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Oracle® Database Upgrade Guide
10g Release 1 (10.1)

Part Number B10763-02
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This manual guides you through the process of planning and executing database upgrades on the Oracle Database. In addition, this manual provides information about compatibility, about upgrading applications to the new Oracle Database 10g release, and about important changes in the new release, such as initialization parameter changes and data dictionary changes.

Oracle Database Upgrade Guide contains information that describes the features and functionality of the Oracle Database (also known as the standard edition) and the Oracle Database Enterprise Edition products. The Oracle Database and the Oracle Database Enterprise Edition have the same basic features. However, several advanced features are available only with the Enterprise Edition, and some of these are optional. For example, to use application failover, you must have the Enterprise Edition with the Real Application Clusters option.

See Also:

Oracle Database New Features for information about the differences between the Oracle Database and the Oracle Database Enterprise Edition and the features and options that are available to you.

This preface contains these topics:


Oracle Database Upgrade Guide is intended for database administrators (DBAs), application developers, security administrators, system operators, and anyone who plans or executes Oracle Database upgrades.

To use this document, you need to be familiar with the following:

Documentation Accessibility

Our goal is to make Oracle products, services, and supporting documentation accessible, with good usability, to the disabled community. To that end, our documentation includes features that make information available to users of assistive technology. This documentation is available in HTML format, and contains markup to facilitate access by the disabled community. Standards will continue to evolve over time, and Oracle is actively engaged with other market-leading technology vendors to address technical obstacles so that our documentation can be accessible to all of our customers. For additional information, visit the Oracle Accessibility Program Web site at

Accessibility of Code Examples in Documentation

JAWS, a Windows screen reader, may not always correctly read the code examples in this document. The conventions for writing code require that closing braces should appear on an otherwise empty line; however, JAWS may not always read a line of text that consists solely of a bracket or brace.

Accessibility of Links to External Web Sites in Documentation

This documentation may contain links to Web sites of other companies or organizations that Oracle does not own or control. Oracle neither evaluates nor makes any representations regarding the accessibility of these Web sites.


This document contains:

Chapter 1, "Introduction"

This chapter provides an overview of the database upgrade process, as well as information about running multiple releases of the Oracle Database.

Chapter 2, "Preparing to Upgrade"

This chapter describes the steps to complete before upgrading a database.

Chapter 3, "Upgrading a Database to the New Oracle Database 10g Release"

This chapter guides you through the process of upgrading a database to the new release of the Oracle Database.

Chapter 4, "After Upgrading a Database"

This chapter describes the actions to complete after upgrading a database to the new release of the Oracle Database.

Chapter 5, "Compatibility and Interoperability"

This chapter contains information about compatibility and interoperability between different releases of the Oracle Database, including detailed information about the COMPATIBLE initialization parameter.

Chapter 6, "Upgrading Your Applications"

This chapter provides general information about upgrading your applications and tools for use with the new release of the Oracle Database.

Chapter 7, "Downgrading a Database Back to the Previous Oracle Database Release"

This chapter guides you through the process of downgrading a database that has been upgraded to the new release of the Oracle Database.

Chapter 8, "Data Copying Using Export/Import"

This chapter provides an overview of using the Export and Import utilities to copy data between different releases of the Oracle Database.

Appendix A, "Initialization Parameter and Data Dictionary Changes"

This appendix lists changes to initialization parameters and the data dictionary across different releases of the Oracle Database. This appendix also discusses compatibility issues with certain initialization parameters.

Appendix B, "Migrating from Server Manager to SQL*Plus"

This appendix guides you through the process of modifying your Server Manager line mode scripts for use with SQL*Plus.

Related Documents

For more information, see these Oracle resources:

Many of the examples in this book use the sample schemas, which are installed by default when you select the Basic Installation option with an Oracle Database installation. Refer to Oracle Database Sample Schemas for information on how these schemas were created and how you can use them yourself.

Printed documentation is available for sale in the Oracle Store at

To download free release notes, installation documentation, white papers, or other collateral, please visit the Oracle Technology Network (OTN). You must register online before using OTN; registration is free and can be done at

If you already have a username and password for OTN, then you can go directly to the documentation section of the OTN Web site at


This section describes the conventions used in the text and code examples of this documentation set. It describes:

Conventions in Text

We use various conventions in text to help you more quickly identify special terms. The following table describes those conventions and provides examples of their use.

Convention Meaning Example
Bold Bold typeface indicates terms that are defined in the text or terms that appear in a glossary, or both. When you specify this clause, you create an index-organized table.
Italics Italic typeface indicates book titles or emphasis. Oracle Database Concepts

Ensure that the recovery catalog and target database do not reside on the same disk.

UPPERCASE monospace (fixed-width) font Uppercase monospace typeface indicates elements supplied by the system. Such elements include parameters, privileges, datatypes, RMAN keywords, SQL keywords, SQL*Plus or utility commands, packages and methods, as well as system-supplied column names, database objects and structures, usernames, and roles. You can specify this clause only for a NUMBER column.

You can back up the database by using the BACKUP command.

