The son of a craftsman, Tieck was educated at the Berlin gymnasium (1782-92) and at the universities of Halle, Göttingen, and Erlangen (1792-94), where he studied theology, philology and literature. Through friendship with W.H. Wackenroder, he began to realize his talent; together, they studied William Shakespeare, Elizabethan drama, Middle High German literature, and medieval town architecture.
Tieck spent the years 1794-99 in Berlin, working for F. Nicolai. There he married Amalie Alberti, a pastor's daughter. Characteristic of early German Romanticism are Tieck's Die Geschichte des Herrn William Lovell, 3 vol. (1795-96; "The Story of Mr. William Lovell"), a novel in letter form that describes the moral self-destruction of a sensitive young intellectual; Karl von Berneck (1797), a five-act tragedy set in the Middle Ages; and Franz Sternbalds Wanderungen, 2 vol. (1798), a novel of artistic life in the late Middle Ages. A series of plays based on fairy tales--including Ritter Blaubart ("Bluebeard") and Der gestiefelte Kater ("Puss in Boots")--that parodied the rationalism of the 18th-century Enlightenment were published in Volksmärchen (1797), under the pseudonym Peter Leberecht ("live right"). This collection includes one of Tieck's best short novels, Der blonde Eckbert ("Fair Eckbert"), the fantastic story of an obsessive fear; this work won the praise of August and Friedrich von Schlegel, the leading critics of the Jena Romantics.
Tieck joined the Romantic circle in Jena in 1799. That year he published a translation of Shakespeare's The Tempest, and started
a translation of Don Quixote (published 1799-1801). His early work culminated in
the grotesque, lyrical plays Leben und Tod der heiligen Genoveva (1800; "The Life
and Death of the Holy Genevieve") and Kaiser Octavianus (1804). Phantasus, 3
vol. (1812-16), a heterogeneous collection of works in a narrative framework,
indicated a movement toward realism.
After 1802 Tieck's creative powers apparently became dormant. He studied Middle High German, collected and translated Elizabethan plays, published new editions of 16th- and 17th-century German plays, and acted as adviser to the Shakespeare translation begun by August von Schlegel. He also published works by such contemporary German writers as Novalis and Heinrich von Kleist. In 1804-5 he traveled to Italy and in 1817 to England, where he studied the works of Shakespeare.
From 1825 to 1842 Tieck served as advisor and critic at the court theatre in Dresden. During those years he became the greatest living literary authority in Germany after J.W. von Goethe. His creative energies were renewed; he turned away from the fantasy of his earlier work and found his material in contemporary middle-class society or history. The 40 short novels of this period contain polemics against both the younger Romantics and the contemporary "Young Germany" movement, which was attempting to establish a national German theatre based on democratic ideals. Dichterleben ("A Poet's Life"; part 1, 1826; part 2, 1831) concerned the early life of Shakespeare. Vittoria Accorombona (1840; The Roman Matron) was a historical novel. In 1842 he accepted the invitation of Frederick William IV of Prussia to go to Berlin, where he remained the rest of his years, and where, as in Dresden, he became the centre of literary society.
"Tieck, (Johann) Ludwig." Encyclopedia Britannica Online.