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Slavic and Eastern European Studies

Typology of Russian post 1989 journals.

Wojciech Zalewski

On June 12, 1990, the law "O pechati i drugikh sredstvakh massovoi informatsii" abolished censorship and the state's exclusive rights to publish. This opened a new era for all media in Russia including journalism. The intention of this paper is to trace some of the new developments and put them in general perspective. It is not my intention to indicate which journals survived, discuss pricing strategies, sources of financing, ideological profiles, editors moving from one journal to another and their ideological flexibility, address the question of publishers versus editors and marketing strategies. I will also dispense with the discussion of statistical series, children's journals, sports, tourism, science fiction, sensational and entertainment (razvlekatel'nye) journals. Not much needs to be said about journals in science and technology and publishing sponsored by academic institutions since their profiles remain more or less the same as prior to 1990 despite the fact that titles, editorial bodies and ideological directions may have changed. One has to be aware, however, of newly formed schools of higher learning which are issuing new series.

Sources for typology

are those dealing with theoretical aspects and those which can be derived from official, professional and commercial sources.

Theory

The theoretical principles are important because they set standards for bibliographic registration, statistics, marketing, market analysis and for library budgeting and consequently for research and collection development. One can find these principles in Tipologiia izdanii (Moskva, Knizhnaia Palata, 1990). The book defines a journal and delineates its categories primarily by its content (1). A newer, not published work, Sistematizatsiia serial'nykh izdanii dlia gosudarstvennoi registratsii v Rossiiskoi knizhnoi Palate. Metodicheskoe posobie, was signed in December 1994 . Very likely Knizhnaia Palata will apply the latter soon.

According to Sistematizatsiia:

A journal is a publication issued in a form of leaves fixed together, having a standard format, bound or soft cover, all correponding to the editorial specificity of a given periodical publication.

Periodical publications are journals, periodical collections (sborniki) and periodical bulletins (biulleteni).

The document elaborates on features of a journal which are:

some type of binding, consistent format during at least one year of publication, a standard title with a subtitle containing the word "zhurnal", periodicity from weekly to twice a year, and a braod range of issues other than current news and its commentaries. It indicates the need for approval by the Ministry of Justice and states that the former classification of journals from the ideological point of view, such as party, trade, komsomol, etc., no longer exists.

The categories of journals from the point of view of content (tselovoe naznachenie) are:

socio-political (obshchestvenno-politicheskie)

academic (nauchnye)

popular science (nauchno-populiarnye)

professional (proizvodstvenno-prakticheskie)

popular (populiarnye)

literary and artistic (literaturno-khudozhestvennye)

reporting/surveing (referativnye).

The categories from the point of view of addressees are:

journals for special categories of readers (e.g., the blind), for foreigners, youth, children, women.

Journals are sponsored by :

goverment (president's office, ministeries, committees, departments)

political religious and charitable organizations

societies

academic institutions

social and stock organizations,

international organization and Russian embassies

private persons

(Publishing organization has to be indicated in the journal).

Knizhnaia Palata document identifies also sborniki (collections) and bulleteni (bulletins).

Sbornik (trudy, uchenye zapiski) is usually sponsored by a specialized publisher, irregular, under a continuing title, sometimes with a special subtitle.

Biulletin (according to Tipologiia) is a publication issued by the government or an organization publishing official or internal materials. (Some, especially older journals, use the title biulletin). Biulletins may be published regularly or irregularly.They are:

official: laws, regulations, decrees

reference: data sources

advertising

informational, e.g., bibliographical (Knizhnaia letopis'), economic developments, laws under discussion

bulletin-chronology

bulletin-tables, e.g., economic data, statistics.

The new document does not name al'manachs, calendars and yearbooks (yearbooks are still in 1994 statistics, see below).

Official sources - statistics

An official source is Knizhnaia Palata's Pechat' rossiiskoi federatsii v 1994 g. Statisticheskii sbornik (M. 1995, p. 81ff) which in addition to statistics has standard categories in which the statistics are presented.

For 1994 "Pechat'" lists for the Russian Federation: 2307 "periodicheskikh i prodolzhaiushchikhsia izdanii (bez gazet)" (this compares with 1990: 3681 and 1980: 3960) of which (in 1994):

Zhurnaly 1454,

Sborniki 44,

Biulleteni 809.

Only zhurnaly in Russian 1326.

It is interesting to compare 1993 and 1994 (latest dates available)

The summary comparison indicates

an increase in the number of journal titles form 1,385 in 1993 to 1,454 in 1994 and issues from 8,779 to 8,977 published, the journals reduced their number of copies published by over 100,5000 and printers sheets by nearly 700,000. The data, however, is not sufficient to speculate whether this reflects consumer interest, publisher's and/or economic potential.

When judging the academic and cultural impact of these fluctuations the entire publishing context must be taken into consideration. Analysis is need for the decrease in academic monthlies and simultaneous growth of new titles and titles published with lesser frequency. In the academic realm the increase in number of journals is paralleled by a decrease of academic monographs. (This may be a relevant consideration when mechanical cancellations of journals by administrative, rather than academic principles, is asked for.)

Another official source is Letopis' periodicheskikh i prodolazhaiushchkhsia izdanii. Novye, pereimenovannye i prekrashchennye izdaniem zhurnaly i gazety. For 1991 (publ. 1993) it lists 681 new and changed titles from the entire territory of the former Soviet Union - in 1992 (publ. in 1993) 454 journals, in 1993 - 369, and in 1994 - 342. Most of the title changes occurred in 1991 and 1992 while beginning with 1993 the majority of titles listed in the Letopis'were new. Also, beginning with 1993 the focus is on the Russian territories.

Professional sources

E.V. Mosunova et al., still on the basis of materials received by Knizhnaia Palata for the years 1991-1992 ("Novye nazvaniia zhurnalov", Bibliografiia 2, 1993:50), lists 81 changed titles and for 1992-1993 ("Novye rossiiskie zhurnaly", Bibliografiia 6, 1993:19-35) lists 350 new journals. The authors exclude journals which expired during this time.

Furthermore, information about new journals, including some categorization, can be found in the journals themselves. Literary journals were discussed in De Visu and Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie. Discussion of content and selected features of several journals can also be found in "Literatura i literaturnaia kritika v zhurnal'noi periodike. Zhurnaly sovremennoi Rossii" in Sotsial'nye i gumanitarnye nauki. Otechestvennaia literatura. referativnyi zhurnal. seriia 7. Literaturovedenie, (INION, 4, 1995:3-87); and "Zhurnaly "novoi volny"" in Nesovremennye zapiski (1,1995:230-239). All this is quite fragmentary.

Commercial sources

Russia does not have an annual comprehensive listing of serials. From the bibliographic point of view the best is offered commercially by Soiuzpechat': Rossiiskaia pressa. Annotirovannyi katalog rossiiskikh periodicheskikh izdanii published annually since 1995. For 1997 it lists and professionally annotates about 2,500 newspapers, journals and bulletins. Its semiannual updates is Pressa. Katalog for 1996 Katalog '96; gazety, zhurnaly, knigi, uchebniki and since 1997 Pressa - Kniga. Soiuzpechat' seems to be oriented primarily toward the domestic market. Similarly domestic markets are served by Federal'naia sluzhba pochtovoi sviazi Rossiiskoi Federatsii which publishes semiannually Ob"edinennyi katalog, rossiiskie i zarubezhnye gazety, zhurnaly, knigi, uchebniki sponsored by several publishing houses. In 1996 it also listed audiovisual materials. Export oriented Rospechat' publishes the semiannual listing Gazety, zhurnaly. katalog (1994-, about 1700 titles in 1997) and shorter a version of it (ca 600 titles) Russian Newspapers and Magazines. Mezhdunarodnaia Kniga has an annual catalog and a journal Periodika. Novosti, analiz, reklama, 1993- (suspended with issue 6,1996). Enterprise Andrigal Ltd. published Russian Periodicals. Bibliography (1996, 2251 annotated titles, including over 300 new titles established in 1994-1996). It is important to remember that the semiannual publications do not repeat all titles from issue to issue and they not always have reliable data. Western dealers publish their subscription catalogs and East View, Minnesota and Kubon & Sagner, Munich, have lists of journals on their home pages. Kamkin is in the process of creating its home page. On line services also has Cyrillica in Moscow.

