Stanford University Initiative
for the
Maximization of
Language Resources

  


Research Bibliographies


A Bibliography on Bilingualism and the 
Teaching of Spanish as a Heritage Language

  • Albert, M., & Obler, L. (1978). The bilingual brain. New York: Academic Press.

  • Alladina, S. (1993). South Asian languages in Britain. In G. Extra & L. Verhoeven (Eds.), Immigrant languages in Europe (pp. 55-66). Clevedon, England: Multlingual Matters.

  • Allen, V. F. (1969). Teaching standard English as a second dialect. Florida Foreign Language Reporter, 7, 123-129, 164.

  • Alonso de Lozano, L. (1981). Enseñanza del subjuntivo a hispanohablantes. In G. Valdés, A. G. Lozano, & R. Garcia-Moya (Eds.), Teaching Spanish to the Hispanic bilingual: Issues, aims, and methods (pp. 140-145). New York: Teachers College Press.

  • Amastae, J., & Elias-Olivares, L. (Eds.). (1982). Spanish in the United States: Sociolinguistic aspects. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Ammon, P. (1985). Helping children learn to write in English as a second language: Some observations and hypotheses. In S. Freedman (Ed.), The acquisition of written language: Revision and response (pp. 65-84). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

  • Ammon, U. (1989). Teaching materials for dialect speakers in the federal republic of Germany: The contrastive booklets. In J. Cheshire, V. Edwards, H. Munstermann, & B. Weltens (Eds.), Dialect and education: Some European perspectives (pp. 234-241). Clevedon: Multingual Matters.

  • Bachman, L. F. (1990). Fundamental considerations in language testing. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Bailey, R. W. (1987). Teaching in the vernacular: Scotland, schools and linguistic diversity. In C. Macaffee & I. Macleod (Eds.), The nuttis schell: essays on the Scots's language presented to A.J. Aitken (pp. 131-142). Aberdeen: Aberdeen University Press.

  • Baker, C. (1988). Key issues in bilingualism and bilingual education. Clevedon: Multlingual Matters.

  • Barkin, F. (1981). Evaluating linguistic proficiency: The case of teachers in bilingual programs. In G. Valdés, A. G. Lozano, & R. García-Moya (Eds.), Teaching Spanish to the Hispanic bilingual: Issues, aims, and methods (pp. 215-234). New York: Teachers College Press.

  • Bartley, D. E., & Politzer, L. (1972). Practice-centered teaching training: Standard English for speakers of non-standard dialects. Philadelphia: The Center for Curriculum Development.

  • Bean, F. D., & Tienda, M. (1987). The Hispanic population of the United States. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

  • Benton, R. A. (1986). Schools as agents for language revival in Ireland and New Zealand. In B. Spolsky (Ed.), Language and education in multilingual settings (pp. 53-76). San Diego: College Hill Press.

  • Benyon, J., & Toohey, K. (1991). Heritage language education in British Columbia: Policy and programs. Canadian Modern Language Review, 47(4), 606-616.

  • Biber, D. (1994). An analytical framewordkfor register studies. In D. Biber & E. Finegan (Eds.), Sociolinguistic perspectives on register (Vol. 31-56, ). New York: Oxford.

  • Bills, G. D. (1989). The US Census of 1980 and Spanish in the Southwest. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 79(1989), 11-28.

  • Bills, G. D., Hernandez-Chavez, E., & Hudson, A. (1995). The geography of language shift: distance from the Mexican border and Spanish language claiming in the U.S. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 114(1995), 9-27.

  • Bizzell, P. (1986). What happines when basic writers come to college. College Composition and Communication, 37(294-301).

  • Boyd, S. (1993). Immigrant minority languages and education in Sweden. In G. Extra & L. Verhoeven (Eds.), Immigrant languages in Europe (pp. 273-284). Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters.

  • Brod, R., & Huber, B. J. (1997). Foreign language enrollments in United States institutions of higher education, fall 1995. ADFL Bulletin, 28(2), 55-61.

