There are lots of holiday sites on the WWW, but you’ll find more than just Santa here. These sites sites were chosen for your enjoyment and are of special interest to the sciences and social sciences, but still, I hope, reflect some of the joys of the season!
“An alternative advent calendar for plant and animal enthusiasts everywhere. Wildwalk’s Christmas Calendar launched on 1st December. Every day visitors to the calendar can open a new window, revealing a plant or animal that is associated with Christmas. It’s certainly not all about turkeys! From angel sharks to fairy penguins, elf owls to Christmas tree worms — you’ll be amazed at the variety of wildlife linked to the festive season.”
For gorgeous photographs of this phenomenon, from both the earth and from space, and for a quick-time movie showing the shimmer, check this site from San Francisco’s famous Exploratorium Museum (http://www.exploratorium.edu/learning_studio/auroras/).
Additional discussion of this extraordinary phenomena can be found at Aurora Explained (http://www.alaskascience.com/aurora.htm).
The next few years should be an era of peak activity, with lights possibly showing as far south as the Gulf of Mexico. How do you go about spotting an aurora? It helps to live some place with dark skies, and, of course, your latitude matters, too. But there are other factors that also come into play. Find hints at Spotting Auroras (http://personal.inet.fi/koti/tom.eklund/aurora_tiedostot/spotting.html). If you are lucky enough to live where you can see the Lights, check out hints on photographing the Aurora (http://www.ptialaska.net/~hutch/aurora.html).
Do you suppose that Santa’s reindeer use the lights as their pathway?
Speaking of Santa, is he thinking ahead to future generations that may live on places other than the Earth? Check the exclusive “Interview with Santa” (http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/1999/ast25dec99_1/) brought to you by NASA for the answer to this intriguing question.
Want to send a holiday e-postcard with an astronomical theme? There are some astounding ones at the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (http://chandra.harvard.edu/greetings/index.php).
What do you suppose the Martian Santa Claus looks like?
The North Pole isn’t just important because Santa Claus lives there. It is a region worth study for purely scientific and for economic reasons as well. Find out why at the NOAA Arctic Theme Page (http://www.arctic.noaa.gov/faq.html).
New: Go along on a radio expedition to the North Pole (http://www.npr.org/programs/re/archivesdate/1999/aug/990802.northpole.html), and learn what draws people to do science in this hostile environment.
The Houghton Mars Project (http://www.marsonearth.org/) isn’t quite at the North Pole, but it’s pretty close … The project is set up to test the equipment and technology (habitation, transportation, life support, recycling, etc.), that may be deployed during a human mission to Mars.
Ever wonder what the North Pole looks like? NASA presents a satellite picture (http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Newsroom/NewImages/images.php3?img_id=4193). Might global warming affect this image in future years? Read about it at Global Warming: Is It Real? (http://whyfiles.org/shorties/064lake_ice/) from the Why Files, or North Pole ice ‘turns to water’ (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/888235.stm) from the BBC.
Of course, other planets have north poles, too. Check the photographs of the dust storm at the Martian North Pole (http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/archive/releases/1996/34/). The sun also has a north pole (http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/releases/2001/release_2001_182.html), with some very interesting weather phenomena.
Or check the discussions of the various exploration expeditions to the Arctic and introductions to the indigenous peoples of the Arctic around the world on the Arctic Circle page (http://arcticcircle.uconn.edu/HistoryCulture/).
Greenland is close enough to the North Pole to count as possible Santa-land in my book! You can get a fabulous free Yupik Mask Screensaver (http://www.greenland-guide.gl/masks/default.htm).
What would the holiday be without reindeer, or their North American version, caribou? Watch a video on these beautiful deer called “Caribou: Struggle for Survival” (http://www.alaska.gov/kids/wildvids.html). The 160,000 animals that make up the Porcupine Caribou Herd range throughout the Northern Yukon and neighboring Alaska and Northwest Territories. What are the effects of global climate change on the herd? How do they distribute themselves within their range? What is the influence of snow density, wind, and insect harassment on them? Such knowledge is essential in building computer models to predict the impact of climate change in the caribou population. Enjoy the gorgeous slide show (http://www.taiga.net/caribou/pch/slides/index.html).