Summary of features of post-Soviet journalism

Freedom of the press and the new economic situation resulted in new editorial policies, shifts in personnel, commercialization, privatization, competition and a search for new audiences thus in consumer orientation and Westernization. At the same time the concentration of topics has shifted to Russian roots and regionalization. Support by foreign capital has its impact on the format and content of journals.

The most noted features of the post-Soviet journalism are:

1. Older major journals, academic as well as general interest have survived, many have changed titles and editorial policies. Most titles changed in 1992/93.

2. renewal of old, pre-revolutionary titles;

3. revival of regional journalism;

4. publication of personal journals ("MiG" (My i gorod), Pastor Shlag, Iskusstvo i obrazovanie);

5. appearance of glossy magazines (from about 1993, some through foreign licenses, mostly printed abroad);

6. new topics have gained prominence, e.g., religion, publication of archival materials and extensive bibliographies of previously banned topics;

7. proliferation of journals for new audiences: feminists, family, professional groups, especially extensive in business and economy;

8. publication of demographic, economic, opinion poll, social data, and new statistical series;

9. journals with official coverage of government activities;

10. joint Russian-Western ventures, and foreign ownership and/or sponsorship;

11. proliferation of subculture journals and entertainment journals (razvlekatel'nye);

12. numerous new initiatives in the humanities with many failures after an interesting beginning.

Today's Russia gives the impression of publishing chaos. The industry was shocked by: commercialism; the large number of new journals; short lived journals; journal/almanachs; journals difficult to categorize or register due to an experimentation with form and content which is often unconventional; new possibilities and challenges, including graphomania, sub-culture, a return to tradition and a departure from it. This disturbs the entire bibliographic and marketing process but it is lively and fascinating. And yet, the main informational stream, flowing from academic through popular to special interest and general journals, is quite solid. There is state support, Fond Kul'tury support, Soros support, foreign and domestic business support, advertising, subscriptions and sales. It seems, that any solid writing can find its way into print as well as into the informational or bibliographic flow. The constant growth of number of journals inspires optimism.

Examples of types of journals

The following selection of titles is representative of the dynamism of Russian journals published after 1989. Consequently, excluded are journals which survived from the Soviet era despite the fact that many, e.g., Ogonek (1899-) and Literaturnaia gazeta (rather a journal than a newspaper), became independent from their previous sponsors, the TsK Party and the Soiuz Pisatelei respectively, both in in 1990, practically becoming new journals. The examples, organized by broad areas and subdivided chronologically, indicate the developmental stages of new journals as well as their range from academic to popular. The selection tends to focus on the most important or charcteristic journals and hopefully may provide a tool for analysis of a variety of intellectual and cultural factors experienced by Russia during the 1990s. Journals obviously provide a key to them.

Regional journals

There is an explosion of new regional journals most of which cover broad areas of history, including publications from local archives, literature, culture, religion and art. They are somewhat of the encyclopedic character of pre-revolutionary thick journals (tolstye zhurnaly) but are now exploring grounds forbidden during the Soviet era. They carry subtitles such as istoriko-literaturnyi, literaturno-khudozhestvennyi, kraevedcheskii and the like. Quite frequently these are irregular publications.

The majority of older cultural journals are surviving but have become more locally oriented. Examples: Volga (Saratov), Don (Rostov), Pod'em (Voronezh), Sibirskie ogni (Novosibirsk, 1922-), Baikal (Irkutsk), Ural' (literary) and Ural'skii sledopyt (kraevedcheskii) (both Ekaterineburg), Sibirskie afiny (Tomsk), Zemlia sibirskaia, dal'nevostochnaia (Omsk, 1956-, like Ogonek).

Similarly, serials of older universities are functioning. New institutions introduce their own information and research vehicles, e.g., strictly academic

Vestnik Riazan'skogo pedagogicheskogo instituta, (1994- )

Vestnik Pskovskogo vol'nogo universiteta (1994-)

Vestnik Mordovskogo Universiteta (Saransk, 1990-)

Filologia. Philologica (Krasnodar, Kubanski universitet, 1993)

Nesovremennye zapiski. Protsess-zhurnal ural'skogo regiona (Perm, Universitet, 1995).

Svoi golos. Novyi sibirskii al'manakh: filosofiia, istoriia, kul'tura (Irkutsk, 1991-),

Zapad Rossii, (Kaliningrad, 1992-);

Dialog. Karnaval. Khronotop. Zhurnal nauchnykh razyskanii o biografii, teoreticheskom nasledii i epokhe M.M. Bakhtina (Vitebsk. Pedagogicheskii institut, 1992-)

Karta. Nezavisimyi istoricheskii zhurnal (Riazan', 1993-);

There are also academic publishers such as Sibirskii khronograf with its Iazyk v okeane iazykov (1993-) and "Gruppa Ksi" which in 1996 initiated Diskurs, Kommunikatsiia, obrazovanie, kultura (irregular) both in Novosibirsk.

The Church developed a full range of journals. The most important are revived from pre-1917 Eparkhial'nye vedomosti official publications by eparchies (e.g., Penzenskie eparkhial'nye vedomosti 1990-; Saratovskie..., 1991-; Iarosl'avskie..., 1991-; Kurskie..., 1991-; Saranskie..., 1992-; Smolenskie..., 1993-; Viatskii eparkhial'nyi vestnik. Kirov, "Viatka", 1992-). Academic journals are published by prestigious schools such as that in Serge-Posad, e.g., Bogoslovskii vestnik (1993-) which revived the journal closed in 1918. There is, of course, a host of popular and devotional journals as well.

Entire provinces

Russkaia provintsiia. Nizhnyi Novgorod, 1991-

Regionologiia. Nauchno-publitsisticheskii zhurnal. Saransk, 1992-

Rubezh. Tikhookeanskii al'manakh. Vladivostok, 1927-1945 revived in 1992-

Rossiia i ATR. Russia and the Pacific. Vladivostok, 1992-

Popular

Baklosh. Pervoural'sk, 1990- since No. 2 in 1991 title changed to Pastor Shlag

Provintsial. Nezavesimoe izdanie. Tikhvin, 1991-

Samarskii kraeved. Samara 1991-

MiG (My i gorod). Taganrog, Editors and publishers Lev and Elena Mirzoian, 1992-

Orientatsiia. Izdanie Russkikh Traditsionalistov. Novosibirsk, 1993-

Rodina Lomonosova. Arkhangel'sk, 1995-

Viatka, moskovsko-viatskii lit.-khud., kraevedcheskii zhurnal. Viatka, 1996-

Literary

Irtysh. Al'manakh omskoi pisatel'skoi org. (Omsk, 1990); Rus' (Rostov Velikii, 1991); Vladimir' (Vladimir, 1995, with contributions of prominent writers: Nikitin, Shulgin, Ivan Simonov, V. Soloukhin); Vestnik Suzdal'-Kluba (Vladimir, 1995?-), Tobol (Kurgan, 1993-), Proza Sibiri (Novosibirsk, 1994-); Gostinyi dvor. Literaturno-khudozhestvennyi i obshchestvenno-politicheskii al'manakh (Kaluga, 1995-).

