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Oracle® Database Application Developer's Guide - Fundamentals
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Using Oracle XA with Transaction Monitors

This chapter describes how to use the Oracle XA library, which is typically used in applications that work with transaction monitors. The XA features are most useful in applications where transactions interact with more than one database.

The Oracle XA library is an external interface that allows global transactions to be coordinated by a transaction manager other than that of Oracle Database. This allows inclusion of non-Oracle Database entities called resource managers (RM) in distributed transactions.

The Oracle XA library conforms to the X/Open Distributed Transaction Processing (DTP) software architecture's XA interface specification.

The chapter includes the following topics:

X/Open Distributed Transaction Processing (DTP)

The X/Open DTP architecture defines a standard architecture or interface that allows multiple application programs to share resources, provided by multiple, and possibly different, resource managers. It coordinates the work between application programs and resource managers into global transactions.

Figure 16-1 illustrates a possible X/Open DTP model.

A resource manager (RM) controls a shared, recoverable resource that can be returned to a consistent state after a failure. For example, Oracle Database is an RM and uses its redo log and undo segments to return to a consistent state after a failure. An RM provides access to shared resources such as a database, file systems, printer servers, and so forth.

A transaction manager (TM) provides an application program interface (API) for specifying the boundaries of the transaction and manages the commit and recovery procedures.

Normally, Oracle Database acts as its own TM and manages its own commit and recovery. However, using a standards-based TM allows Oracle Database to cooperate with other heterogeneous RMs in a single transaction.

A TM is usually a component provided by a transaction processing monitor (TPM) vendor. The TM assigns identifiers to transactions, and monitors and coordinates their progress. It uses Oracle XA library subroutines to tell Oracle Database how to process the transaction, based on its knowledge of all RMs in the transaction. You can find a list of the XA subroutines and their descriptions later in this section.

An application program (AP) defines transaction boundaries and specifies actions that constitute a transaction. For example, an AP can be a precompiler or OCI program. The AP operates on the RM's resource through the RM's native interface, for example SQL. However, it starts and completes all transaction operations through the transaction manager through an interface called TX. The AP itself does not directly use the XA interface

Figure 16-1 One Possible DTP Model

Text description of adfns079.gif follows

Text description of the illustration adfns079.gif



The naming conventions for the TX interface and associated subroutines are vendor-specific, and may differ from those used here. For example, you may find that the tx_open call is referred to as tp_open on your system. To check terminology, see the documentation supplied with the transaction processing monitor.

Required Public Information

As a resource manager, Oracle Database is required to publish the following information.

XA Feature Oracle Database Details

xa_switch_t structures

The Oracle Database xa_switch_t structure name for static registration is xaosw. The Oracle Database xa_switch_t structure name for dynamic registration is xaoswd. These structures contain entry points and other information for the resource manager.

xa_switch_t resource manager

The Oracle Database resource manager name within the xa_switch_t structure is Oracle_XA.

close string

The close string used by xa_close() is ignored and is allowed to be null.

open string

The format of the open string used by xa_open() is described in detail in "Defining the xa_open String".


Libraries needed to link applications using Oracle XA have platform-specific names. It is similar to linking an ordinary precompiler or OCI program except you may have to link any TPM-specific libraries. If you are not using sqllib, then be sure to link with $ORACLE_HOME/lib/xaonsl.o.


None. The functionality to support XA is part of both Standard Edition and Enterprise Edition.

XA and the Two-Phase Commit Protocol

The Oracle XA library interface follows the two-phase commit protocol, consisting of a prepare phase and a commit phase, to commit transactions.

In phase one, the prepare phase, the TM asks each RM to guarantee the ability to commit any part of the transaction. If this is possible, then the RM records its prepared state and replies affirmatively to the TM. If it is not possible, then the RM may roll back any work, reply negatively to the TM, and forget any knowledge about the transaction. The protocol allows the application, or any RM, to roll back the transaction unilaterally until the prepare phase is complete.

In phase two, the commit phase, the TM records the commit decision. Then the TM issues a commit or rollback to all RMs which are participating in the transaction.


TM can issue a commit for an RM only if all RMs have replied affirmatively to phase one.

Transaction Processing Monitors (TPMs)

A transaction processing monitor (TPM) coordinates the flow of transaction requests between the client processes that issue requests and the back-end servers that process them. Basically, it coordinates transactions that require the services of several different types of back-end processes, such as application servers and resource managers that are distributed over a network.

The TPM synchronizes any commits and rollbacks required to complete a distributed transaction. The transaction manager (TM) portion of the TPM is responsible for controlling when distributed commits and rollbacks take place. Thus, if a distributed application program is written to take advantage of a TPM, then the TM portion of the TPM is responsible for controlling the two-phase commit protocol. The RMs enable the TMs to do this.

Because the TM controls distributed commits or rollbacks, it must communicate directly with Oracle Database (or any other resource manager) through the Oracle XA library interface.

