Oracle® Database SQL Reference 10g Release 1 (10.1) Part Number B1075901 


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The oneway analysis of variance function (STATS_ONE_WAY_ANOVA
) tests differences in means (for groups or variables) for statistical significance by comparing two different estimates of variance. One estimate is based on the variances within each group or category. This is known as the mean squares within or mean square error. The other estimate is based on the variances among the means of the groups. This is known as the mean squares between. If the means of the groups are significantly different, then the mean squares between will be larger than expected and will not match the mean squares within. If the mean squares of the groups are consistent, then the two variance estimates will be about the same.
STATS_ONE_WAY_ANOVA
takes three arguments: two expressions and a return value of type VARCHAR2
. expr1
is an independent or grouping variable that divides the data into a set of groups. expr2
is a dependent variable (a numeric expression) containing the values corresponding to each member of a group. The function returns one number, determined by the value of the third argument. If you omit the third argument, the default is SIG
. The meaning of the return values is shown in Table 78.
Table 78 STATS_ONE_WAY_ANOVA Return Values
Return Value  Meaning 

SUM_SQUARES_BETEEN 
Sum of squares between groups 
SUM_SQUARES_WITHIN 
Sum of squares within groups 
DF_BETWEEN 
Degree of freedom for between groups 
DF_WITHIN 
Degree of freedom for within groups 
MEAN_SQUARES_BETWEEN 
Mean squares between groups 
MEAN_SQUARES_WITHIN 
Mean squares within groups 
F_RATIO 
Ratio of the mean squares between to the mean squares within (MSB/MSW) 
SIG 
Significance 
The significance of oneway analysis of variance is determined by obtaining the onetailed significance of an ftest on the ratio of the mean squares between and the mean squares within. The ftest should use onetailed significance, because the mean squares between can be only equal to or larger than the mean squares within. Therefore, the significance returned by STATS_ONE_WAY_ANOVA
is the probability that the differences between the groups happened by chance—a number between 0 and 1. The smaller the number, the greater the significance of the difference between the groups. Please refer to the STATS_F_TEST for information on performing an ftest.
The following example determines the significance of the differences in mean sales within an income level and differences in mean sales between income levels. The results, p_values close to zero, indicate that, for both men and women, the difference in the amount of goods sold across different income levels is significant.
SELECT cust_gender, STATS_ONE_WAY_ANOVA(cust_income_level, amount_sold, 'F_RATIO') f_ratio, STATS_ONE_WAY_ANOVA(cust_income_level, amount_sold, 'SIG') p_value FROM sh.customers c, sh.sales s WHERE c.cust_id = s.cust_id GROUP BY cust_gender; C F_RATIO P_VALUE    F 5.59536943 4.7840E09 M 9.2865001 6.7139E17