Ever wonder what sounds a reindeer makes? (http://www.pueblozoo.org/archives/dec99/images/reindeer.au)
Most importantly, can reindeer really fly? Check this site from the University of Leeds for a definitive discussion and some amazing pictures. You might want to ponder the genetics of Rudolph and his red nose (http://avalon.unomaha.edu/lichens/Genetics%20Problems/Reindeer.htm). There is a rumor going around that Rudolph must be a doe, but, as the song says, “it ain’t necessarily so.”
The University of Alaska offers this video of a reindeer calf being born.
People have been associated with reindeer ever since there were people. See the lovely drinking reindeer done by ice-age people on the wall of a cave. Does it look like modern snow art? Many people around the world still depend on these creatures as a source of food and as beasts of burden. Their lives are shaped by the lives of the reindeer/caribou herds with which they live. Meet the Nenets of Siberia (http://www.nationalgeographic.com/geoguide/nenets/) or read about a journey with the Siberian reindeer herders to see a lifestyle that is very different from your own. New: Join the Sami on a reindeer roundup. Greenpeace offers a pacman-type game helping the Sami save their forests and herd their reindeer (http://activism.greenpeace.org/eco_quest/) — click on the orange dot over Scandinavia. The Gwich’in people of the Yukon have always depended on the Caribou herds. New: Listen to an NPR’s story “Following the Porcupine Herd” (http://www.npr.org/programs/re/archivesdate/1998/dec/19981228.oldcrow.html). New: Five months on foot following the herd produced the slides and videos at the “Being Caribou” website (http://www.beingcaribou.com/). You can also listen to the National Public Radio story “Caribou Crossings” (http://www.nationalgeographic.com/radiox/caribou/index.html) by reporter Elizabeth Arnold about the Gwich’in people and caribou. New: How is climate change affecting people like the Gwich’in (http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-1518502994444380318&q=%22old+crow%22+caribou&hl=en)? Do you suppose Santa lives like these peoples?
New: For short trips at home, maybe Santa uses a dog team and sled instead of reindeer. The folks at Go North! are using dog teams to circumnavigate the Arctic. See the movies of their teams and learn more about the project (http://www.polarhusky.com/explore/scrapbook/expedition-movies/) and how your class can participate.
Reindeer don’t live all by themselves up in the Arctic. What about Polar Bears? Learn about these reindeer neighbors at the PBS Great White Bear website (http://www.pbs.org/wnet/nature/episodes/great-white-bear/introduction/3348/). New: Wonderful movies and images of polar bears in action (http://www.arkive.org/polar-bear/ursus-maritimus/) are available from ArkIve. These take awhile to load, but are certainly worth it — mother bears suckling their young, bears swimming underwater, and more. Or download the video clips for free and watch them again and again.
What would the season be without wreaths and garlands? This site at Texas A&M (http://botany.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/gallery.htm) has gorgeous botanical images — full plant, leaves, flowers, etc. Do a search on Loranthaceae.
The holly is surrounded by myths and legends (http://www.paghat.com/hollymythology.html). The Celts believed that “King Holly” triumphed over “King Oak” every year at solstice. It is also prominent in Christian and Asian mythology. Holly is also a useful and beautiful landscape tree (http://landscaping.about.com/cs/winterlandscaping1/a/holly_trees.htm), particularly good for sheltering small animals and birds.
The How Stuff Works webpage (http://tlc.howstuffworks.com/family/mistletoe.htm) has lots of information about and pictures of mistletoe. What does mistletoe have to do with Christmas (http://www.apsnet.org/publications/apsnetfeatures/Pages/Mistletoe.aspx)? Find out its rich history and folklore (http://landscaping.about.com/cs/winterlandscaping1/a/mistletoe.htm), and some biology as well. Mistletoe grows all over the world, and many of the species are quite different from the quiet plant we are used to seeing hanging above the door at Christmas time.