Support for Dynamic and Static Registration

Oracle Database supports both dynamic and static registration. In dynamic registration, the RM executes an application callback before starting any work. In static registration, you must call xa_start for each RM before starting any work, even if some RMs are not involved.

To use dynamic registration, both client and server must be at Oracle Database 8.0 or later. Otherwise, you can only use static registration.

Oracle XA Library Interface Subroutines

The Oracle XA library subroutines allow a TM to instruct Oracle Database what to do about transactions. Generally, the TM must "open" the resource (using xa_open). Typically, this results from the AP's call to tx_open. Some TMs may call xa_open implicitly, when the application begins. Similarly, there is a close (using xa_close) that occurs when the application is finished with the resource. This may be when the AP calls tx_close or when the application terminates.

There are several other tasks the TM instructs the RMs to do. These include among others:

XA Library Subroutines

Available XA Library subroutines are described in Table 16-1.

Table 16-1   XA Library Subroutines
XA Subroutine Description


Connects to the resource manager.


Disconnects from the resource manager.


Starts a new transaction and associate it with the given transaction ID (XID), or associates the process with an existing transaction.


Disassociates the process from the given XID.


Rolls back the transaction associated with the given XID.


Prepares the transaction associated with the given XID. This is the first phase of the two-phase commit protocol.


Commits the transaction associated with the given XID. This is the second phase of the two-phase commit protocol.


Retrieves a list of prepared, heuristically committed or heuristically rolled back transaction.


Forgets the heuristic transaction associated with the given XID.

In general, the AP does not need to worry about these subroutines except to understand the role played by the xa_open string.

Extensions to the XA Interface

Oracle Database's XA interface includes some additional functions:

  1. OCISvcCtx *xaoSvcCtx(text *dbname):

    This function returns the OCI service handle for a given XA connection. The dbname parameter must be the same as the dbname parameter passed in the xa_open string. OCI applications can use this routing instead of the sqlld2 calls to obtain the connection handle. Hence, OCI applications need not link with the SQLLIB library. The service handle can be converted to the Version 7 OCI logon data area (LDA) using OCISvcCtxToLda() [Version 8 OCI]. Client applications must remember to convert the Version 7 LDA to a service handle using OCILdaToSvcCtx() after completing the OCI calls.

  2. OCIEnv *xaoEnv(text *dbname):

    This function returns the OCI environment handle for a given XA connection. The dbname parameter must be the same as the dbname parameter passed in the xa_open string.

  3. int xaosterr(OCISvcCtx *SvcCtx, sb4 error):

    This function, only applicable to dynamic registration, converts an Oracle Database error code to an XA error code. The first parameter is the service handle used to execute the work in the database. The second parameter is the error code that was returned from Oracle Database. Use this function to determine if the error returned from an OCI command was caused because the xa_start failed. The function returns XA_OK if the error was not generated by the XA module and a valid XA error if the error was generated by the XA module.

Developing and Installing Applications That Use the XA Libraries

This section discusses developing and installing Oracle XA applications:

Responsibilities of the DBA or System Administrator

The responsibilities of the DBA or system administrator are

  1. Define the open string, with help from the application developer.

    This is described in "Defining the xa_open String".

  2. Make sure the DBA_PENDING_TRANSACTIONS view exists on the database.
    • For Oracle Database Release 8.0:

      Grant the select privilege to the DBA_PENDING_TRANSACTIONS view for all Oracle Database user(s) specified in the xa_open string.

    • For Oracle Database Release 7.3:

      Make sure V$XATRANS$ exists.

      This view should have been created during the XA library installation. You can manually create the view, if needed, by running the SQL script XAVIEW.SQL. This SQL script should be executed as the Oracle Database user SYS. Grant the SELECT privilege to the V$XATRANS$ view for all Oracle Database accounts which will be used by Oracle XA library applications.

      See Also:

      Your Oracle Database platform-specific documentation for the location of the XAVIEW.SQL script

  3. Install the resource manager, using the open string information, into the TPM configuration, following the TPM vendor instructions.

    The DBA or system administrator should be aware that a TPM system starts the process that connects to Oracle Database. See your TPM documentation to determine what environment exists for the process and what user ID it will have.

    Be sure that correct values are set for ORACLE_HOME and ORACLE_SID.

    Next, grant the user ID write permission to the directory in which the XA trace file will be written.

    See Also:

    "Defining the xa_open String" for information on how to specify a sid or a trace directory that is different from the defaults

    Also be sure to grant the user the SELECT privilege on DBA_PENDING_TRANSACTIONS.

  4. Start up the relevant databases to bring Oracle XA applications on-line.

    This should be done before starting any TPM servers.

Responsibilities of the Application Developer

The responsibilities of the application developer are:

  1. Define the open string with help from the DBA or system administrator.

    Defining the open string is described later in this section.

  2. Develop the applications.

    Observe special restrictions on transaction-oriented SQL statements for precompilers.

    See Also:

    "Interfacing XA with Precompilers and OCIs"

  3. Link the application according to TPM vendor instructions.

Defining the xa_open String

The open string is used by the transaction monitor to open the database. The maximum number of characters in an open string is 256.