  • Cazden, C. B., & Snow, C. E. (Eds.). (1990). English Plus: Issues in bilingual education. (Vol. 508): The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science.

  • Cheshire, J., Edwards, V., Munstermann, H., & Weltens, B. (Eds.). (1989). Dialect and education: Some European perspectives. Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters, Ltd.

  • Cohen, A. (1990). Language learning. New York: Newbury House.

  • Colombi, M. C. (1997). Perfil del discurso escrito en textos de hispanohablantes: teoría y práctica. In M. C. Colombi & F. X. Alarcon (Eds.), La enseñanza del español a hispanohablantes: Praxis y teoría (pp. 175-189). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

  • Craig, D. R. (1988). Creole English and education in Jamaica. In C. B. Paulston (Ed.), International handbook of bilingualism and bilingual education (pp. 297-312). New York: Greenwood Press.

  • Crawford, J. (1989). Bilingual education: History, politics, theory, and practice. Trenton, N.J.: Crane Publishing Company.

  • Cummins. (1979a). Linguistic independence and the educational development of bilingual children. Review of Educational Research, 49, 895-897.

  • Cummins, J. (1979b). Cognitive academic language proficiency, linguistic interdependence, the optimum age question and some other matters. Working Papers on Bilingualism, 19, 197-205.

  • Cummins, J. (1980). The cross-lingual dimensions of language proficiency: Implications for bilingual education and the optimal age issue. TESOL Quarterly, 4, 175-187.

  • Cummins, J. (1981). The role of primary language development in promoting educational success for language minority students. In C. S. D. o. Education (Ed.), Schooling and language minority students: a theoretical framework . Los Angeles: Evaluation, Dissemination and Assessment Center.

  • Cummins, J. (Ed.). (1984). Heritage languages in Canada: Research perspectives. Ottawa: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education.

  • D'Ambruoso, L. (1993). Spanish for Spanish speakers: A curriculum. In B. J. Merino, H. T. Trueba, & F. A. Samaniego (Eds.), Language and culture in learning: Teaching Spanish to native speakers of Spanish (pp. 203-207). London: Falmer Press.

  • Danesi, M. (1986). Teaching a heritage language to dialect-speaking students. Ontario: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education.

  • Day, R. R., & Bamford, J. (1998). Extensive reading in the second language classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • de Bot, K., & Weltens, B. (1991). Recapitulation, regression, and language loss. In H. W. Seliger & R. M. Vago (Eds.), First language attrition (pp. 31-51). New York: Cambridge.

  • De, E. N., & Gregory, D. U. (1997). Decolonizing the classroom: Freshman composition in a multicultural setting. In C. Severino, J. C. Guerra, & J. E. Butler (Eds.), Writing in multicultural settings (pp. 118-132). New York: Modern Language Association.

  • de la Garza, R. O., DeSipio, L., Garcia, F. C., Garcia, J., & Falcon, A. (1992). Latino voices: Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Cuban perspectives on American politics. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

  • DiPardo, A. (1993). A kind of passport: A basic writing adjunt program and the challenge of student diversity. Urbana: National Council of Teachers of English.

  • Draper, J. B., & Hicks, J. H. (1996). Foreign language enrollments in public secondary schools, fall 1994. Foreign Language Annals, 29(3), 303-306.

  • Edelsky, C. (1982). Writing in a bilingual program: The relation of L1 and L2 tests. Tesol Quarterly, 16(2), 211-228.

  • Eldering, L., & Kloprogge, J. (Eds.). (1989). Different cultures same school. Amsterdam: Swets & Zeitlinger.

  • Elias-Olivares, L., Leone, E. A., Cisneros, R., & Gutierrez, J. R. (Eds.). (1985). Spanish language use and public life in the United States. Amsterdam: Mouton Publishers.

  • Escobar, A. (1978). Variaciones sociolingüísticas del castellano en el Perú. Lima: Instituto de Estudios Peruanos.