But how about other plants? Do you know that you could not have such a merry Christmas without fungi? Read about the “Fungi That Are Necessary for a Merry Christmas”(http://botit.botany.wisc.edu/toms_fungi/xmas.html).
How about growing some crystalline trees (http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/phase-trans/2002/crystal/a.html) as holiday decorations? Or crystal snowflakes (http://chemistry.about.com/b/2005/11/29/make-a-crystal-holiday-ornament.htm)? Try these fun experiments to see how chemical crystals grow.
If you are worried about whether your decorations might be poisonous, check this information from the California Poison Action Line (http://www.calpoison.org/public/winter-holidays.html#1).
Of all the holiday decorations, none rivals the Christmas tree — pines, firs, spruces, and more … (http://www.urbanext.uiuc.edu/trees/treetypes.html). At this website you will find some interesting Christmas tree trivia (http://www.urbanext.uiuc.edu/trees/treefacts.html). Read more at this site from How Stuff Works (http://tlc.howstuffworks.com/family/christmas-tree.htm).
Christmas trees are natural fractals. There are other Christmas items that are fractals, too. You may decorate your tree with strings of lights, but have you ever wondered how these lights work (http://tlc.howstuffworks.com/family/christmas-lights.htm)? The custom of bringing greens into the house (http://www.history.com/topics/christmas) goes far back in time as people sought symbols of renewal.
It takes a lot of research to develop good Christmas trees. Read about all the factors that scientists must consider (http://www.ecu.edu/cs-admin/mktg/feature-christmas-trees.cfm) — disease resistance, cloning, genetic engineering …
Christmas trees are recyclable. Consumers can locate the nearest recycling program by visiting the National Christmas Tree Association (http://www.christmastree.org/recycle.cfm) or calling 1-877-EARTH911. You can even recycle your Christmas tree yourself. There are about 500,000 acres in production for growing Christmas Trees in the U.S. Each acre provides the daily oxygen requirements of 18 people and helps a little bit to counteract global warming.
Many planetariums present shows on the Star of Bethlehem at this season, but no matter how hard you try to be careful and well-researched, errors can creep into the presentation. Find out what some of the common errors are (http://www.ips-planetarium.org/planetarian/articles/common_errors_xmas.html) in the article by John Mosely, program director at the Griffith Observatory. New: Mosely’s information is presented with animations at this website (http://askelm.com/video/real/xmas_star.swf).
Can a Roman coin provide clues about this famous star (http://www.eclipse.net/~molnar)? Inspiration for research can come from anywhere!
You may not expect something as spectacular as the Star of Bethlehem this year, but to keep track of what you might see in the holiday night sky, check out the weekly report of the Star Gazer (http://www.jackstargazer.com/), whom you may have heard on various NPR stations or StarDate (http://stardate.org/nightsky/weekly).
Inventors can be inspired by winter, too. The US Patent and Trademark Office brings us a Winter Carnival of wacky and wonderful inventions (http://www.uspto.gov/web/offices/ac/ahrpa/opa/kids/themes/kidtheme12.htm).
For a discussion of the scientific reasons Santa cannot possibly exist, try the “Science — Bah Humbug!” page by Bill Drennon. You can study the Santa timeline for highlights of this questionable career of toy purveying. Is Santa and his flying reindeer just an hallucination? See Santa and Hallucinogenic Mushrooms (http://employees.csbsju.edu/SSAUPE/essays/santa_mushroom.htm) or Tom Volk’s Fungus of the Month: Amanita muscaria (http://botit.botany.wisc.edu/toms_fungi/dec99.html).
On the other hand, Fermi Lab’s FERMI NEWS has an interesting article entitled “Santa At Nearly the Speed of Light” (http://www.fnal.gov/pub/ferminews/santa/index.html) that discusses quite cogently the speed at which Santa must travel to accomplish his tasks, and whether traveling at this speed helps enable him to slide down chimneys, as well as other related Santa physics phenomena.