This section covers:

Syntax of the xa_open String

Oracle_XA{+required_fields...} [+optional_fields...]

where required_fields is a set of any of the following:




and where optional_fields is a set of any of the following:

NoLocal=true | false

RAC_FAILOVER=true | false




Objects=true | false


Loose_Coupling=true | false


Threads=true | false

  • You can enter the required fields and optional fields in any order when constructing the open string.
  • All field names are case insensitive. Their values may or may not be case-sensitive depending on the platform.
  • There is no way to use the plus character (+) as part of the actual information string.

Required Fields

Required fields for the open string are described in this section.




Syntax Element Description


Specifies user access information


Indicates that explicit user and password information is provided.


Indicates that no explicit user or password information is provided, and that the operating system authentication form will be used.

For more information see Oracle Database Administrator's Guide.


A valid Oracle Database account.


The corresponding current password.

For example, Acc=P/scott/tiger indicates that user and password information is provided. In this case, the user is scott and the password is tiger.

As previously mentioned, make sure that scott has the SELECT privilege on the DBA_PENDING_TRANSACTIONS table.

Acc=P// indicates that no user or password information is provided, thus defaulting to operating system authentication.


Syntax Element Description


Specifies the maximum length of time a transaction can be inactive before it is automatically aborted by the system.


This value should be the maximum time allowed in a transaction between one service and the next, or a service and the commit or rollback of the transaction.

For example, if the TPM uses remote procedure calls between the client and the servers, then SesTM applies to the time between the completion of one RPC and the initiation of the next RPC, or the tx_commit, or the tx_rollback.

The unit for this time limit is in seconds. The value of 0 indicates no limit. For example, SesTM=15 indicates that the session idle time limit is 15 seconds.

Entering a value of 0 is strongly discouraged. It might tie up resources for a long time if something goes wrong. Also, if a child process has SesTM=0, the SesTM setting is not effective after the parent process is terminated.

Optional Fields

This section describes optional fields.

NoLocal=true | false

Syntax Element Description


Specifies whether local transactions are allowed. The default value is false.

true | false

If the application needs to disallow local transactions, then set the value to true.

RAC_FAILOVER=true | false

Syntax Element Description


Specifies whether XA_RECOVER waits until instance recovery finishes. The default value is false (no wait).

true | false

To force XA_RECOVER to wait until SMON finishes cache recovery, identifies in-doubt transactions, and adds them to the table DBA_2PC_PENDING, set the value to true.


Syntax Element Description


Specifies the database name.


Indicates the name used by Oracle Database precompilers to identify the database.

Application programs that use only the default database for the Oracle Database precompiler (that is, they do not use the AT clause in their SQL statements) should omit the DB=db_name clause in the open string.

Applications that use explicitly named databases should indicate that database name in their DB=db_name field.

Version 7 OCI programs need to call the sqlld2() function to obtain the correct lda_def, which is the equivalent of a service context. Version 8 OCI programs need to call the xaoSvcCtx function to get the OCISvcCtx service context.

The db_name is not the sid and is not used to locate the database to be opened. Rather, it correlates the database opened by this open string with the name used in the application program to execute SQL statements. The sid is set from either the environment variable ORACLE_SID of the TPM application server or the sid given in the Oracle Net clause in the open string. The Oracle Net clause is described later in this section. (Oracle Net was formerly known as SQL*Net and Net8.)

Some TPM vendors provide a way to name a group of servers that use the same open string. The DBA may find it convenient to choose the same name both for that purpose and for db_name.

For example, DB=payroll indicates that the database name is "payroll", and that the application server program will use that name in AT clauses.


Syntax Element Description


Specifies the directory on a local machine where the Oracle XA library error and tracing information may be logged.


Indicates the path name of the directory where the tracing information should be stored. The default is $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/log if ORACLE_HOME is set; otherwise, it is the current directory.

For example, LogDir=/xa_trace indicates that the error and tracing information is located under the /xa_trace directory.


Ensure that the directory you specify for logging exists and the application server can write to it.

Loose_Coupling=true | false

See Also:

"Transaction Branches" for a complete explanation

Objects=true | false

Syntax Element Description


Specifies whether the application is initialized in object mode. The default value is false.

true | false

If the application needs to use certain API calls that require object mode, such as OCIAssignRawbytes(), then set the value to true.


Syntax Element Description


Specifies the number of cursors to be allocated when the database is opened. It serves the same purpose as the precompiler option maxopencursors.


Indicates the number of open cursors to be cached.

For example, MaxCur=5 indicates that the precompiler should try to keep five open cursors cached.


This parameter overrides the precompiler option maxopencursors that you might have specified in your source code or at compile time.

See Also:

Pro*C/C++ Programmer's Guide


Syntax Element Description


Specifies the Oracle Net database link. (Oracle Net was formerly known as SQL*Net and Net8.)


Indicates the string to use to log on to the system. The syntax for this string is the same as that used to set the TWO-TASK environment variable.

