U.S. Patent applied for.

10. M.A. McNeilly, B.E. Deal, D.B. Kao, and J.M. delarios, U.S. Patent No. 5,294,568 "Method of Selective Etching Native Oxide," March 15, 1994.

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