History

Iarosl'avl'skaia starina (Iaroslavl', 1992-) and here also devoted to a small city Myshkin Myshkinskie stranitsy;; Tverskaia starina (Tver, 1992-); Polotskii letopisets (Polotsk, 1992-); Kuznetskaia starina (Novokuznetsk, 1993-); Rossiiski istoricheskii zhurnal (Balashov, Saratovskaia oblast', 1993-); Pole kulikovo. Literaturno-obshchestvennyi zhurnal. (Novomoskovsk, 1994-); in Vologda there appeared a solid documentary journal Vologda, istoriko-kraevedcheskii al'manakh' (1994-) and popular Russkaia Amerika (1994-); Zemstvo. Arkhiv provintsial'noi istorii Rossii. Krasnodar. Penza. Samara. Saratov (Penza. Individual'noe chastnoe predpriiatie V.I. Manuilova, 1994- ); Kraevedcheskii biulleten'. Problemy istorii Sakhalina, Kuril i sopredel'nykh territorii (Sakhalin, 1995); Arkhivy Urala (Ekaterinburg 1,1995-, similar to Vstrechi s proshlom (or Proshloe) published by TsGALI).

Others

Probuzhdenie. Khristaianskii zhurnal dlia vsekh. Rostov-na-Donu, 1990-

Iuridicheskie dialogi. Krasnoiarsk,1991-

Zhivaia starina. Nal'chik, 1991-

Russkaia mysl'. Mytishchi, Russkoe Fizicheskoe ob-vo "Obshchestvennaia pol'za", 1991-

Sochel'nik. Saratov, 1992; religious leaning

Turuk (monitoring). Politologiia, sotsiologiia, kul'turologii. Iakutsk, 1994?

Olimp. Vestnik sovremennogo iskusstva. Samara, 1995-?

Kupidon. Zhurnal dlia muzhchin. Samara, Kupidon, 199 ?- pornography (newspaper, color photos)

Anant-garde

Dirizhabl'. Nizhnyi Novgorod, 1991-

La bi rint (labirint) literaturo-khudozhestvennyi zhurnal. Ekaterineburg, 1991- both representing literary structuralism, devoted to Bakhtin

Dialog. Karnaval. Khrontop. Vitebsk, Pedinstitut 1992-

Joint Russian-foreign sponsorship

Academic

Glas. Daidzhest novoi russkoi literatury, M., Izvestiia, 1991- Russian and American editors

Novaia Evropa. La nuova Europa. Mezhdunarodnoe obozrenie kul'tury i religii. Edited by R. Scalfi, published in Moscow in Russian, 1992-

Russian Economic Trends. M., Russian Government's Working Centre for Economic Reform and the Russian European Centre for Economic Policy, financed by the European Union's TACIS Programme and published in London by Whurr Publishers Ltd, 1992-

Russkii tekst. Rossiisko-amerikanskii zhurnal po russkoi filologii , Lawrence, St. Petersburg, Durham, 1993- sponsored by the Gertsen Pedagogical University in St. Petersburg and University of Kansas.

Istoricheskaia genealogiia, Ekaterinburg-Paris, 1993-

Vremia i my. Rossiisko-amerikanskii literaturnyi zhurnal. M., Progress, New York, Vremia i my, 1994-

Almanac Thesis. Teoriia i istoriia ekonomicheskikh i sotsial'nykh institutov i sistem. M, 1994-

Philologica, Moscow-London, 1994-bilingual

Oko. Khronika. l'Oeil. Chronique.Spb, "Museum", Russkii institut v Parizhe, 1994-

Moskovskii lingvisticheskii zhurnal, 1995- RGGU and many foreign contributors

Novye znaniia. Obrazovatel'nyi zhurnal dlia vzroslykh, Society "Znanie" and Institue of International cooperation of the German association of national universities, 1996-

Politekonom. Rossiisko-germanskii zhurnal po ekonomicheskoi teorii i praktike. Moscow, 1996-, quarterly, dual editorship, sponsored by Volksvagen Foundation

General interest (usually expensive)

Natali. Spb, Natali, 1990- (Russian-French journal)

Cosmopolitan. M., Hearst Publishing, 1994- for women;

Sreda. Russko-evropeiskoe zhurnalistskoe obozrenie. M., Evropeiskii institut sredstv masovoi informatsii, 1995-?

Penthouse, (probably a dying journal)

Playboy. M., Huffner,1995- with original Russian contributions, printed in Holland;

Novoe pokolenie/New Generation. London, St. Petersburg, Toronto, Goodwill Communication Group, 1995- music, art, fashion.

Novyi dzhentel'man. Zhurnal dlia muzhchin. London, St. Petersburg, Toronto, Goodwill Communication Group, 1995- General interest but focusing on business;

Itogi. Ezhenedel'nyi zhurnal vmeste s Newsweek. Moscow, Itogi, March 6, 1996-;

Ty .M. (has a note: "etot nomer zhurnala izdan pri finansovoi uchastii norvezhskogo zhurnala dlia gomoseksualistov i lesbiianok "Blik" i evropeiskogo Soveta SIID (Oslo, Blikk)).

Former emigre journals

totally transferred to Russia

Kontinent and Possev

published abroad and in Russia

Veche (Munich, Moscow) and Russkoe vozrozhdenie published in New York with the imprint New York, Moscow, Paris.

Central journals (Moscow, St. Petersburg)

(Organized by subject, subdivided chronologically)

Each discipline should be discussed individually. The listings below try to illustrate some common for all features. In almost all disciplines there are journals published by the main governmental, academic or societal bodies producing official, documentary and/or program publications, interpretative journals for specialists and popular journals (political parties produce newspapers rather than journals). Beyond that sphere there are publishing enterprises by more or less established groups or even individuals promoting their own ideas, offering forum to those who cannot contribute to the main publishing stream, or have profit orientation. Although these comments seem to be self-evident, they represent the crucial criteria for scholarly collecting, citation, bibliographic registration and overall functioning of ideas in the society.

Book studies (Knigovedenie)

As traditional support by the government subsided, the major academic journal Kniga. Issledovaniia i materialy faced an uncertain future and was suspended for a time. It was rescued by the giant private publishing house Terra and now appears regularly. More specialized Kniga i iskusstvo (last? 1990) and Al'manakh bibliofila (M., Kniga, 1973-) collapsed. While Kniga experienced its problems, there appeared new academic, with popular appeal journal Knizhnoe delo. Ezhemesiachnyi professional'nyi zhurnal (M., Progress, 1992-), a monthly which addressed all theoretical and practical aspects related to knigovedenie. High intellectual standards and seriousness made this journal a key resource in the field. There was also one annual issue of this journal. The field does not suffer from a lack of professional journals among which the survivors are: Zhurnalist (1920-), Poligrafiia (1924-), Biblioteka ( 1923-), Bibliografiia (1929-), and newcomers Poligrafist i izdatel', Print Publishing, Knigoliub (1993-). We should not forget the variety of continuing bibliographic and reference services provided by Knizhnaia Palata, Institut Nauchnoi Informatii po Obshchestvennym Naukam (including its reformatted editorially Refereativnye zhurnaly), the Russian State Library, Russian National Library (which publishes mainly sborniki), provinical libraries bibliographic series and the like.