For example, SqlNet=hqfin@NEWDB indicates the database with sid NEWDB accessed at host hqfin by TCP/IP.

The SqlNet parameter can be used to specify the ORACLE_SID in cases where you cannot control the server environment variable. It must also be used when the server needs to access more than one Oracle Database instance. To use the Oracle Net string without actually accessing a remote database, use the Pipe driver.

For example:


localsid1 is an alias defined in the tnsnames.ora file.

Make sure that all databases to be accessed with a Oracle Net database link have an entry in /etc/oratab.


Syntax Element Description


Specifies the time-out limit when waiting for a transaction branch that is being used by another session. The default value is 60 seconds.


The number of seconds Oracle Database waits before XA_RETRY is returned.

Threads=true | false

Syntax Element Description


Specifies whether the application is multithreaded. The default value is false.

true | false

If the application is multithreaded, then the setting is true.

Interfacing XA with Precompilers and OCIs

This section describes how to use the Oracle XA library with precompilers and Oracle Call Interface (OCI).

Using Precompilers with the Oracle XA Library

When used in an Oracle XA application, cursors are valid only for the duration of the transaction. Explicit cursors should be opened after the transaction begins, and closed before the commit or rollback.

There are two options to choose from when interfacing with precompilers:

The following examples use the precompiler Pro*C/C++.

Using Precompilers with the Default Database

To interface to a precompiler with the default database, make certain that the DB=db_name field, used in the open string, is not present. The absence of this field indicates the default connection, and only one default connection is allowed for each process.

The following is an example of an open string identifying a default Pro*C/C++ connection.


Note that the DB=db_name is absent, indicating an empty database ID string.

The syntax of a SQL statement would be:

EXEC SQL UPDATE Emp_tab SET Sal = Sal*1.5;

Using Precompilers with a Named Database

To interface to a precompiler with a named database, include the DB=db_name field in the open string. Any database you refer to must reference the same db_name you specified in the corresponding open string.

An application may include the default database, as well as one or more named databases, as shown in the following examples.

For example, suppose you want to update an employee's salary in one database, his department number (DEPTNO) in another, and his manager in a third database. You would configure the following open strings in the transaction manager:


Note that there is no DB=db_name field in the last open string.

In the application server program, you would enter declarations, such as:


Again, the default connection (corresponding to the third open string that does not contain the db_name field) needs no declaration.

When doing the update, you would enter statements similar to the following:

EXEC SQL UPDATE Emp_Tab SET Deptno=30 WHERE Empno=7788;

There is no AT clause in the last statement because it is referring to the default database.

In Oracle Database precompilers release 1.5.3 or later, you can use a character host variable in the AT clause, as the following example shows:



Do not use XA applications to create connections. Any work performed would be outside the global transaction and would have to be committed separately.

Using OCI with the Oracle XA Library

Oracle Call Interface applications that use the Oracle XA library should not call OCISessionBegin() (olon() or orlon() in Version 7) to log on to the resource manager. Rather, the logon should be done through the TPM. The applications can execute the function xaoSvcCtx() (sqlld2() in Version 7) to obtain the service context (lda in Version 7) structure they need to access the resource manager.

In applications that need to pass the environment handle to OCI functions, you can also call xaoEnv() to find that handle.

Because an application server can have multiple concurrent open Oracle Database resource managers, it should call the function xaoSvcCtx() with the correct arguments to obtain the correct service context.

Release 7.3

If DB=db_name is not present in the open string, then execute:

sqlld2(lda, NULL, 0);

This obtains the lda for this resource manager.

Alternatively, if DB=db_name is present in the open string, then execute:

sqlld2(lda, db_name, strlen(db_name));

This obtains the lda for this resource manager.

Release 8.0

If DB=db_name is not present in the open string, then execute:


Alternatively, if DB=db_name is present in the open string, then execute:


This gets the server context for this resource manager.

In the same way, you can execute:




depending upon the open string, to get the environment handle.

See Also:

Oracle Call Interface Programmer's Guide for more information about using the OCISvcCtx

Transaction Control using XA

This section explains how to use transaction control within the Oracle XA library environment.

When the XA library is used, transactions are not controlled by the SQL statements that commit or roll back transactions. Rather, they are controlled by an API accepted by the TM that starts and stops transactions. You call the API that is defined by the transaction manager, not the XA functions listed in the following table.

The transaction managers typically control the transactions through the TX interface. This interface includes the functions described in Table 16-2.

Table 16-2   TX Interface Functions
TX Function Description


Logs into the resource manager(s)


Logs out of the resource manager(s)


Starts a new transaction


Commits a transaction


Rolls back the transaction

Most TPM applications are written using a client/server architecture where an application client requests services and an application server provides services. The examples that follow use such a client/server model. A service is a logical unit of work, which in the case of Oracle Database as the resource manager, comprises a set of SQL statements that perform a related unit of work.

For example, when a service named "credit" receives an account number and the amount to be credited, it executes SQL statements to update information in certain tables in the database. In addition, a service might request other services. For example, a "transfer fund" service might request services from a "credit" and "debit" service.

