There are lots of fun links on
the web for this great holiday, but here are a few of special interest to scientists and budding
- Everyone’s favorite Halloween flying mammal — the bat! (Well,
all right, the only flying mammal.) There are some terrific bat sites on the web. Don’t miss the
National Geographic Creature Feature — Vampire Bat (http://kids.nationalgeographic.com/kids/animals/creaturefeature/vampire-bat/).
It comes with video, audio, maps — and after all, what bat is more representative of
Halloween than this largest of the American bats? You can also try the
Bat Quiz (http://www.lawrencehallofscience.org/batquiz/)
to see how much you already know about these intriguing creatures. What sounds do bats make?
Hear some Mexican Free-tailed bats in conversation (http://www.naturesongs.com/otheranimals.html#mftb)
(you will need an MP3 player). You can also
hear bat echo-location sounds (http://www.dnr.state.md.us/wildlife/Plants_Wildlife/bats/batelocu.asp),
and find links to other bat sounds pages. Studying bat echolocation may help us to
understand human speech development (http://www.hhmi.org/senses/c230.html)
Nobuo Suga has done interesting research in this area. Go to the
Jaguar Paw Bats Page (http://www.jaguarpaw.com/bats.shtml)
to learn more about bats. Astound your friends and neighbors with your knowledge of these
- Your Halloween bats may be accompanied by other creatures of the night, such as
owls. You can visit a
webcam site (http://www.owlcam.com/)
and share in the adventures of a pair of Northern Barred Owls (Strix varia varia) as they raise
their family in a nest box in Eastern Massachusetts. Rest assured that all of the pictures and
sounds that you will experience are being obtained through owl friendly methods. The site also
has links to information on rescuing injured owls. The Chicago Museum of Sciences invites you to
solve the “Strange Case of the Mystery Rock”.
Information of all kinds can be found on
the Owl Pages (http://www.owlpages.com/).
- I always thought Stonehenge deserved a place in Halloween — even
though it may have nothing to do with the holiday, since Stonehenge most certainly predates the
Celts and Druids. It’s just the sort of thing that seems like it should be true. There
are a wealth of sites of interest on henges. The Canadian Discovery Channel takes you to a Mystic Place — Stonehenge,
or visit some of the
other stone circles and megaliths of Europe (http://www.stonepages.com/).
Did astronomy have its beginnings at places like this? Check out a
“Brief Introduction to Archaeoastronomy” (http://terpconnect.umd.edu/~tlaloc/archastro/cfaar_as.html).
And, wow, what a feat of engineering! NOVA provides an
extensive question and answer page (http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/stonehenge/qanda/)
with details of the engineering and building process.
- Before they had pumpkins in Europe they had to make Jack-O’-Lanterns
out of turnips — hard work. But you can
grow an Atlantic giant pumpkin (http://www.backyardgardener.com/secert.html)
following these detailed instructions. The world record pumpkin weighed 1,092 lbs. — hope
you have a BIG yard. Be ready for next Halloween!
of all kinds were one of the
most important crops in the Pre-Columbian new world (http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?isbn=030904264X&page=203),
and often figured in ceremonies or religion. See the interesting
Squash Kachina (http://www.hopiart.com/kach-exp.htm),
and other Kachinas, of the Hopi. You can learn more about the Hopi at the tribe’s official website,
the website of the
Official Hopi Cultural Preservation Office (http://www.nau.edu/~hcpo-p/)
exhibit on the Hopi from the Carnegie Museum of Natural History (http://www.carnegiemnh.org/educators/online/indians/hopi/index.html).
Or try some pumpkin or squash recipes, based on Native American cooking.
This site has several of these recipes (http://www.kstrom.net/isk/food/r_squash.html) (as well as some ordinary pumpkin and squash recipes).
- You might want to stock up on wolf’s bane and garlic for the holiday.