As the professional is well provided for by the above mentioned journals, the popular scene faces quite fierce competition. The most widely read, independent, newspaper format, Knizhnoe obozrenie regained its financial stability after several appeals for help. Komitet Rossiiskoi Federatsii po pechati sponsors it but is rather displeased with its independence (Chitaiushchaia Rossiia 1995/1996. M. Soiuzpechat, 1996:50). Published in its traditional tabloid format it maintains a leading informational role in reporting new publications in all fields focusing on academic and value literature. It also brings interviews with officials, publishers, writers and surveys of publications in the humanities. Thus, it has broad appeal.

A competitor, Novoe knizhnoe obozrenie, sponsored by the leading publishing house of popular literature, Dorfa, entered this arena in 1995. (Unlike KO, NOK gained favorable support and promotion from Ivan Laptev chair of the Roskompechat', see Chitaiushchaia Rossiia, op. cit). Despite its attractive poligraphic standards and often imaginative covers, it remains quite eclectic and superficial, like its sponsor Dorfa. Stronger commercially oriented and sponsored by Al'vis Incorporated, a marketing center and publisher of a large directory of publishers, Izdatel'stva Rossii (1995), and directory of book stores (Knizhnaia torgovlia Rossii,1996), is Knizhnyi biznes, zhurnal dlia profesionalistov. Since its beginning in 1993 the journal changed both its editors three times and format from newspaper to journal (in Oct. 1994). It deals mainly with popular literature and provides market analysis. Its first issue states that it treats books as a merchandise (tovar). In 1995 it listed about 12,000 titles. Al'vis is associated also with Knigotorgovyi biulleten' (1981), a newspaper, an advertising tool focusing on business literature, popular literature and market data including price analysis. Al'vis data in both journals is based on the book market at the Olympic Stadion in Moscow.

The latest newcomer is Knigi Rossii. Knigotorgovyi al'manakh. (Moscow, O,1995- publisher and editor A. Pilipenko). I saw only issue "0", which was quite well published. Similarly, I am familiar with only one issue of Knizhnyi portfel' (M., Akademik tsentr, 1995).

The former Soviet enterprizes in their bid for survival launched their own information vehicles. Mezhdunarodnaia Kniga, in addition to its annual subscription catalogs and the lingering Novye knigi, published Periodika. Novosti, analiz, reklama (began in 1993 suspended with 6,1996). Soiuzpechat', the main former Soviet domestic subscription agency, launched first Chitaiushchaia Rossiia (1993-, in 1995 only one issue for February and in 1996 two issues were published) and Vitrina. Chitaiushchaia Rossiia (1995-) a monthly journal. It overviews activities in all book related issues, provides reviews of major works and may serve as a selection tool. Vitrina fills the gap between the professional Knizhnoe delo and the more popular Knizhnoe obozrenie and is gaining readerships. An annual survey of key articles from Vitrina as well as other features brought an annual (probably) Chitaiushchaia Rossia. 1995 retrospektiva, vzgliad iz 1996 (M., Soiuzpechat', 1996).

Finally, one can mention major competing informational bulletins. Sponsored by Knizhnaia Palata's Knigi v nalichii i pechati (1996), offered on CD ROM and in print, is a bibliographic-commercial hybrid, the preparation of which in the opinion of Iurii Maisuradze costs about $469,000 (Chitaiushchaia Rossiia, 1995 retrospektiva..., op. cit. p. 26). It fails in its mission due to a lack of an efficient book trade in Russia. Its competitor, well published, expensive Katalog agentstva "Artos". Knigi, proposing to publish an issue every three weeks, lists mostly business oriented publications with one year delay, and promises to supply them. As such, it might be a failure. Similarly, expensive ($200) is the list of periodicals produced by Andrigal. (See also catalogs of Soiuzpechat', Rosspechat' and Mezhdunarodnaia Kniga.) We must remember that these sources, although advertised abroad, are primarily for domestic use and may or may not be suitable for foreign customers.

Russian Academy of Sciences

Chelovek, (M., 1990-) deals will all subjects on an academic level,

Rossiia i sovremennyi mir. Problemy, mneniia, diskussii, sobytiia (INION, 1993-);

Rossiia i musul'manskii mir. Biulleten'. (INION, 1993-);

Raznogolositsa: Russian political parties. News reviews (INION, 1993- covers about 70 newspapers and magazines published in Moscow);

Eon. Al'manakh staroi i novoi kul'tury (INION, 1994-);

Russistika segodnia, (1994-) ;

Sotsiologicheskii zhurnal, (Institut sotsiologii, 1994-);

Pravoslavie i russkaia narodnaia kul'tura. Nauchnyi sbornik M., Inst. antropologii i etnologii RAN, 1994-

Kunstkamera. Etnograficheskie tetradi (Spb, Muzei antropologii i etnografii, 1993-) and its Kur'er petrovskoi kunstkamery (1995-);

Note: INION's Refereativnye zhurnaly expanded their scope to include survey articles. Its bibliographic series also changed and new appeared, e.g. Politologiia. Ukazatel' literatury (1991- annual).

Encyclopedic scope

Litsa. Biograficheskii al'manakh (M-Spb., Feniks, Atheneum, 1992-)

Humanities

Miera. (Sankt-Peterburg, Glagol, 1993-)

Russian studies (RS) Etudes russes. Ezhekvartal'nik russkoi filologii i kul'tury (Sankt-Peterburg, "Pushkinskii fond", 1994-)

Vestnik rossiiskogo gumanitarnogo nauchnogo fonda (M.,"Rossiiskaia politicheskaia entsiklopediia", 1995-)

Government publications

Konstitutsionnyi vestnik. M., Konstitutsionnaia komissiia RSFSR, 1990-

Konstitutsionnoe soveshchanie. Informatsionnyi biulleten'. M., Iuridicheskaia literatura, 1993-

Vestnik Konstitutsionnogo suda Rossiiskoi Federatsii. M., Konstitutsionnyi Sud, 1993-

Sbornik federal'nykh konstitutsionnykh zakonov i federal'nykh zakonov. M., Izdanie Gosudarstvennoi Dumy, 1995.

Dnevnik zasedanii Gosudarstvennoi Dumy;

Biulleten' mezhdunarodnykh dogovorov. M., Administratsiia, 1993-

Vedomosti Federal'nogo Sobraniia Rossiiskoi Federatsii. M., 1993-

Izdanie presidenta Rossiiskoi Federatsii. M., 1993-

Prezidentskii kontrol'. M., 1994- (official documents, articles interpretative and academic, letters of citiziens, history, abstracts of articles from press)

Sobranie zakonodatel'stva Rossiiskoi Federatsii. Ofitsial'noe izdanie. M., 1994- weekly

Vestnik Tsentral'noi izbiratel'noi komissii Rossiiskoi Federatsii. M., Izvestiia, 1995-

Ministries

Diplomaticheskii ezhegodnik. M., Mezhdunarodnye otnosheniia, 1989-, now Vestnik and Ezhegodnik are published

Biuleten normativnykh aktov ministerstv i vedomostv Rossiiskoi federatsii. M., Iuridicheskaia literatura, 1992-

Diplomaticheskii vestnik, M., Min. inostr. del, 1992- (previously 1982, continued by

Local governments publish, e.g.,

Vestnik Moskovskoi oblastnoi dumy

Vedomosti Moskovskoi Dumy, 1994-

Gubernskii informatsionnyi biulleten' (Samara)

Vestnik Merii Sankt Peterburga, 1992-

Central government publishes three journals (gosudarstvennye izdaniia) for broad readership, all with good poligraphical standards:

Rossiiskaia federatsiia. M., Pravitel'stvo Rossiiskoi Federatsii, 1993- (previously Narodnyi deputat. M., Izvestiia, 1990- and before that Sovety Narodnykh deputatov)

Rossiia. Illustrirovannyi zhurnal: Dec, 1995- General interest semi-academic journal addressing various aspects of life in today's Russia: (1st issue cover has Savior's Church);

Rodina, popularnyi istoricheskii zhurnal', 1989- popular.