More on this important problem of physics is available in a later article, “Santa’s World Revisited” (http://www.fnal.gov/pub/ferminews/ferminews00-05-12/p4.html). (Thanks to Hannah King) Here is a further discussion of the physics of flight (http://www.swri.edu/10light/flight.htm).
Besides, if there is no Santa, how can the sophisticated electronics at NORAD (http://www.noradsanta.org/) and NASA (http://spaceflight.nasa.gov/realdata/tracking/index.html) successfully track the sleigh progress each year?
There is a lot of debate on this topic, as you can imagine. Sample some of the discussions and draw your own conclusions.
If you are still in doubt, you might try to test the hypothesis scientifically — this is the way real science is done. Build a Santa Trap for instance. Or you can just decide that science isn’t yet ready to answer this question, and leave a plate of cookies (for Santa) and apples (for the reindeer) — that’s what I do!
The National Climatic Data Center brings you a region-by-region examination of the climatological chances for a white Christmas (http://www.stormfax.com/whtexmas.htm) in the continental United States. (Only 13% chance for Washington, DC. Sigh.) Does global warming affect these chances? USAToday discussed this question (http://www.usatoday.com/weather/news/2001/2001-12-19-whitechristmas.htm) a few years ago.
You can keep track of Santa’s weather at the North Pole Environmental Observatory (http://psc.apl.washington.edu/northpole/). Or check it out yourself using the North Pole Webcam (http://www.arctic.noaa.gov/gallery_np.html).
Learn more about winter storms from weather.com (http://www.weather.com/encyclopedia/winter/). What is the difference between a winter storm and a tropical storm (http://www.ndbc.noaa.gov/educate/tropstrm.shtml)? Do some activities to learn more about several famous winter storms.
Climate change is with us all the time. The Vikings were able to launch their explorations and settlements in the New World because of a particular climate change that made ice less of an oceanic threat around 1000 A.D. How do scientists monitor climate over thousands of years (http://www2.sunysuffolk.edu/mandias/lia/determining_climate_record.html)? Ice cores are like time machines (http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/warming/stories/.
What does snow look like when you are really close up? Check out the fascinating electron microscope images of snow crystals (http://emu.arsusda.gov/snowsite/default.html).
Caltech has a wonderful webpage (http://www.its.caltech.edu/~atomic/snowcrystals/) that includes information about the physics of snow, photographs of snow flakes made to order (designer snow crystals), very detailed information about photographing snow, and more! Is every snowflake really different from all the others? Why are snowflakes white? You can find the answers to your questions at a snowflake FAQ (http://chemistry.about.com/od/moleculescompounds/a/snowflake.htm). If you can’t photograph snowflakes, you can catch their patterns on glass using hairspray. Here are directions for this and other snow science activities (http://www.suite101.com/content/snowflake-crafts-for-kids-a38558). You can also make paper snowflakes (and stars) to use as decorations.
Some peoples of the far north make shelters from snow. Learn more (including how to build an igloo) (http://www.kstrom.net/isk/maps/houses/igloo.html). Can snow insulate well enough (http://pbskids.org/dragonflytv/show/snowshelter.html) to keep you from freezing to death?
Snow can be very dangerous, particularly when it creates an avalanche (http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/avalanche/). Learn snow survival skills from NOVA’s discussion of Alaska’s Mt. Denali (http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/denali/kids/).
How about ice? Ever wonder why it is possible to ice skate? Find the answer at the Science of Hockey page at the Exploratorium (http://www.exploratorium.edu/hockey/ice1.html). You can also learn about the complex physics of downhill skiing, where acceleration = gravity - friction - air resistance.
More links to snow resources are available from the National Snow and Ice Data Center’s All About Snow (http://nsidc.org/snow/index.html).
For the exact time of the winter solstice for any year between 2000 and 2009, check the chart provided by the University of Virginia (http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/astronomy/WinterSolstice.html). You will also find a discussion of exactly what the solstice is and why it happens.