Usually application clients request services from the application servers to perform tasks within a transaction. However, for some TPM systems, the application client itself can offer its own local services.

You can encode transaction control statements within either the client or the server; as shown in the examples.

To have more than one process participating in the same transaction, the TPM provides a communication API that allows transaction information to flow between the participating processes. Examples of communications APIs include RPC, pseudo-RPC functions, and send/receive functions.

Because the leading vendors support different communication functions, the examples that follow use the communication pseudo-function tpm_service to generalize the communications API.

X/Open has included several alternative methods for providing communication functions in their preliminary specification. At least one of these alternatives is supported by each of the leading TPM vendors.

Examples of Precompiler Applications

The following examples illustrate precompiler applications. Assume that the application servers have already logged onto the TPM system, in a TPM-specific manner.

The first example shows a transaction started by an application server, and the second example shows a transaction started by an application client.

Example 1: Transaction started by an application server


tpm_service("ServiceName");            /*Request Service*/


<get service specific data>
tx_begin();                             /* Begin transaction boundary*/

/*This application server temporarily becomes*/
/*a client and requests another service.*/

tx_commit();                            /*Commit the transaction*/
<return service status back to the client>
Example 2: Transaction started by an application client.


tx_begin();                           /* Begin transaction boundary */
tx_commit();                           /* Commit the transaction */


<get service specific data>
<return service status back to the client>
<get service specific data>
<return service status back to client>

Migrating Precompiler or OCI Applications to TPM Applications

To migrate existing precompiler or OCI applications to a TPM application using the Oracle XA library, you must do the following:

  1. Reorganize the application into a framework of "services".

    This means that application clients request services from application servers.

    Some TPMs require the application to use the tx_open and tx_close functions, whereas other TPMs do the logon and logoff implicitly.

    If you do not specify the sqlnet parameter in your open string, then the application uses the default Oracle Net driver. Thus, you must be sure that the application server is brought up with the ORACLE_HOME and ORACLE_SID environment variables properly defined. This is accomplished in a TPM-specific fashion. See your TPM vendor documentation for instructions on how to accomplish this.

  2. Ensure that the application replaces the regular connect and disconnect statements.

    For example, replace the connect statements EXEC SQL CONNECT (for precompilers) or OCISessionBegin() (for OCIs) by tx_open(). Replace the disconnect statements EXEC SQL COMMIT/ROLLBACK WORK RELEASE (for precompilers), or OCISessionEnd() (for OCIs) by tx_close(). The V7 equivalent for OCISessionBegin() was olon() and for OCISessionEnd(), ologof().

  3. Ensure that the application replaces the regular commit/rollback statements and begins the transaction explicitly.

    For example, replace the commit/rollback statements EXEC SQL COMMIT/ROLLBACK WORK (for precompilers), or ocom()/orol() (for OCIs) by tx_commit()/tx_rollback() and start the transaction by calling tx_begin().

  4. Ensure that the application resets the fetch state before ending a transaction. In general, release_cursor=no should be used. Use release_cursor=yes only when you are certain that a statement will be executed only once.

Table 16-3 lists the TPM functions that replace regular Oracle Database commands when migrating precompiler or OCI applications to TPM applications.

Table 16-3   TPM Replacement Commands
Regular Oracle Database Commands TPM Functions

CONNECT user/password

tx_open (possibly implicit)

implicit start of transaction



Service that executes the SQL






tx_close (possibly implicit)


Not allowed

XA Library Thread Safety

If you use a transaction monitor that supports threads, then the Oracle XA library lets you write applications that are thread safe. Certain issues must be kept in mind, however.

A thread of control (or thread) refers to the set of connections to resource managers. In an nonthreaded system, each process could be considered a thread of control, because each process has its own set of connections to resource managers and each process maintains its own independent resource manager table.

In a threaded system, each thread has an autonomous set of connections to resource managers and each thread maintains a private resource manager table. This private resource manager table must be allocated for each new thread and de-allocated when the thread terminates, even if the termination is abnormal.


In Oracle Database, once a thread has been started and establishes a connection, only that thread can use that connection. No other thread can make a call on that connection.

Specifying Threading in the Open String

The xa_open string parameter, xa_info, provides the clause, Threads=, which must be specified as true to enable the use of threads by the transaction monitor. The default is false. Note that, in most cases, threads are created by the transaction monitor, and the application does not know when a new thread is created. Therefore, it is advisable to allocate a service context (lda in Version 7) on the stack within each service that is written for a transaction monitor application. Before doing any Oracle Database-related calls in that service, the xaoSvcCtx (sqlld2 for Version 7 OCI) function must be called and the service context initialized. This LDA can then be used for all OCI calls within that service.

Restrictions on Threading in XA

The following restrictions apply when using threads:

Troubleshooting XA Applications

This section discusses how to find information in case of problems or system failure. It also discusses trace files and recovery of pending transactions.