There are also newspapers such as the Rossiiskaia gazeta (1990-)

Political

Academic journals:

Sotsial'no-politicheskii zhurnal. M., Komitet RF po vysshemu obrazovaniiu,1973-

Dialog. M., Pressa, 1990-

Polis. Politicheskie issledovaniia. M., Polis, (Progress?)1991- (Founded by the Institute of Comparative politology and Workers movement issues of RAN, Gorbachev Foundation and others, Important analysis, currnet events, reviews)

Alternativy. Alternatives. Mezhdunarod. obshchestvenno-politicheskii i analiticheskii zhurnal, M., 1991-

Etnopolis. Etnopoliticheskii vestnik Rossii. Informatsionno-analiticheskii biulleten' soveta Rossiiskoi Federatsii i Instituta etnologii i antropologii RAN, M., 1992-

Vlast'. Obshchenatsional'nyi politicheskii zhurnal'. M., Fond "Evraziiskie tsivilisatsii XXv. M., 1993-

Rossiia XXI. Obshchestvenno-politicheskii i nauchnyi zhurnal. M., Eksperimental'nyi tvorcheskii tsentr, 1993-

Forum. Mezhdunarodnyi zhurnal. M., 1993-

Vestnik Evrazii. Acta Eurasica. Nezavisimyi nauchnyi zhurnal. M., 1995-

Single party journals (usually political parties publish newspapers):

Otkrytaia politika. Zhurnal rossiiskoi politicheskoi zhizni. M., Evraziia, 1995-, under Gaidar's auspices;

Politicheskii kur'er partii "Demokraticheskii vybor Rossii". M., Evraziia, 1995- (Gaidar)

Rubezhi. M., Vremia,1995- monthly under auspices of the Demokraticheskaia al'ternativa.

Business and Economy

Under "Predprinimatel'stvo. Torgovlia Rynok and Ekonomika. Finansy. Statistika" (without statistical series) in Rossiiskaia pressa '96 I counted about 50 journals and about 40 newspapers mostly founded after 1989 and this is still an incomplete source. It omits academic publications in economics and most of the regional publications. Rospechat' and Soiuzpechat' in their 1997 catalogs list about 150 journals in these categories.

Ministry jointly with an academic institution

Rossiiskii ekonomicheskii zhurnal. M., Ministerstvo nauki i tekhnicheskoi politiki RF, Gosudarstvennaia akademiia upravleniia, 1992- previously (from 1958) Ekonomicheskie nauki.

The academy of Sciences publishes probably the best journal in economy

Almanac Thesis. Teoriia i istoriia ekonomicheskikh i sotsial'nykh institutov i sistem. M, 1994- (with an international editorial board including K. Arrow)

Review of the Russian Economy. M., RAN. Inst. Economy in Transition, 1995- (best?)

Association

Ekonomicheskii vestnik, Vol'noe ekonomicheskoe ob-vo Rossii, 1993-

Journals containing economic data

Obozrenie finansovye rynki, analiticheskii monitoring, kompleksnyi analiz, informatsiia dlia priniatiia reshenii. Outlook Financial Markets. Analitical Monitoring, Expert Analysis, Information for Decision-Makers

Obzor ekonomiki Rossii. M., Progress-Akademiia, 1992- (translations from English works by the London School of Economics)

Ekonomicheskoe razvitie Rossii. Russian Economic Developments. M., 1994- (in Russian and English, with statistics on diskette)

General economic journals

Ekonomicheskie i sotsial'nye peremeny: Monitoring obshchestvennogo mneniia. Informatsionnyi biulleten' (M., Vserossiiskii tsentr obshchestvennogo mneniia, 1988- opinion polls)

Kommersant. M., Dom "B", 1990-

Novye sviazi. Business contacts, M., 1992-

Business in Russia. Delovye liudi. M., 1995- (glossy)

Novaia delovaia kniga, M., 1996-? 2x a month by INFRA.

In newspaper formats: Delovoi mir (1989-), Delovaia zhenshchina (1990-), Birzhevye vedomosti (1991-).

Laws guiding economy:

Zakonodatel'stvo i ekonomika. M., Rossiiskii torgovo-finansovyi soiuz, and D.B. Gorokhov,1991- (professional, laws pertaining to economy)

Ekonomiko-pravovyi biulleten'. M., Ekonomika i zhizn', 1992- (weekly, information about new laws, etc.)

Zakon. Zhurnal dlia delovykh liudei. M., 1992- Monthly supplement to Izvestiia (Western polygraphic standards)

Kadry. Novye zakony i kommentarii. M., 1993- (for business managers)

Law

Advokat. M., Mezhdunarodnyi soiuz advokatov, 1990-

Moskovskii zhurnal mezhdunarodnogo prava. M., 1991-

Pravo i zhizn'. Nezavesimyi nauchno-popularnyi zhurnal. M., 1992? (popular for lawyers)

Iuridicheskaia literatura. M., 1993-

Pravozashchitnik. M., "Prava cheloveka",1994- advocates human rights.

Rossiiskii advokat. M., Gil'dia rossiiskikh advokatov, 1995- (claiming to be first after 100 years) for lawyers and legal scholars and the general population.

Military

Official

Voiskovoi vestnik. M., 1989- by Glavnoe upravlenie komanduiushchego Vnutrenimi voiskami MDV Rossii. Sbornik uchebno-metodicheskii. Prilozhenie k zhurnalu Vnutriennykh voisk

Situatsiia. M., 1990- Ministerstvo vnutriennykh voisk. Prilozhenie k zhurnalu Vnutriennykh voisk;

Orientir. M., Ministerstvo oborony RF, 1994-

Armeiskii sbornik. M., Ministerstvo oborony RF, 1994-, for military personnel

Associations

Vera i muzhestvo. M., Assotsiatsiia khristianskikh voennosluzhashchikh "Vera i muzhestvo", 1992-

Sluzhba. M., Rossiisskoe ekonomicheskoe obshchestvo voennosluzhashchikh zapasa, 1994-;

Spetsnaz. M., Tsentr zdorov'e naroda (Podgotovka elitnykh voisk, oruzhe) 1995-; for sportsmen, military and students of military schools.

Demography, etnography

Naselenie i obshchestvo. M., Tsentr demografii i ekologii cheloveka, 1994- (Biulleten containing data on migration, alcoholism, mortality, etc.)

Kunstkamera (see above)

Education

Alma Mater. M., Narodnoe obrazovanie, 1993- (previously Vysshaia shkola)

Obrazovanie v dokumentakh. M., 1994-

Ecology

Zelenyi krest. Nezavisimyi sotsial'no-ekologicheskii zhurnal. M., 1990-

History

Soviet academic and archival series are continuing often under new titles, e.g. Istoriia SSSR now Otechestvennaia istoriia, Sovetskie arkhivy now Otechestvennye arkhivy. Title changes occurred mostly in 1992.

The most important development in history are series, both central and regional (see above), focusing on publishing of new documentary materials. New organizations emerged, for example, Arkhivno-informatsionnoe agentstvo publishes journals Istoricheskii arkhiv, 1992- and Arkhivno-informatsionnyi biulleten'. Arkheograficheskii tsentr issues several series such as Russkii feodalnyi arkhiv XIV - pervoi treti XVI veka, Arkhiv Russkoi istorii (1992-), Rossiia i Khristianskii Vostok and took over publication of Polnoe sobranie russkikh leopisei. The Government sponsors Rodina which has a documentary supplement Istochnik, 1993-.

