Hopkins Marine Station Student Paper

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(full paper is archived in the Miller Library)

Title: The distribution and abundance of marine intertidal fauna around a primary sewage effluent in Carmel Bay, California
Student Author(s): Nakata, Michael M.
Faculty Advisor(s): Lee, Welton
Pages: 86
Location: Final Papers Biology 175H
Date: June 1970
Keywords: sewage pollution
Abstract: This research project examined to effects of primary treated effluent on the distribution and abundance of marine intertidla fauna in a portion of Carmel Bay, California. During the time of the current studies the effluent was moving south from the outfall and appeared to remain in the Monastery Beach area due to circular currents. The sewage was not moving straight out to sea. Damage in the outfalll area can be seen in the form of distribution patterns and are reflected in the diversity indices for specific types of areas. The distribution patterns suggest that Mytilus californianus (California mussel), Mitella polymerus (Gooseneck barnacle), Balanus glandula, Chthamalus spp., Tetraclita squamosa rubsecens, Acmaea spp., Pisaster ochraceus, Pagurus spp., and Haliotis cracherodii may be good intertidal indicators of sewage pollution. Toxicity tests on Acmaea degitalis and A. scutum sugges that at low concentrations of sewage, Cl2 may be responsible for much of the lethality of the sewage. However, Cl2 does not account for the entire tixicity of any concentration of sewage. The research outlined in this paper suggests further investigations are necessary to confirm present information about current and effluent movement in Carmel Bay, the tixicity of sewage due to Cl2, the toxicity of other sewage components, distributiona dn diversity patterns as measureable parameters of sewage pollution, and the development of other types of indicators of sewage pollution.