  • Extra, G., & Verhoeven, L. (Eds.). (1993). Immigrant languages in Europe. Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters.

  • Faltis, C. J. (1981). Teaching Spanish writing to bilingual college students. NABE Journal, 6, 93-106.

  • Faltis, C. J. (1984). Reading and writing in Spanish for bilingual college students: What's taught at school and what's used in the community. The Bilingual Review/ La Revista Bilingüe, 11, 21-32.

  • Faltis, C. J., & DeVillar, R. A. (1993). Effective computer uses for teaching Spanish to bilingual native speakers: A socioacademic perspective. In B. J. Merino, H. T. Trueba, & F. A. Samaniego (Eds.), Language and culture in learning: Teaching Spanish to native speakers of Spanish (pp. 160-169). London: Falmer Press.

  • Farr, M., & Daniels, H. (1986). Language diversity and writing instruction. New York: ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Education, Teachers College, Columbia University.

  • Farr, M., & Janda, M. A. (1985). Basic writing students: Investigating oral and written language. , 19(1), 62-83.

  • Farr Whiteman, M. (1981). Dialect influence in writing. In M. Farr Whiteman (Ed.), Variation in writing: Functional and linguistic-cultural differences (pp. 153-166). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

  • Feigenbaum, I. (1970). The use of non-standard English in teaching stnarad: Contrast and comparison. In R. W. Fasold & R. Shuy (Eds.), Teaching standard English in the innner city (pp. 87-104). Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.

  • Fernandez, S., Pauwels, A., & Clyne, M. (1993). Unlocking Australia's language potential: Profiles of 9 key languages in Australia. Volume 4, German (Eric document ED365114): Australian National Languages and Literacy Institute.

  • Feuerverger, G. (1991). University students' perceptions of heritage language learning and ethnic identity maintenance. Canadian Modern Language Review, 47(4), 660-677.

  • Fishman, J. (1972). The description of societal bilingualism. In A. S. Dil (Ed.), Language in sociocultural change (pp. 153-161). Stanford: Stanford University Press.

  • Fishman, J. (1972a). Societal bilingualism: Stable and transitional. In A. S. Dil (Ed.), Language in sociocultural change (pp. 135-152). Stanford: Stanford University Press.

  • Fishman, J. (1985). The rise and fall of the ethnic revival: Perspectives on language and ethnicity. Berlin: Mouton Publishers.

  • Fishman, J. (1991). Reversing language shift. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

  • Fishman, J., & Markman, B. R. (1979). The ethnic mother tongue school in America: Assumptions, findings and directory (Final Report to the National Institute of Education): Ferkauf Graduate School, Yeshiva University.

  • Fishman, J. A. (1964). Language maintenance and language shift as fields of inquiry. Linguistics, 9, 32-70.

  • Fishman, J. A. (1965). Who Speaks What Language to Whom and When? , 2, 67-68.

  • Fishman, J. A. (1967). Bilingualism With and Without Diglossia; Diglossia With and Without Bilingualism. Journal of Social Issues, 32, 29-38.

  • Fishman, J. A. (1968). Sociolinguistic perspective on the study of bilingualism. Linguistics, 39, 21-49.

  • Fishman, J. A. (1980). Bilingualism and Biculturalism as Individual and Societal Phenomena. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 1, 1-13.

  • Fishman, J. A. (1985). Mother-tongue claiming in the United States since 1960: Trends and correlates. In J. A. Fishman, M. H. Gertner, E. G. Lowy, & W. G. Milan (Eds.), The rise and fall of the ethnic revival: Perspectives on language and ethnicity (pp. 107-194). Berlin: Mouton Publishers.

  • Fishman, J. A. (1987). What is happening in Spanish on the US mainland. Ethnic affairs, 1, 12-33.

  • Fishman, J. A. (1991). Reversing language shift: Thoeretical and empirical foundations of assistance to threatened languages. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

  • Fishman, J. A., Cooper, R., & Ma, R. (1972). Bilingualism in the Barrio. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Publications.