Continuing publications in the form of al'manacs focusing on publication of archival materials:

Russkoe proshloe. Istoriko-dokumental'nyi al'manakh. Spb, Svelen, 1991-;

Rossiiskii arkhiv. M., Studia Trit'e, 1991- an annual;

Neizvestnaia Rossiia XX vek. M., Istoricheskoe nasledie, 1992- sponsored by Moskovskie gorodskie ob"edinenie arkhivov;

Voennye arkhivy Rossii. M., 1993-;

General interest

Kentavr. Istoriko-politicheskii zhurnal. M., Feniks, [continued by Pressa], 1991- (linked to the tradition of Voprosy istorii KPSS);

Tseikhgauz. Voenno-istoricheskii zhurnal. M., Militaria Rossica, 1991-

Orel. Voenno-istoricheskii zhurnal. Spb, Reabilitatsiia invalidov, 1992- (popular)

Volia. Zhurnal uznikov totalitarnykh sistem. M., Vozvrashchenie, 1993-

Special interest

Gerboved. M., Vserossiskoe geral'dicheskoe ob-vo, Russkaia geral'dicheskaia kollegia, 1992- (Title published already before the revolution;

Letopis' istoriko rodoslovnogo obshchestva v Moskve. M., 1(45)1992- (tradition of similar 1-44, 1904-1917)

Shpion. M., "Mistikos", 1993- devoted to spy detection, publishes archival documents

The Arts

In arts there is a pattern regarding older and newer journals. It is shown in each section below. Continuing are popular but sponsored by professional associations and established during the post-Stalin era such journals as Khudozhnik (1958-), Teatral'naia zhizn' (1958-) and Muzykal'naia zhizn' (1957-). Still later established was popular Kinostsenari. Literaturno-khudozhestvennyi iliustrirovannyi zhurnal, (1973-) now supported by Aeroflot and Natsional'nyi Reservnyi Bank. Professional continuing journals are such as Muzykal'naia akademiia (1992- former Sovetskaia muzyka, 1933-), Ekran (1925- title changed (latest Sovetskii ekran) since 1992 published by Liumier and Kinotsentr), but Teatr (1930-) ceased in 1994.

New journals

Mesto pechati. M., Vodolei [and] Obscuri viri, 1992- Poorly published by interesting.

Khudozhnik Rossii. M. Soiuz khudozhnikov Rossii, 1993-

Khudozhestvennyi zhurnal. M., Izd-vo IMA-press, 1993-

Art Media. Khudozhestvennyi rynok. Moskva. Sankt-Petersburg. Kiev: Spravochnik po galereiam i antikvarnym magazinam. M., Galereia "Art Media", 1994-.

Iskusstvo i obrazovanie. Nezavisimyi khudozhestvenno-pedagogicheskii zhurnal. M., Izd. N. A. Kushaeva, 1994-

Theatre

The key new professional journal is: Moskovskii nabliudatel', 1991-, Soiuz teatral'nykh deiatelei RF and Ministerstvo kul'tury RF (same sponsor for Muzykal'naia zhizn'), which links to a title published in the years 1835-1839. It fill the gap created by the closure of Teatr.

Benefis. Al'manakh art-kluba chudakov. M., Informekspress, 1992-

Peterburgskii teatral'nyi zhurnal. Spb, Peterburgskii muzei teatral'nogo..., 1993-

Katarsis. M., Shaliapin Tsentr, 1994- (Al'manakh materialy problemnoi laboratorii)

Kukart. Spb., Kukart, 1992- (devoted to art of pupperty, Avant-garde design)

Cinema

Kinovedcheskie zapiski. M., Nauchno-issledovatel'skii Institut Kinoiskusstva, 1988-

Ekran i stsena. M., (independent), 1990- (newspaper format)

Seans. Spb, 1990-

Cine-Eye. Kino-Glaz. M., Sovexportfilm, USSR Association of Independent Film-Making,1991-

Chital'nyi zal. Kritiko biograficheskii zhurnal o kino, M., Eizensteinovskii tsentr issledovatelei kinokul'tury, 1995- : film bibliography and review articles.

Music

Muzikal'noe obozrenie, 1989- (independent, newspaper format)

Muzykal'nyi olimp. M., 1990- is a monthly supplement to Ekho Planety (popular)

Rok Fuzz. M., AOZT - "Radio - 1", M., 1991- (newspaper format)

Soroka. Muzykal'naia gazeta. M., 1991- (Rock and new music. Poor format).

Fine arts and architecture

Arkhitektura i stroitel'stvo Moskvy. M., 1991-?

Arkhitekturnyi vestnik, M., published by Moscow's group of designers

DA. Russki zhurnal dlia dezainerov-grafikov. M., 1994- fine publication

Kollektsioner, Ezhemesiachnoe obozrenie rynka khudozhestvennykh tsennostei. M., 1995-

Proekt Rossiia. M., 1996- Billingual, international, Russian-English. High poligraphic standards

Religion

Official by Partiarchats

Zhurnal Moskovskoi patriarkhii. M., Moskovskaia Patriarkhiia, 1943-

Moskovskii tserkovnyi vestnik. M., Moskovskaia Patriarkhiia, 1989-, Russian and English versions, information on life of Orthodox Church

Pravoslavnaia Beseda . M., Moskovaskaia Patriarkhiia, 1990-

Danilovskii blagovestnik. M., Danilov Monastery, 1991-

Ofitsial'naia khronika. M., Moskovskaia Patriarkhiia, 1993-

Sankt-Peterburgskie eparkhial'nye vedomosti. Spb, 1990-

Moskovskie eparkhial'nye vedomosti. M., 1990-

Academic sponsored by societies associated with the Church:

Pravoslavnaia obshchina. M., Sviatoflaretskoi moskovskoi vysshei pravoslavno-khrestianskoi shkoly, 1992-?

Pravoslavnaia beseda.Ezhemesiachnyi dukhovno-prosvetitel'skii zhurnal. M., Khristianskaia literatura, 1992- (otdel relig. obrazovaniia i katekhizatsii Moskovskogo Patriarkhata)

Voznesenie. M., Voznesenskii sobor, 1993- education in religion, poetry, life of saints;

Mir biblii. Illiustrirovannoe periodicheskie izdanie rossiiskogo bibleiskogo obshchestva. M., 1993- (Founded by A. Men')

Alfa i omega. Uchenye zapiski obshchestva dlia raspostraneniia sviashchennogo Pisania v Rossii. M., 1994- cont. of same title 1986-1917

Stranitsy. Zhurnal Bibleisko-bogoslovskogo instituta sv. Apostola Andreia. Bogoslovie. Kul'tura. Obrazovanie. M., Bibl.-bog. inst. sv. ap. Andreia, 1996-

There are numerous new popular religious journals which can be purchased in church's bookstores and stands.

Secular sponsorship

Academic

Mir staroobriadchestva. M., Khronograf, 1992- (Pozdeeva, ed.);

Staroobriadchestvo. Tserkov. Staroobriadcheskii tserkovno-obshchestvennyi zhurnal. M., Muzei i

istorii kul'tury staroobriadchestva, 1994-

Popular:

K svetu. M., 1992- pre-rev. tradition of family religious reading.

Pravda i zhizn'. M., ed. Aleksandr Zorin student of A. Men'.

Others

Vera i muzhestvo. Voenno khristianskii illiustrirovannyi zhurnal. M., Assotsiatsiia khristianskikh voennosluzhashchikh "Vera i muzhestvo", 1992- mixes military and religious issus.