Can’t find any wolf’s bane around the house? Don’t know what it looks like? Get a
detailed description (http://botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/a/aconi007.html)
see a photograph (http://botany.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/schoepke/aco_al_1.jpg).
It’s good to recognize this plant. Not only does it ward off werewolves (so they say) but it is
very poisonous. And
don’t forget the garlic (http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/MV064).
Actually, there are a lot of herbs connected with Halloween. Some say the
famous witches’ brew from Macbeth (http://www.shakespeare-online.com/plays/macbeth_4_1.html)
is more likely made of various herbs than of animal parts.
Information on the chemistry of some of these types of plants
is intriguing. You can find additional information on these plants using botany sites on the web,
like the ones used for the wolf’s bane information above. Many of these sites may require the
Latin name of the plants, use a
dictionary site (http://www.merriam-webster.com/netdict.htm)
to find the Latin names.
- Another great Halloween plant species is the contorted filbert tree,
also known as
Harry Lauder’s walking stick (http://www.ars-grin.gov/ars/PacWest/Corvallis/ncgr/cool/contorta.html).
Another candidate is the
ancient bristlecone pine (http://www.sonic.net/bristlecone/Images.html),
important uses in tree-ring studies (http://whyfiles.org/021climate/ringers.html)
for anthropology and climatology. See if you don’t agree these belong in every Halloween forest.
Are there other trees that fit into a Halloween forest? How about oaks?
- How can you celebrate Halloween without the eerie sound of a wolf’s howl
(or possibly, a werewolf’s howl)? And what do different howls mean? Visit the
NOVA Wild Wolves site (http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/wolves/)
to hear (and see sonographs of) a lonesome howl, a confrontational howl, a pup howl, and a chorus
howl. More wolf howls are available at other websites.
track individual wild wolves or packs (http://www.wolf.org/wolves/experience/telemsearch/vtelem/telem_intro.asp)
through the telemetry data provided by the International Wolf Center.
- Halloween pictures seem to always have a full moon, but how often
does this really happen on October 31? Will there be a full Halloween moon this year? Next
year? How about a blue moon? You can find the answers to some of these questions at the
US Naval Observatory Moon Phase site (http://www.usno.navy.mil/USNO/astronomical-applications/data-services/phases-moon)
(which lists all the phases for 1990 to 2005) or this
list of full moons from 1900 to 2100 (http://fermi.jhuapl.edu/s1r/amastro/tools/fullmoons.txt).
Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Moon (http://www.shallowsky.com/moon/hitchhiker.html)
for other great moon pages.
- Actually, I’m not sure I have ever seen anyone in a mummy costume
at Halloween, but somehow I can’t imagine a Halloween without mummies. Visit the National Geographic’s Mummy Road Show
to join bioanthropologists as they solve mummy mysteries. Or learn “How to Make a Mummy”.
Medical artists are using new techniques to
discover what these people looked like (http://dsc.discovery.com/news/briefs/20050425/mummy.html)
when they were alive. The
Manchester Museum (http://www.museum.manchester.ac.uk/collection/ancientegypt/)
has established a mummy tissue bank,
and is engaged in endeavors such as the worldwide Schistosomiasis Research Project and
researching other information on the biology and medical conditions of these ancient peoples.
And, of course, Egypt isn’t the only place with mummies. For instance, visit the
Ice Mummies of the Inca (http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/peru/)
Mysterious Mummies of China (http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/chinamum/).
And don’t miss
In 1989, the World Heritage Museum in Illinois acquired a mummy from an antiquities dealer.
Without any background information to draw on, scientists at the museum painstakingly uncovered
the mummy’s history. This site explains the non-destructive methods they used (including x-rays,
CAT scans, and isotope and DNA analysis) to gather information without damaging the fragile mummy.