  • Fishman, J. A., & Lueders-Salmon, E. (1972). What has sociology of language to say to the teacher? On teaching the standard variety to speakers of dialectal or sociolectal varieties. In C. B. Cazden, V. P. John, & D. Hymes (Eds.), Functions of language in the classroom (pp. 67-83). New York: Teachers College Press.

  • Floyd, M. B. (1981). Language variation in southwest Spanish and its relation to pedagogical issues. In G. Valdés, A. G. Lozano, & R. García-Moya (Eds.), Teaching Spanish to the Hispanic bilingual: Issues, aims, and methods (pp. 30-45). New York: Teachers College Press.

  • Fox, T. (1992). Repositioning the profession: Teaching writing to African American students. Journal of Advanced Composition, 12, 291-303.

  • Gagne, G. (1983). Norme et enseignement de la langue maternelle. In E. Bedard & J. Maurais (Eds.), La norme linguistique (pp. 463-509). Paris: Le Robert Quebec.

  • Garcia, O., Fishman, J. A., Burunat, S., & Gertner, M. H. (1985). The Hispanic press in the United States: Content and prospects. In J. A. Fishman, M. H. Gertner, E. G. Lowy, & W. G. Milan (Eds.), The rise and fall of the ethnic revival: Perspectives on language and ethnicity (pp. 344-362). Berlin: Mouton.

  • Garcia, O., & Otheguy, R. (1997). No sólo de estándar se vive el aula: lo que nos enseñó la educación bilingüe sobre el español de Nueva York. In M. C. Colombi & F. X. Alarcon (Eds.), La enseñanza del español a hispanohablantes: Praxis y teoría (pp. 156-174). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

  • Gertner, M. H., Fishman, J., Lowy, E. G., & Milan, W. G. (1985). Language and ethnicity in the periodical publications of four American ethnic groups. In J. A. Fishman, M. H. Gertner, E. G. Lowy, & W. G. Milan (Eds.), The rise and fall of the ethnic revival: Perspectives on language and ethnicity (pp. 305-341). Berlin: Mouton.

  • Gorman, S. (1993). Using elements of cooperative learning in the communicative foreign language classroom. In B. J. Merino, H. T. Trueba, & F. A. Samaniego (Eds.), Language and culture in learning: Teaching Spanish to native speakers of Spanish (pp. 144-152). London: Falmer Press.

  • Guitart, J. (1981). The pronunciation of Puerto Rican Spanish in the mainland: Theoretical and pedagogical considerations. In G. Valdés, A. G. Lozano, & R. García-Moya (Eds.), Teaching Spanish to the Hispanic bilingual: Issues, aims, and methods (pp. 46-58). New York: Teachers College Press.

  • Gumperz, J. (1964). Linguistic and social interaction in two communities. American Anthropologist, 66.6(Part 2, The Ethnography of communication), 137-153.

  • Gutierrez, M. (1996). Tendencias y alternancias en la expersión de condicionalidad en el español hablado en Houston. Hispania, 79(September, 1996), 567-577.

  • Hakuta, K., & D'Andrea, D. (1992). Some properties of bilingual maintenance and loss in Mexican background high-school students. Applied Linguistics, 13(2), 72-99.

  • Hakuta, K., & Pease-Alvarez, L. (1994). Proficiency, choice and attitudes in bilingual Mexican-American children. In G. Extra & L. Verhoeven (Eds.), The cross-linguistic study of bilingual development (pp. 145-164). Amsterdam: North Holland.

  • Hakuta, K. D., R. (1984). The Relationship Between Bilingualism and Cognitive Ability: A Critical Discussion and Some New Longitudinal Data. In K. E. Nelson (Ed.), Children's Language (Vol. 5, ). Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.

  • Hart-Gonzalez, L., & Feingold, M. (1990). Retention of Spanish in the home. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 84(1990), 5-34.