XA Trace Files

The Oracle XA library logs any error and tracing information to its trace file. This information is useful in supplementing the XA error codes. For example, it can indicate whether an xa_open failure is caused by an incorrect open string, failure to find the Oracle Database instance, or a logon authorization failure.

The name of the trace file is:


where db_name is the database name you specified in the open string field DB=db_name, and date is the date when the information is logged to the trace file.

If you do not specify DB=db_name in the open string, then it automatically defaults to the name NULL.

The xa_open string DbgFl

Normally, the XA trace file is opened only if an error is detected. The xa_open string DbgFl provides a tracing facility to record additional detail about the XA library. By default, its value is zero. It can be set to any combination of the following values. Note that they are independent, so to get printout from two or more flags, each must be set.

Trace File Locations

The trace file can be placed in one of the following locations:

Trace File Examples

Examples of two types of trace files are discussed here:

The example, xa_NULL04021992.trc, shows a trace file that was created on April 2, 1992. Its DB field was not specified in the open string when the resource manager was opened.

The example, xa_Finance12151991.trc, shows a trace file was created on December 15, 1991. Its DB field was specified as "Finance" in the open string when the resource manager was opened.


Multiple Oracle XA library resource managers with the same DB field and LogDir field in their open strings log all trace information that occurs on the same day to the same trace file.

Each entry in the trace file contains information that looks like this:

1032.12345.2:  ORA-01017:  invalid username/password;  logon denied
1032.12345.2:  xaolgn:  XAER_INVAL;  logon denied

Where 1032 is the time when the information is logged, 12345 is the process ID (PID), 2 is the resource manager ID, xaolgn is the module name, XAER_INVAL was the error returned as specified in the XA standard, and ORA-1017 is the Oracle Database information that was returned.

In-Doubt or Pending Transactions

In-doubt or pending transactions are transactions that have been prepared, but not yet committed to the database.

Generally, the transaction manager provided by the TPM system should resolve any failure and recovery of in-doubt or pending transactions. However, the DBA may have to override an in-doubt transaction in certain circumstances, such as when the in-doubt transaction is:

For more information about overriding in-doubt transactions in such circumstances, and about how to decide whether the in-doubt transaction should be committed or rolled back, see the TPM documentation.

Oracle Database SYS Account Tables

There are four tables under the Oracle Database SYS account that contain transactions generated by regular Oracle Database applications and Oracle XA applications. They are DBA_PENDING_TRANSACTIONS, V$GLOBAL_TRANSACTIONS, DBA_2PC_PENDING and DBA_2PC_NEIGHBORS

For transactions generated by Oracle XA applications, the following column information applies specifically to the DBA_2PC_NEIGHBORS table.

Remember that the db_name is always specified as DB=db_name in the open string. If you do not specify this field in the open string, then the value of this column is for transactions generated by Oracle XA applications.

For example, you could use the following SQL statement to obtain more information about in-doubt transactions generated by Oracle XA applications.

SELECT * FROM Dba_2pc_pending p, Dba_2pc_neighbors n
   WHERE p.Local_tran_id = n.Local_tran_id
      n.Dbid = 'xa_orcl';

Alternatively, if you know the format ID used by the transaction processing monitor, then you can use DBA_PENDING_TRANSACTIONS or V$GLOBAL_TRANSACTIONS. While DBA_PENDING_TRANSACTIONS gives a list of both active and failed prepared transactions, V$GLOBAL_TRANSACTIONS gives a list of all active global transactions.

XA Issues and Restrictions

Database Links

Oracle XA applications can access other Oracle Database instances through database links, with the following restrictions:

Assuming that these restrictions are satisfied, Oracle Database allows such links and propagates the transaction protocol (prepare, rollback, and commit) to the other Oracle Database instances.


If these restrictions are not satisfied, then when you use database links within an XA transaction, it creates an O/S network connection in the Oracle Database instance that is connected to the TPM server process. Because this O/S network connection cannot be moved from one process to another, you cannot detach from this server. When you access a database through a database link, you receive an ORA#24777 error.

If using the shared server configuration is not possible, then access the remote database through the Pro*C/C++ application using EXEC SQL AT syntax.

The parameter open_links_per_instance specifies the number of migratable open database link connections. These dblink connections are used by XA transactions so that the connections are cached after a transaction is committed. Another transaction is free to use the dblink connection provided the user that created the connection is the same as the user who created the transaction. This parameter is different from the open_links parameter, which is the number of dblink connections from a session. The open_links parameter is not applicable to XA applications.

Oracle Real Application Clusters

You can recover failed transactions from any instance of Oracle Real Application Clusters. You can also heuristically commit in-doubt transactions from any instance. An XA recover call gives a list of all prepared transactions for all instances.

A sequence of operations like the following must be performed on the same instance:

  1. xa_start
  2. xa_commit
  3. SQL operations
  4. xa_end
  5. xs_prepare
  6. xa_commit or xs_rollback

Under normal circumstances, an xa_prepare, xa_rollback, or xa_commit operation performed on a branch must be performed on the same instance that created the branch. This restriction affects load balancing. If load balancing is enabled, it is possible for sequences like the following to be performed on two different nodes. For this reason, load balancing must not be used for the XA connection.