The exact time of Solstice was very important to many ancient peoples, who built architectural structures and developed other sophisticated ways to measure it. Explore Ireland’s Newgrange passage tomb (http://www.knowth.com/newgrange.htm). Watch the solstice on the webcam at the Maeshowe chambered tomb (http://www.hogmanay.net/scotland/orkney_maeshowe.shtml) in the Orkneys. Or take a tour of Chaco Canyon (http://www.colorado.edu/Conferences/chaco/tour/chacomap.htm), where the summer solstice took precedence (http://www.exploratorium.edu/chaco/index.html). If you have QuickTime, you can watch a video of summer solstice at Chaco. For more information on archaeoastronomy, visit the Archaeoastronomy Center at the University of Maryland (http://terpconnect.umd.edu/~tlaloc/archastro/cfaar_as.html).
New: What causes the solstices? The simple answer is the tilt of the earth on its axis as the earth circles the sun (http://www.factmonster.com/spot/solsticeforkids.html) complicated by that journey around the sun. Learn more about the complex path of the earth through space at the wonderful Analemma site (http://www.analemma.com/). “Wandering noon” (http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A3239796) is most pronounced during the solstices. If you think you know the science of solstices, take this quiz (http://quizzes.familyeducation.com/sun/seasons/55400.html)
If you are a birder, join the Christmas Bird Count (http://birds.audubon.org/christmas-bird-count) or Project FeederWatch (http://www.birds.cornell.edu/pfw/). The annual Christmas Bird Count season is here. Birders from across the United States and from over 30 different countries will take to the field between December 14th and January 5th to record the birds in their count circles. The primary objective of the Christmas Bird Count is to monitor the status and distribution of bird populations across the Western Hemisphere. Since the first count on December 25, 1900, thousands of birders have helped create a significant database of information on the abundance and distribution of winter bird populations. Anyone can participate in his or her local Christmas count. Visit the National Audubon Society web site to locate a count area near you.
There are lots of bird related sites on the internet that will help you identify the winter birds in your area, and give you information on how to help them through the winter. Here are a few: Your Winter Birds: Who They Are, and What to Feed Them (http://www.wvu.edu/~agexten/wildlife/winterbrd.PDF), All About Birds, Top 10 Foods for Winter Bird Feeding (http://www.cedar-works.com/newsite/top_winter.html), Dinner? It’s For the Birds! (http://www.osweb.com/kidzkorner/feeder.htm), Winter Bird Feeding (http://dnr.wi.gov/org/caer/ce/eek/nature/winterbird.htm), and Birds (http://www.kidskonnect.com/Birds/BirdsHome.html).
While you are decorating a Christmas tree in your house, decorate one outside for the birds!
We don’t put candles on our Christmas trees like they did in the old days, but there are still plenty of candles used around this time of year, in Advent wreaths, in candlelight services, and in menorahs, to name a few places. Did you ever wonder how candles work (http://home.howstuffworks.com/question267.htm)? Could you burn candles in a space ship (http://quest.nasa.gov/space/teachers/microgravity/9flame.html)? Would it look different than on earth? How do those trick candles work (http://chemistry.about.com/od/howthingsworkfaqs/f/bltrickcandle.htm), that you can’t blow out? You can read this discussion to find out if a candle in a plummeting elevator (http://www.newton.dep.anl.gov/askasci/phy99/phy99198.htm) would stay lit. As you can see, different scientists may have different ideas about the answers to your science questions.
In 1860, Michael Faraday gave a Christmas lecture on candles (http://www.ias.ac.in/resonance/Mar2002/Mar2002Classics.html).
The Linguists among us will enjoy the various lexemes for the word “snow” (http://www.princeton.edu/~browning/snow.html) found in one northern dialect. Do the Inuit really have over 100 words for snow? Well, this simple question is not easy to answer … (http://itre.cis.upenn.edu/~myl/languagelog/archives/000405.html)
Of course, language is more than just vocal and written words. Learn to sign “Merry Christmas”.