  • Heath, S. B. (1983). Ways with words: Language, life and communication in communities and classrooms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Hernández-Chávez, E. (1993). Native language loss and its implications for revitalization of Spanish in Chicano communities. In B. J. Merino, H. T. Trueba, & F. A. Samaniego (Eds.), Language and culture in learning: Teaching Spanish to native speakers of Spanish (pp. 58-74). London: Falmer Press.

  • Hidalgo, M. (1987). On the question of "Standard" vs. "Dialect": Implications for teaching Hispanic college students. Hispanic Journal of the Behavioral Sciences, 9(4), 375-395.

  • Hidalgo, M. (1993). The teaching of Spanish to bilingual Spanish-speakers: A "problem" of inequality. In B. J. Merino, H. T. Trueba, & F. A. Samaniego (Eds.), Language and culture in learning: Teaching Spanish to native speakers of Spanish (pp. 82-93). London: Falmer Press.

  • Hidalgo, M. (1997). Criterios normativos e idiología lingüística: aceptación y rechazo del español de los Estados Unidos. In M. C. Colombi & F. X. Alarcon (Eds.), La enseñanza del español a hispanohablantes: Praxis y teoría (pp. 109-120). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

  • Hill, C. E. (1990). Writing from the margins: Power and pedagogy for teachers of composition. New York: Oxford.

  • Hocker, B. C. (1993). Folk art in the classroom. In B. J. Merino, H. T. Trueba, & F. A. Samaniego (Eds.), Language and culture in learning: Teaching Spanish to native speakers of Spanish (pp. 153-159). London: Falmer Press.

  • Homel, P., Palij, M., & Aaronson, D. (Eds.). (1987). Childhood bilingualism: Aspects of linguistic, cognitive and social development. Hillsdale NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum.

  • Huber, B. J. (1993). Characteristics of college and univerisity foreign language curricula: Findings from the MLA's 1987-89 survey. ADFL Bulletin, 24(3), 6-21.

  • Huber, B. J. (1996). Variations in foreign language enrollments through time. ADFL Bulletin, 27(2), 57-84.

  • Hudelson, S. (1981). An introductory examination of children's invented spellings in Spanish. NABE Journal, 6(2-3), 53-67.

  • Huffines, M. L. (1991). Pensylvania German: convergence and change as strategies of discourse. In H. W. Seliger & R. M. Vago (Eds.), First language attrition (pp. 127-137). New York: Cambridge.

  • Hull, G., & al., e. (1991). Remediation as social construct: Perspectives from an analysis of classroom discourse. College Composition and Communication, 42.3, 299-329.

  • Hyltenstam, K., & Obler, L. (Eds.). (1989). Bilingualism across the lifespan: Aspects of acquisition, maturity, and loss. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Imhoff, G. (Ed.). (1990). Learning in two languages: From conflict to consensus in the reorganization of schools. New Brunswick NJ: Transaction Publishers.

  • Ingram, D. E. (1994). Language policy in Australia in the 1990's. In R. D. Lambert (Ed.), Language planning around the world: Contexts and systemic change (pp. 69-109). Washington, D.C.: National Foreign Language Center.

  • Ingram, D. E. (1994). Language policy in Australia in the 1990s. In R. D. Lambert (Ed.), Language planning around the world: Contexts and systemic change (pp. 69-109). Washington, D.C.: The National Foreign Language Center.

  • Jasso, G., & Rosenzweig, M. R. (1990). The new chosen people: Immigrants in the United States. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

  • Jordan, H. (1999, February 17, 1999). Latino lawmakers study their Spanish. San Jose Mercury News, pp. 1a,18a.

  • Kalantzis, M., Cope, B., & Slade, D. (1989). Minority Languages and Dominant Culture: Issues of Education, Assessment and Social Equity. London: The Falmer Press.

  • Krashen, S., Tse, L., & McQuillan, J. (1998). Heritage language development. Culver City: Language Education Associates.

  • Lambert, R. D. (1986). Points of leverage: An agenda for a national foundation for international studies. New York: Social Science Research Council.