Special features here include several video clips and a program that translates your name into
- Of course masks and costumes are celebrated at many occasions, in many
cultures, as well as at Halloween. You can get a beautiful
Yupik Mask screensaver (http://www.greenland-guide.gl/masks/default.htm)
as freeware. See other
stunning Yupik masks (http://www.mnh.si.edu/arctic/features/yupik/index.html),
fabulous African masks (http://cti.itc.virginia.edu/~bcr/African_Mask.html)
Huichol beaded masks (http://www.mexconnect.com/articles/180-huichol-artwork-masks).
Find links to more masks from cultures around the world at the mask links directory.
- Do black cats cause bad luck? The eternal question, and one that
has rarely been subjected to rigorous scientific testing. However, Mark Levin has taken it
upon himself to
examine this issue (http://petcaretips.net/black_cat_luck.html).
An informative source of cat anatomy can be found at
Cats: Plans for Perfection (http://www.nationalgeographic.com/features/97/cats/).
Or you may be interested in
why you see those glowing, scary eyes (http://dspace.dial.pipex.com/agarman/bco/fact4.htm)
in the dark. Did you know that cat species that purr cannot roar, and vice versa? The secret
is in the vocal chord structure.
- There are a lot of warm-blooded animals associated with Halloween — wolves, black cats,
owls, bats — but how about other species? Every good haunted house has
spider webs and well they might, for these fascinating creatures are
Why don’t spiders get caught in their own webs (http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/mag/art97b/benspid.html)?
Different spiders make very different webs, all made uniquely by a
species-specific pattern (http://www.conservation.unibas.ch/team/zschokke/spidergallery.php?lang=en).
Spiders have special organs to make their
special silk (http://www.learner.org/jnorth/spring2001/species/spring/Update050701.html#Spin),
which is the strongest natural fiber known — 5 times stronger than steel, and elastic
on top of it all. You can
listen to a discussion of the protein structure of spider silk (http://www.aip.org/radio/html/spider_silk.html).
Spider web silk is
just plain amazing (http://www.xs4all.nl/~ednieuw/Spiders/Info/spindraad.htm)!
- The history of the era of witch hunts in Europe and America is a
study in the sociology and folklore of that time and place. But it may be that the
witch-hunting hysteria was at least partially caused by the
eating of moldy rye bread (http://www.pbs.org/wnet/secrets/case_salem/index.html).
darkly affected the history of mankind (http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/wong/BOT135/LECT12.HTM)
more than once.
- Since many of our Halloween customs trace back to Celtic beliefs,
you may want to check out the mythology and mysticism of that ancient people. You can find
information on their
art and culture (http://www.unc.edu/celtic/),
or general information about these vibrant peoples,
including information about celtic burial mounds.
- Have a green Halloween! The Environmental Defense Fund provides us with
tips to have an environmentally friendly Halloween (http://www.edf.org/pressrelease.cfm?contentID=2364).
- Besides green, Halloween is red, orange and yellow — the time for
flaming foliage. Where is the best display of vibrant colors this
week-end? This question and more can be answered by the
Fall Color Hotline (http://www.fs.fed.us/news/fall.shtml)
operated by the USDA Forest Service. Ever wonder about the
chemistry of fall colors ( http://scifun.chem.wisc.edu/chemweek/fallcolr/fallcolr.html)?
why leaves change color (http://www.esf.edu/pubprog/brochure/leaves/leaves.htm)?
You can preserve the beauty of these leaves,
or find out what the trees are missing by
dropping their leaves (http://photoscience.la.asu.edu/photosyn/education/learn.html).
- Keep your child safe! Consult these
sites on Halloween safety (http://dir.yahoo.com/society_and_culture/holidays_and_observances/halloween/safety/).
- For more traditional Halloween websites, visit
About.com: Halloween (http://halloween.about.com/).
You needn’t miss the fun because of disabilities.
About.com has pages with costume ideas (http://specialchildren.about.com/od/inthecommunity/qt/costume.htm)
for folks in wheelchairs or with crutches or canes.
Stephanie Bianchi, National Science Foundation Library
Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this newsletter are those of the
participants (authors), and do not necessarily represent the official views, opinions, or policy of the
National Science Foundation.