Vestnik teosofii. M., 1992- continues tradition of similar, 1908-1918;

Garuda. Nezavisimyi i istoriko-filosofski buddologicheskii zhurnal 1992- Spb., Alga,1993-

Volshebnaia gora. M., Piligrim, 1993 (religious philosophy, some politics and literature)

Del'fis. nezavisimyi rerikhovskii zhurnal. M., Izd. ekologicheskogo prosveshcheniia "Bieda", 1995-

Astrolog. M., 1995-

Milyi angel. Al'manak metafiziki, traditsii, ezoterisma. M. Arktogeia, 1991- (vol. 2 in 1996)

Na puti k Bogu. Zhurnal dvizheniia "Soznaniia Krishny". Leningrad, 1991 (Prilozhenie k lit. al'manakhu Revers)

Philosophy

Logos, Filosofsko-literaturnyi zhurnal. M., Logos, 1991-

Stupeni. Filosofskii zhurnal. Spb 1991-?

Vybor. Literaturno-filosofskii zhurnal russkoi khristianskoi kul'tury. M., 1(9), 1992- began in underground in 1987.

Russkaia idea. Informatsionno-analiticheskii zhurnal po filosofii. 1992- (Lev Kopylev), of westernizing leaning, archival materials, politics;

Eon. Laboratoriia istorii nauki. Al'manakh. M., INION, 1-2,1994

Veche. Al'manakh russkoi filosofii i kul'tury. St. Petersburg, Universitet, 1990-

Apokrif. Kul'turologicheskii zhurnal M., Labirint , 1992- (Anant-garde)

Russkii bereg M., 1995-; of slavophile leaning, conservative

Literature

The leading journals from pre 1990, both academic and popular in most cases survived. This applies to academic journals such as Russkaia literatura (Spb), Voprosy literatury (M.) and academic series as well as major journals such as Novyi mir (M.), Znamia (M.), Druzhba narodov (M.), Inostrannaia literatura (M.), Neva (Spb) and Zvezda (Spb). Some of them changed sponsors and/or are partially supported by Western sources including Soros Fund (Knizhnoe obozrenie 10.1996:13, Soros offered $3.5 mil. in support of major journals, e.g., Znamia). Some academic journals are published by private agencies, e.g., Pushkinskii Dom which publishes through Dmitrii Bulanin.

Rossiianie. M., 1977- (Vladimir Firsov, editor, earlier with Molodaia Gvardiia, now the publication represents "pravoslavnyi-komsomol'skii" direction)

Mitin zhurnal. Spb., 1984- began in the underground

Aprel'. M., "Fizkultura i sport"?, 1989- (poetry)

Vetv'. Svobodnyi literaturnyi zhurnal. M., 1990- (mimeographed, Ed. N.A. Popova)

Smena, existed in 1920s, now since 1990-

Soglasie. Ezhemesiachnyi lit.-khud. i obshchestv.-polit. zhurnal. M., Miloserdie, Sobesednik, 1990- (solid journal, in 1994 issues 1-3 in 1995 1-2, thus became irregular if at all published)

Solo. Moskva, Publisher changed: Soiuz teatral'nykh deiatelei (1st issue), Buk Chember, and Aiurveda, 1990- publishes new writers.

Slovo. Zhurnal khudozhestvennoi literatury i obshchestvennoi mysli. M., Slovo, 1990-. Published since 1936- as V mire knig by Vsesoiuznaia Knizhnaia Palata. Since 1992- by Slovo.

Moskovskii vestnik. Zhurnal moskovskikh pisatelei. M., 1990-?

Lepta. M., Lepta, 1991- and an English edition from 1994- (former Soviet literature,)

Vestnik novoi literatury. Spb., 1991- Ed. Mikhail Berg. Continues the tradition of non-official literature although not a continuation of an underground publication.

Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie. M., 1992- major journal of broad profile

Peterburgskie chteniia. Literaturnyi zhurnal. Spb 1992-?

De Visu. M., 1992- suspended in 1994 or possibly discontinued

Kommentarii.Zhurnal dlia chitatelia. M.-Spb., Maso "Medaso"1992-

Rossiiskii literaturnyi zhurnal. M., Fond kul'tury and Obshchestvo liubitelei Rossiiskoi slovesnosti, 1993- theory of literature to liberate the literary criticism from its communist ideologization.

Russkaia slovesnost'. M., Shkola-Press, 1993- for students and teachers

Literaturovedcheskii zhurnal. M., 1993- major journal, archival sources, literary history and criticism, on censors, chronicle of literary life of Russian emigre, writers correspondence

Russkii raz'ezd. Spb. Izd. Chernysheva, 1993- new authors, new sources.

Russkii filologicheskii vestnik. M., Moskovskii litsei, 1994- revives the title published from 1879 to 1917

PS. Postscriptum. M., 1995- important writers 3x a year

Rechitativ. Spb, [na serdstva semi A. Krizhanovskogo], 1996-

Devoted to one author:

Iasnaia Poliana. M., Soiuz Pisatelei RSFSR, 1990- (not only devoted to Tolstoy)

Diadia Vania (irreg). M., Nadezhda, 1991- Sponsored by Chekhovskoe obshchestvo. (Ed. V. Shugaev was once a secretary of Moskovskii Soiuz Pisatelei)

Tolstovskii listok. Abramtsevo, Tolstvskii dom, 1991-

Mir Paustovskogo. M., Muzei Tsentra K.G. Paustovskogo, 1992-

Moskovskii pushkinist. M., Nasledie. Institut Mirovoi Literatury, 1995-

Avant-garde journals

(link literature and art)

Kliukva. M., 1990 (3 issues published) continued by Al'manakh Bogema. M., Vsesoiuz. gumanitarnyi fon A.S. Pushkina, 1993-large size, interestingly published.

Magazin. Magazine. Ironicheskii zhurnal. M., 1991-?

Mitki gazeta. M., 1991-

Drugie berega. M., [one person enterprize, Galia Guseva], 1991-

Arion. M., Izd. Rusanova, 1994- poetry

Poeziia i kritika. literaturno-khudozhestvennyi zhurnal. Spb, Novaia Luna, 1994- sponsored by Soros. Russian and foreign Anant-garde

Youth

About youth:

Molodezh. Tsifry. Fakty. Mneniia. Nauchno-populiarnyi zhurnal. Spb, Komitet po delam molodezhi, et.al, 1992-

For youth:

Strannik. Molodezhnyi literaturno-khudozhestvennyi i publitsisticheskii zhurnal. Saransk, 1994-

Novaia iunost'. M., Novaia iunost', 1993-

Ptiukh. M., Intertsentr gumanitarnogo servisa, 1994-

Saratoga. Mirovoi molodezhnyi zhurnal. M., Voskresenie, 1995-(boarding on sub-culture, see also Goroskop for the type of publications by Voskresenie)

Dilizhans. M., Agentstvo Informabk, 1995- glossy

Om. M., 1995- (glossy, printed in London, not expensive 8,000Rb. Ed. Igor Grigor'ev, earlier with Imperial and Amadei)

(Molodaia gvardiia was purchased by a Greek millionaire).

Women

A. Suetnov, Zhenskoe dvizhenie v Rossii: izdaniia i orgranizatsii. Moskva, Arkhiv Netraditsionnoi Pechati, 1995, pp. 46-80, (typescript) lists 64 newspapers and journals devoted to women (including Kiev, Minsk and regional, all mostly newspapers some no longer published).

Preobrazhenie. Russkii feministicheskii zhurnal, M., Linor, 1993- (well done)

Valentina, M., OVA-Press, 1994- (not by Suetnov)

Slavianka. Mezhdunarodnyi zhenskii zhurnal. M., 1993-

Men

Erotikon. Zhurnal dlia muzhchin. M., 1991-

Andrei. Russkii zhurnal dlia muzhchin. Moscow, 1992-? advertises luxury items.