  • Lambert, W. E. (1972a). Language-acquisition contexts and bilingualism. In A. S. Dil (Ed.), Language, Psychology and Culture . Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

  • Lambert, W. E. (1972b). Language, Psychology, and Culture: Essays by Wallace E. Lambert. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

  • Lambert, W. E. (1977). Effects of bilingualism on the individual. In P. A. Hornby (Ed.), Bilingualism: Psychological, Social and Educational Implications . New York: Academic Press.

  • Larter, S. e. a. (1986). Teaching heritage languages and cultures in an integrated/extended day (Research Report 181 ED275790): Toronto Board of Education.

  • Latomaa, S. (1993). Parental attitudes towards child bilingualism in Nordic countries. In G. Extra & L. Verhoeven (Eds.), Immigrant languages in Europe (pp. 181-196). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

  • Lavandera, B. A. (1978). The Variable Component in Bilingual Performance. In J. E. Alatis (Ed.), Georgetown Univerisity Roundtable on Languages and Linguistics 1978 (pp. 391-409). Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.

  • Lisle, B., & Mano, S. (1997). Embracing a multiculural rhetoric. In C. Severino, J. C. Guerra, & J. E. Butler (Eds.), Writing in multicultural settings (pp. 12-26). New York: Modern Language Association.

  • Lope Blanch, J. M. (1983). Estudios sobre el español de México. Mexico: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.

  • Lope Blanch, J. M. (1990). El español hablado en el suroeste de los Estados Unidos: Materiales para su estudio. Mexcio DF: Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico.

  • Lope-Blanch, J. (1974). Anglicismos en la norma lingüística culta de México. Románica, 5, 591-200.

  • Lopes, J. M., & Lopes, M. (1991). Bridging the generation gap: the collection of social histories in the Portuguese heritage language program. Canadian Modern Language Review, 47(4), 708-711.

  • Lopez Morales, H. (1971). Estudio sobre el español de Cuba. New York: Las Américas.

  • Lozano, A. G. (1981). A modern view of teaching grammar. In G. Valdés, A. G. Lozano, & R. García-Moya (Eds.), Teaching Spanish to the Hispanic bilingual: Issues, aims, and methods (pp. 81-90). New York: Teachers College Press.

  • Macias, R. F. (1993). Language and ethnic classification of language minorities: Chicano and Latino students in the 1990's. Hispanic Journal of the Behavioral Sciences, 15(May), 230-257.

  • Maher, J. (1991). A crosslinguistic study of language contact and language attrition. In H. W. Seliger & R. M. Vago (Eds.), First language attrition (pp. 67-84). New York: Cambridge.

  • McCarthy, L. (1987). A stranger in strange lands: A college student writing across the curriculum. Research in the teaching of English, 21(233-67).

  • Merino, B. J., & Samaniego, F. A. (1993). Language acquisition theory and classroom practices in the teaching of Spanish to the native Spanish speaker. In B. J. Merino, H. T. Trueba, & F. A. Samaniego (Eds.), Language and culture in learning: Teaching Spanish to native speakers of Spanish . London: Falmer Press.

  • Merino, B. J., Trueba, H. T., & Samaniego, F. A. (Eds.). (1993). Language and culture in learning: Teaching Spanish to native speakers of Spanish. London: The Falmer Press.

  • Merino, B. J. e. a. (1993). Language minority native Spanish speakers at the secondary level and the role of the foreign language teacher. Peabody Journal of Education, 69(1), 152-171.

  • Nemser, W. (1971). Approximative systems of foreign language learners. International review of applied linguistics, 9, 115-123.

  • Olshtain, E., & Barzilay, M. (1991). Lexical retreival difficulties in adult language attrition. In H. W. Seliger & R. M. Vago (Eds.), First language attrition (pp. 139-150). New York: Cambridge.

  • Oud-de Glas, M., van Hest, E., Peels, F., Diehuis, R., & van Els, T. (1993). Languages in the Netherlands: A study of supply and demand. In D. Ager, G. Muskens, & S. Wright (Eds.), Language education for intercultural communication . Clevedon,England: Multilingual Matters.

