Hopkins Marine Station Student Paper

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(full paper is archived in the Miller Library)

Title: The effect of certain environmental factors on the activity pattern of Littorina planaxis and L. scutulata
Student Author(s): Kops, Elsa
Pages: 16
Location: Final Papers Biology 175H
Date: June 1964
Keywords: periwinkle
Abstract: Littorina planaxis and LIttorina scutulata are sea creatures adapted to the ecological habitat "uppermost rocky beach." Their prime problem is prevention of desiccation. Therefore their activity is correlated with moisture such that under dry conditions they will be protected by the closed operculum. Factor equaling or associated with activity (foot attachment, motion, pairing) all showed an increase with an increase in moisture. Clustering, an inactive state, showed an inverse relationship with moisture; from this data it is byposthesized to function as a protection against dessication. Temperature, as measured, was decided to be a meaningless parameter. No evidence was found for either tidal ro circadian rhythms. Wind was considered to act indirectly by decreasing moisture. Thus an inverse effect with foot attachment and pairing and a direct effect with clustering were observed. An interesting and consistent difference was shown by the two species, L. scutulata tenede to be less active, to require more moisture before showing activity, and to demonstrate a higher percentage of clustering.