Russkii stil. Boevye iskusstva. M., Boiara, 1994?-

Medved. Nastoiashchii muzhskoi zhurnal. M., 1995?-

Opasnost' bez opasnost'. Zhurnal dlia tekh kto khochet vyzhit. M., 1995? science, sport, war, politics, culture

Family

Ochag. Literaturno-khudozhestvennyi zhurnal dlia semeinogo chteniia. M., 1992- illustrated, Slogan: "Mir vashemu domu".

Semia i shkola. Zhurnal dlia roditelei (1871 renewed in 1946)

Novaia niva. Illiustrirovannyi zhurnal dlia semeinogo chteniia. M., 1992-

Sexuality (serious journals)

Dusha i telo, 1991-

Eros, 1991-

Homosexuality

Tema: gazeta dlia geev i lesbiianok. M., 1991?-

Ty. Illiustrirovannyi zhurnal. M., 1993?- (see foreign sponsorship)

Risk. M., TOO-ARGO-RISK, [registered] 1991 (1st issue 1993, 2nd issue published in 1996)

Gay. Slaviane!. Literaturno-khudozhestvennyi i kulturologicheskii zhurnal posviashchen lesbiiskoi i gomoseksual'noi kulture i iskusstvu. Spb., 1993-

Special interest

Terminator. Mezhdunarodnyi zhurnal po anomal'nym iavleniiam. Spb, Komkon, 1993-

Multisubject journals addressed to broad readership (a significant selection)

Perestol. Religiozno-monarkhicheskii zhurnal. M., 1990-?

Moskovskii zhurnal, M., Moskovskii zhurnal, Department inzhinernogo obespecheniia pravitel'stva Moskvy, 1991- (Earlier Arkhitektura i stroitel'stvo?) Changed profile to general cultural patterned by Karamzin's journal established in 1791

Derzhava. Pravoslavie - samoderzhavie - narodnost'. M., Mezhdunarodnyi fond slavianskoi pismennosti, 1991- (monarchistic)

Strannik, 1991- edited by people linked formerly to Druzhba narodov.

Put' k sebe. Zhurnal dlia tekh kto khochet izmenit sebia. M., Kokon, 1991-

Zhivaia starina. Zhurnal o russkomu fol'klore i traditsionnoi kul'ture, M., 1992-

Komentarii. Zhurnal dlia chitatelia. M.-Spb, Medaco, 1992- (selling in sophisticated magazines such as Gileia, Eidos, Tupik, Salon 19 Okt.)

Novaia Niva. M., Agentstvo Pechati Novosti (APN), 1992-(Link to imperial tradition of Niva)

Mir Rossii. Sotsiologiia, etnologiia, kul'turologiia. M., Vserossiiskaia assotsiatsiia privatizirovannykh i chastnykh predpriiatii, Institut ekonomicheskikh problem perekhodnogo perioda,1992- (serious, large volumes)

New Russia, M., Voskresenie, 1992- formerly Sovetskii Soiuz (in 1991 Voskresenie),

Zlotoust. Pravoslavno gosudarstvennyi zhurnal. M., Tov. russkikh khudozhnikov, 1992- (not art but literature, history of religion, church, general culture)

Vozrozhdenie. M., Vozrozhdenie, 1992- large circulation, popular

Syshchik Rossii. Khudozhestvenno-publitsisticheskii zhurnal. M., 1992-

Mesiats chasti, tsar, vera, otechestvo. M., Monarkhicheskii soiuz, 1993-

Zolotoe runo. Zhurnal dlia delovykh liudei. M., 1993- (economy, history, literature...)

Novaia Rossiia, M. Vsia Moskva, 1994

Akademicheskie tetradi. M., Izd. nezavesiomoi akademi estetiki i svobodnykh iskusstv, 1995-

Goroskop. M., Vozrozhdenie, 1995- (sensations)

Diad'ka; litseiskii smotritel'. M., Moskovskii kul'turologicheskii litsei, 1996-

Itogi. Newsweek. Moscow, 1996- (May, 1996) general cultural journal. Up to 7% reprints from Newsweek, thus practically independent. Sponsored by Vladimir Gusinskii.

Glossy publications

A new life style, elegance, high life, advertising of foreign expensive products, luxuriously published, printed abroad:

Nashe nasledie, 1988- Sponsored by Fond Kul'tury, Maxwell, and now by De Beers.

Ekho planety. M., TASS, 1990- for the general reader, information about life outside Russia (twice a month)

Turysm Biznes. 1991-

Obozrevatel'. Sobytiia, problemy, analiz, prognozy. M., RAU Corp., 1993- for "new" Russians, bankers, politicians, general topics, some nudity.

Elita. M., 1993- Literature, business, fashion, sports (such as polo)

On-Ona. M., Vmeste, 1994?- elegant, serious journal

Zoloto Rossii. M., Zoloto Rossii, 1994- (quarterly),

Tovarishch. Zhurnal razvlechenii. M., Komsomol'skaia pravda, 1994-, politics, sport, sex

Stas. M., Pasport Interneshnl, Ltd., 1994-

Moskvarium. Zhurnal bol'shogo stilia. M., Ladomir, 1995-

Chto delat'? is a glossy journal giving schedules of cultural events, reviews, surveys. Moscow, 1995-

Subculture

Krik. M., Rusland, 1992-

Kriminal, M., 1992-

Summary

There is a wide spectrum of journals addressed to a broad range of readers. Publication of documents both contemporary as well as archival is flourishing despite financial problems faced by many academic journals. Writers and scholars have the possibility to publish their works. New journals, together with journals continuing from the pre-1989 era, satisfy both writers and readers needs. Obviously, in a time of transition in which Russia found itself the economic factors as well as the infrastructure are directly influencing the rise and fall of many enterprises including journals. Analysis of those factors are outside the scope of this presentation. The majority of journals are of poor physical quality. Many, however, strive for elegance despite this form. Some glossy imitations of Western popular journals appeared. These are usually financed by foreign companies and always printed abroad in Austria, Germany or Finland. Among sound, "encyclopedic" type of journals comparable to Time or Newsweek only recently published Itogi (since May 1996) merits attention. The relationship between book publishing and publishing of journals in the process of satisfying cultural and intellectual needs of readers is still inadequately explored It seems, however, that journals compensate very well at least for the declining academic book publishing market in addition to their own traditional role.

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1. "Zhurnal mozhno okharakterizovat' kak periodicheskoe tekstovoe ili izobrazitel'noe zhurnal'noe izdanie, soderzhashchee stat'i ili referaty po razlichnym obshchestvenno-politicheskim, nauchnym, proizvodstvennym i drugim voprosam, literaturnye proizvedeniia, vo mnogikh sluchaiakh illiustratsii, izoproizvedeniia, imeiushchee postoiannuiu programmu, zaglavie, ofitsial'no utverzhdennoe v kachestve dannogo vida izdaniia." Tipologiia izdanii, p.189-190.

(Some aspect of newspapers see, e.g, Glasnost Defense Foundation, Journals and Journalism of Russian Province. Survey. Moscow, Nachala-Press, 1994 (same in Russian, M., 1995; Fond Zashchity Glasnosti, Presledovanie zhurnalistov i pressy na territorii byvshego SSSR v 1994 godu. M., 1995, also for 1993)

The British Council comissioned study of publishing in Russia report appeared as:

Eva Skelly, Vladimir Stabnikov, Russia: a Survey of the Book Market, 1993. It does not discuss journals.

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