Node 1
  1. xa_start
  2. SQL operations
  3. xa_end(SUSPEND)
Node 2
  1. xa_start(RESUME)
  2. SQL operations
  3. xa_end

If an error occurs, xa_recover must be performed before any other XA operations. You should open the XA connection with xa_open using option RAC_FAILOVER=true.


The operation xa_recover cannot be used for switchover in normal operation.

Global uniqueness of transaction IDs (XIDs) is not guaranteed; the TM must maintain the global uniqueness of XIDs. According to the XA specification, the RM must accept XIDs from the TM. However, XA on RAC cannot determine if a given XID is unique throughout the cluster.

Suppose, for example, there is a Tx(1).Br(1) on Node 1, and another Tx(1).Br(1) on Node 2. Each of these can start and execute SQL, even though the XID is not unique.

See Also:

X/OPEN CAE Specification Distributed Transaction Processing: The XA Specification, ISBN 1 872630 24 3, XOPEN Document Number XO/CAE/91/300

SQL-Based Restrictions

Rollbacks and Commits

Because the transaction manager is responsible for coordinating and monitoring the progress of the global transaction, the application should not contain any Oracle Database-specific statement that independently rolls back or commits a global transaction. However, you can use rollbacks and commits in a local transaction.

Do not use EXEC SQL ROLLBACK WORK for precompiler applications when you are in the middle of a global transaction. Similarly, an OCI application should not execute OCITransRollback(), or the Version 7 equivalent orol(). You can roll back a global transaction by calling tx_rollback().

Similarly, a precompiler application should not have the EXEC SQL COMMIT WORK statement in the middle of a global transaction. An OCI application should not execute OCITransCommit() or the Version 7 equivalent ocom(). Instead, use tx_commit() or tx_rollback() to end a global transaction.

DDL Statements

Because a DDL SQL statement, such as CREATE TABLE, implies an implicit commit, the Oracle XA application cannot execute any DDL SQL statements.

Session State

Oracle Database does not guarantee that session state will be valid between services. For example, if a service updates a session variable (such as a global package variable), then another service that executes as part of the same global transaction may not see the change. Use savepoints only within a service. The application must not refer to a savepoint that was created in another service. Similarly, an application must not attempt to fetch from a cursor that was executed in another service.



Connecting or Disconnecting with EXEC SQL

Do not use the EXEC SQL command to connect or disconnect. That is, do not use EXEC SQL COMMIT WORK RELEASE or EXEC SQL ROLLBACK WORK RELEASE.

Transaction Branches

Oracle Database transaction branches within the same global transaction can be coupled tightly or loosely. If they are tightly coupled, then they share locks. However, if the branches are on different instances when running Oracle Real Application Clusters, then they are loosely coupled, and they do not share locks.

In tightly coupled transaction branches, the locks are shared between the transaction branches. This means that updates performed in one transaction branch can be seen in other branches that belong to the same global transaction before the update is committed. Oracle Database obtains the DX lock before executing any statement in a tightly coupled branch. Hence, the advantage of using loosely coupled transaction branches is that there is more concurrency (because a lock is not obtained before the statement is executed). The disadvantage is that all the transaction branches must go through the two phases of commit, that is, XA one phase optimization cannot be used. These trade-offs between tightly coupled branches and loosely coupled branches are described in Table 16-4.

Table 16-4   Tightly and Loosely Coupled Transaction Branches
Attribute Tightly Coupled Branches Loosely Coupled Branches

Two Phase Commit

Read-only Optimization

[prepare for all branches, commit for last branch]

Two phases

[prepare and commit for all branches]


Database Call


Association Migration

Oracle Database does not support association migration (a means whereby a transaction manager may resume a suspended branch association in another branch).

Asynchronous Calls

The optional XA feature asynchronous XA calls is not supported.

Initialization Parameters

Set the transactions init.ora parameter to the expected number of concurrent global transactions.

The parameter open_links_per_instance specifies the number of migratable open database link connections. These dblink connections are used by XA transactions so that the connections are cached after a transaction is committed.

See Also:

"Database Links"

Maximum Connections for Each Thread

The maximum number of xa_opens for each thread is 32.


No scripts need be executed to use XA. It is necessary, however, to run the xaview.sql script to run Release 7.3 applications with Oracle Database version 8.X. Grant the SELECT privilege on SYS.DBA_PENDING_TRANSACTIONS to all users that connect to Oracle Database through the XA interface.

Library Compatibility

The XA library supplied with Oracle Database Release 7.3 can be used with Oracle Database Release 8.0 or later. You must use the Release 7.2 XA library with Oracle Database Release 7.2. You can use the 8.0 library with Oracle Database Release 7.3. There is only one case of backward compatibility: an XA application that uses Release 8.0 OCI works with Oracle Database Release 7.3, but only if you use sqlld2 and obtain an lda_def before executing SQL statements. Client applications must remember to convert the Version 7 LDA to a service handle using OCILdaToSvcCtx() after completing the OCI calls.

