Bismarck, Otto v.
Kleist, Heinrich v.
Ossietzky, Carl v.
Schinkel, Karl Friedrich
b. June 19, 1891, Berlin
d. April 26, 1968, Berlin
pseudonym of Helmut Herzfelde--the greatest master of
photomontage, claimed that the origin of the technique lay in postcards that he and his
friend the German artist George Grosz sent to friends at the front
during World War I.
Heartfield's photomontages, which were published weekly, first in Berlin and later in
Prague, between 1929 and 1938, have a savage quality. Violent contrasts of the scale
and perspective of the image elements, the ruthless cropping of heads and bodies, the
substitution of machine parts for vital organs, and other seeming illogical
juxtapositions, were carefully calculated to have a shock effect. Heartfield's
anti-Fascist montages were among the strongest protests made by any visual artist.
"photography" Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
Heartfield's biography in German
Heartfield versus Hitler
Heartfield's Life and Work
Photos as Weapons: John Heartfield