  • Paulston, C. B. (Ed.). (1988). International handbook of bilingualism and bilingual education. New York: Greenwood Press.

  • Pease-Alvarez, L. (1993). Moving in and out of bilingualism: Investigating native language maintenance and shift in Mexican-descent children (6). Santa Cruz, CA: University of California, Santa Cruz.

  • Pedraza, P. (1985). Language maintenance among New York Puerto Ricans. In L. Elias-Olivares, E. A. Loene, R. Cisneros, & J. Gutierrez (Eds.), Spanish language use and public life in the United States . Amsterdam: Mouton.

  • Peñalosa, F. (1980). Chicano sociolinguistics. Rowley, MA: Newbury House Publishers.

  • Perl, S. (1979). The composing processes of unskilled college writers. , 13, 317-336.

  • Pino, C. R. (1997). La reconceptualización del programa de español para hispanohablantes: estrategias que reflejan la realidad sociolingüística de la clase. In C. M. Colombi & F. X. Alarcón (Eds.), La enseñanza del español a hispanohablantes: Praxis y teoría (pp. 65-82). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

  • Politzer, R. L. (1993). A researcher's reflections on bridging dialect and second language learning: Discussion of problems and solutions. In B. J. Merino, H. T. Trueba, & F. A. Samaniego (Eds.), Language and culture in learning: Teaching Spanish to native speakers of Spanish (pp. 45-57). London: Falmer Press.

  • Politzer, R. L. (1993). A researcher's reflections on bridging dialect and second language learning: Discussion of problems and solutions. In B. J. Merino, H. T. Trueba, & F. A. Samaniego (Eds.), Language and culture in learning: Teaching Spanish to native speakers of Spanish (pp. 45-57). London: Falmer Press.

  • Porras, J. E. (1997). Uso local y uso estábdar: un enfoque bidialectal a la ensñanza del español para nativos. In M. C. Colombi & F. X. Alarcon (Eds.), La enseñanza del español a hispanohablantes: Praxis y teoría (pp. 190-197). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

  • Portes, A., & Bach, R. L. (1985). Latin journey: Cuban and Mexican immigrants in the United States. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

  • Portes, A., & Hao, L. (1998). E Pluribus Unum: Bilingualism and loss of language in the second generation. Sociology of Education, 71, 269-294.

  • Portes, A., & Rumbaut, R. G. (1990). Immigrant America: A portrait. Berkeley CA: University of California Press.

  • Pousada, A., & Poplack, S. (1982). No case for convergence: the Puerto Rican Spanish verb system in a language-contact situation. In J. A. Fishman & G. Keller (Eds.), Bilingual education for hispanic students in the United States . New York: Teachers College Press.

  • Project, L. M. (1983). Linguistic minorities in England. London: University of London, Institute of Education.

  • Quintanar-Sarellana, R., Huebner, T., & Jensen, A. (1993). Tapping a natural resource: Language minority students as foreign language tutors. In B. J. Merino, H. T. Trueba, & F. A. Samaniego (Eds.), Language and culture in learning: Teaching Spanish to native speakers of Spanish (pp. 208-221). London: Falmer Press.

  • Raoufi, S. (1982). The children of guest-workers in the Federal Republic of Germany: Maladjustment and its effects on academic performance. In J. Bhatnagar (Ed.), Educating Immigrants (pp. 137-157). New York: St. Martin's Press.

  • Ricento, T. (1998). National language policy in the United States. In T. Ricento & B. Burnaby (Eds.), Language and politics in the United States and Canada (pp. 85-115). Mahwah NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

  • Rincker, J. (1991). Community-sponsored heritage language programs. Canadian Modern Language Review, 47(4), 642-649.

  • Roca, A. (1990). Teaching Spanish to the bilingual college student in Miami. In J. J. Bergen (Ed.), Spanish in the United States: Sociolinguistic Issues (pp. 127-136). Georgetown: Georgetown University Press.

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