Oracle Database version 8.X does not support 7.1.6 XA calls (although it does support 7.3 XA calls). Thus, 7.1.6 XA calls need to relink Tuxedo applications with XA libraries of Oracle Database version 8.X.

Link Order for Libraries

When building a TP-monitor XA application, ensure that the TP-monitors libraries (that define the symbols ax_reg and ax_unreg) are placed in the link line before Oracle Database's client shared library. If your platform does not support shared libraries or if your linker is not sensitive to ordering of libraries in the link line, use Oracle Database's non-shared client library. These link restrictions are applicable only when using XA's dynamic registration (Oracle XA switch xaoswd).

Changes to Oracle XA Support

XA Changes from Release 8.0 to Release 8.1

There are no changes for Release 8.1.

XA Changes from Release 7.3 to Release 8.0

The following changes have been made:

Session Caching Is No Longer Needed

Session caching is unnecessary with the new OCI. Therefore, the old xa_open string parameter, SesCacheSz, has been eliminated. Consequently, you can also reduce the sessions init.ora parameter. Instead, set the transactions init.ora parameter to the expected number of concurrent global transactions. Because sessions are not migrated when global transactions are resumed, applications must not refer to any session state beyond the scope of a service.

For information on how to organize your application into services, refer to the documentation provided with the transaction processing monitor. In particular, savepoints and cursor fetch state are cancelled when a transaction is suspended. This means that a savepoint taken by the application in a service is invalid in another service, even though the two services may belong to the same global transaction.

Dynamic Registration Is Supported

Dynamic registration can be used if both the XA application and Oracle Database are Version 8.

See Also:

"Extensions to the XA Interface"

Loosely Coupled Transaction Branches Are Supported

The database server for Oracle Database version 8 and later supports both loosely and tightly coupled transaction branches in a single Oracle Database instance. The server for Oracle Database version 7 supported only tightly coupled transaction branches in a single instance, and loosely coupled transaction branches in different instances.

SQLLIB Is Not Needed for OCI Applications

OCI applications used to require the use of SQLLIB. This means that OCI programmers had to buy SQLLIB, even if they had no desire to develop Pro* applications. This is no longer the case.

No Installation Script Is Needed to Run XA

The SQL script XAVIEW.SQL is not needed to run XA applications in Oracle Database Version 8. It is, however, still necessary for Version 7.3 applications.

See Also:

"Responsibilities of the DBA or System Administrator"

XA Library Use with Oracle Real Application Clusters Option on All Platforms

It was not possible with Version 7 to use the Oracle XA library together with the Oracle Real Application Clusters option on certain platforms. (Only if the platform's implementation of the distributed lock manager supported transaction-based rather than process-based locking would the two work together.) This limitation is no longer the case; if you can run the Oracle Real Application Clusters option, then you can run the Oracle XA library.

Transaction Recovery for Oracle Real Application Clusters Has Been Improved

All transactions can be recovered from any instance of Oracle Real Application Clusters. Use the xa_recover call to provide a snapshot of the pending transactions.

Both Global and Local Transactions Are Possible

It is possible to have both global and local transactions within the same XA connection. Local transactions are transactions that are completely coordinated by Oracle Database. For example, the following update belongs to a local transaction.

CONNECT scott/tiger;
UPDATE Emp_tab SET Sal = Sal + 1; /* begin local transaction*/
COMMIT;                           /* commit local transaction*/

Global transactions, on the other hand, are coordinated by an external transaction manager such as a transaction processing monitor. In these transactions, Oracle Database acts as a subordinate and processes the XA commands issued by the transaction manager. The following update belongs to a global transaction.

xa_open(oracle_xa+acc=p/SCOTT/TIGER+sestm=10", 1, TMNOFLAGS);
                          /* Transaction manager opens */
                          /* connection to Oracle Database */
tpbegin();                  /* begin global transaction, the transaction*/ 
                          /* manager issues XA commands to Oracle Database */
                          /* to start a global transaction */
UPDATE Emp_tab SET Sal = Sal + 1;          
                          /* Update is performed in the */
                          /* global transaction*/
tpcommit();                 /* commit global transaction, */
                          /* the transaction manager issues XA commands*/
                          /* to Oracle Database to commit */
                          /* the global transaction */

The database server for Oracle Database version 7 forbids a local transaction from being started in an XA connection. The following update would return an ORA-2041 error code.

xa_open("oracle_xa+acc=p/SCOTT/TIGER+sestm=10" , 1, TMNOFLAGS);
                          /* Transaction manager opens */
                          /*connection to Oracle Database */
UPDATE Emp_tab SET Sal = Sal + 1; /* Oracle Databse version 7 returns error */

Oracle Database version 8.X and later allows local transactions to be started in an XA connection. The only restriction is that the local transaction must be committed or rolled back before starting a global transaction in the connection.

The xa_open String Has Been Modified

Two new parameters have been added. They are:

Two parameters have been made obsolete and should only be used when connected to Oracle Database Release 7.3.