Or check out the Old English-style poem Hrodulf the Red-Nosed Reindeer, and marvel at how language changes through time, and yet still follows discernable patterns. If you can’t provide your own translation, just look further down the page …
There is no doubt that the cost of Christmas has a major economic impact. The folks at PNC Bank have been keeping track of the price trends in their “Christmas Price Index” (CPI) (http://www.pncchristmaspriceindex.com/) for over 20 years. (Don’t miss the fun games offered at this site.) If you have a true love this Christmas, better take out a loan … Christmas movies have a lot of economics in them, and often they have gotten the economics wrong (http://mises.org/freemarket_detail.aspx?control=209). Christmas gift giving can be a “deadweight loss” (http://www.economist.com/node/885748?Story_ID=885748) if you aren’t careful in your selections (http://mises.org/freemarket_detail.aspx?control=107).
You may enjoy a Christmas Chemistry Lab (http://www.kyantec.com/Tips/Crystallization%20of%20a%20Supersaturated%20Sucrose%20Solution.htm). Or use chemistry to solve the “Christmas Cookie Mystery” (http://sciencespot.net/Pages/classchem.html#Anchor2).
For some obscure reason, chemists and other scientists seem to like to compose Christmas carols: Science Jokes: Chemistry Poetry (http://www.xs4all.nl/~jcdverha/scijokes/3_1.html#subindex), Iona Prep Physics Christmas Carols (http://www.ionaphysics.org/library/physics%20songs/Carols.htm), Chemistry Carols and Physics Carols (http://www.quasar.ualberta.ca/edse456/apt/activity/physicscarol.htm). New: There is even a chemistry version of Dickens’ “A Christmas Carol” (http://employees.oneonta.edu/helsertl/ChemXmasCarol.html) — can you find the elements in this story?
At Christmas in 1827, Michael Faraday started a series of Christmas lectures on chemistry (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Institution_Christmas_Lectures). These lectures show that the interesting relationship chemists have had with Christmas goes way back in time. The Royal Institution still hosts Christmas lectures today (http://www.rigb.org/contentControl?action=displayContent&id=00000001882), as do many other institutions. The very first of these lectures was on the chemistry of candles (http://www.ias.ac.in/resonance/Mar2002/pdf/Mar2002Classics.pdf) (pdf). RI Christmas lectures are now broadcast by the BBC.
Watch the video of Koko at Christmas (http://www.koko.org/world/journal.php?jID=18) and see what you think. Koko is a gorilla who has been taught sign language since she was a baby. (You will also see Koko’s pet cat, Moe.) Some zookeepers are making a white Christmas (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/not_in_website/syndication/monitoring/media_reports/2511789.stm) possible for their polar bears in Australia. They think the bears need snow in order to avoid developing behavior problems.
Of course you need chemistry for your Christmas cooking, but you need engineering, too. When you cook a turkey, you have to get the heat transfer right. The Engineer Guy can tell you all about this problem (http://www.engineerguy.com/comm/4322.htm).
Does feasting on turkey make you drowsy? No, turkey is not the culprit (http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4187409)!
Wild turkeys are interesting birds. Benjamin Franklin wanted to make the Turkey the national bird of the young United States (http://www.greatseal.com/symbols/turkey.html), rather than the Eagle. If you get a parent to help, you can try making a variety of turkey calls (http://www.wildturkeyzone.com/turkeycalls/howto.htm). Or make a pine-cone turkey (http://www.enchantedlearning.com/crafts/thanksgiving/pineconeturkey/) to decorate your house this Christmas, in honor of these interesting birds.
For fuller coverage of Internet sites on Christmas, Hannukah, Kwanzaa, Ramadan, and the other holidays we all enjoy, go to the Yahoo “Holidays” site (http://dir.yahoo.com/Society_and_Culture/Holidays_and_Observances/) or the Christmas sites chosen by “Librarian’s Index to the Internet” or follow the Christmas and other holiday links at About.com (http://www.about.com/).
HAPPY HOLIDAYS AND A PROSPEROUS NEW YEAR!
Compiled by Stephanie Bianchi, 12/97. Revised 12/06.
Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this newsletter are those of the participants (authors), and do not necessarily represent the official views, opinions, or policy of the National Science Foundation.