Query the TABLE_NAME column in the USER_TABLES data dictionary view.


lowercase monospace (fixed-width) font Lowercase monospace typeface indicates executable programs, filenames, directory names, and sample user-supplied elements. Such elements include computer and database names, net service names and connect identifiers, user-supplied database objects and structures, column names, packages and classes, usernames and roles, program units, and parameter values.

Note: Some programmatic elements use a mixture of UPPERCASE and lowercase. Enter these elements as shown.

Enter sqlplus to start SQL*Plus.

The password is specified in the orapwd file.

Back up the datafiles and control files in the /disk1/oracle/dbs directory.

The department_id, department_name, and location_id columns are in the hr.departments table.

Set the QUERY_REWRITE_ENABLED initialization parameter to true.

Connect as oe user.

The JRepUtil class implements these methods.

lowercase italic monospace (fixed-width) font Lowercase italic monospace font represents placeholders or variables. You can specify the parallel_clause.

Run old_release.SQL where old_release refers to the release you installed prior to upgrading.

Conventions in Code Examples

Code examples illustrate SQL, PL/SQL, SQL*Plus, or other command-line statements. They are displayed in a monospace (fixed-width) font and separated from normal text as shown in this example:

SELECT username FROM dba_users WHERE username = 'MIGRATE';

The following table describes typographic conventions used in code examples and provides examples of their use.

Convention Meaning Example
[ ]
Anything enclosed in brackets is optional.
DECIMAL (digits [ , precision ])
{ }
Braces are used for grouping items.

A vertical bar represents a choice of two options.
Ellipsis points mean repetition in syntax descriptions.

In addition, ellipsis points can mean an omission in code examples or text.

CREATE TABLE ... AS subquery;

SELECT col1, col2, ... , coln FROM employees;
Other symbols You must use symbols other than brackets ([ ]), braces ({ }), vertical bars (|), and ellipsis points (...) exactly as shown.
acctbal NUMBER(11,2);
acct    CONSTANT NUMBER(4) := 3;
Italicized text indicates placeholders or variables for which you must supply particular values.
CONNECT SYSTEM/system_password
DB_NAME = database_name
Uppercase typeface indicates elements supplied by the system. We show these terms in uppercase in order to distinguish them from terms you define. Unless terms appear in brackets, enter them in the order and with the spelling shown. Because these terms are not case sensitive, you can use them in either UPPERCASE or lowercase.
SELECT last_name, employee_id FROM employees;
DROP TABLE hr.employees;
Lowercase typeface indicates user-defined programmatic elements, such as names of tables, columns, or files.

Note: Some programmatic elements use a mixture of UPPERCASE and lowercase. Enter these elements as shown.

SELECT last_name, employee_id FROM employees;
sqlplus hr/hr

Conventions for Windows Operating Systems

The following table describes conventions for Windows operating systems and provides examples of their use.

Convention Meaning Example
Choose Start > menu item How to start a program. To start the Database Configuration Assistant, choose Start > Programs > Oracle - HOME_NAME > Configuration and Migration Tools > Database Configuration Assistant.
File and directory names File and directory names are not case sensitive. The following special characters are not allowed: left angle bracket (<), right angle bracket (>), colon (:), double quotation marks ("), slash (/), pipe (|), and dash (-). The special character backslash (\) is treated as an element separator, even when it appears in quotes. If the filename begins with \\, then Windows assumes it uses the Universal Naming Convention. c:\winnt"\"system32 is the same as C:\WINNT\SYSTEM32
C:\> Represents the Windows command prompt of the current hard disk drive. The escape character in a command prompt is the caret (^). Your prompt reflects the subdirectory in which you are working. Referred to as the command prompt in this manual.
Special characters The backslash (\) special character is sometimes required as an escape character for the double quotation mark (") special character at the Windows command prompt. Parentheses and the single quotation mark (') do not require an escape character. Refer to your Windows operating system documentation for more information on escape and special characters.
C:\>exp HR/HR TABLES=employees QUERY=\"WHERE job_id='SA_REP' and salary<8000\"
Represents the Oracle home name. The home name can be up to 16 alphanumeric characters. The only special character allowed in the home name is the underscore.
C:\> net start OracleHOME_NAMETNSListener
ORACLE_HOME and ORACLE_BASE In releases prior to Oracle8i release 8.1.3, when you installed Oracle components, all subdirectories were located under a top level ORACLE_HOME directory. The default for Windows NT was C:\orant.

This release complies with Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) guidelines. All subdirectories are not under a top level ORACLE_HOME directory. There is a top level directory called ORACLE_BASE that by default is C:\oracle\product\10.1.0. If you install the latest Oracle release on a computer with no other Oracle software installed, then the default setting for the first Oracle home directory is C:\oracle\product\10.1.0\db_n, where n is the latest Oracle home number. The Oracle home directory is located directly under ORACLE_BASE.

All directory path examples in this guide follow OFA conventions.

Refer to Oracle Database Installation Guide for Windows for additional information about OFA compliances and for information about installing Oracle products in non-OFA compliant directories.

Go to the ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\rdbms\admin directory.