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General Editor:
Lise Sedrez
Stanford University

Advisory Board:
John Wirth
Stanford University
(in memorian)

José Drummond
PPG-7

Andes

Environmental History of Latin America

Mark Carey

Flames in the forest. 1991. 52 min. Princeton, NJ: Films for the Humanities & Sciences, Inc..
Since the 1950's, the Amazon Indians of eastern Ecuador have bitterly resisted the invasion of international oil companies which, with the encouragement of the Ecuadorian government, seek to use the resource-rich region for intensive oil production. (AA)

Microchip Al Chip. s.d. Director Pablo Lavin. 18 min. New York, NY: First Run/Icarus Films.
Employing fictional, documentary, and videographic techniques, MICROCHIP AL CHIP examines the destruction of Chilean forests in order to sustain its paper exports to other nations, notably Japan. http://www.frif.com/cat97/p-s/s_micro.html

Alchon, Suzanne Austin. 1991. Native society and disease in colonial Ecuador. Cambridge Latin American Studies, 71. Cambridge England, New York: Cambridge University Press.

Brush, Steven. 1977. Mountain, Field, and Family: The Economy and Human Ecology of an Andean Valley. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Calero, Luis Fernando. 1997. Chiefdoms under siege Spain's rule and native adaptation in the southern Colombian Andes, 1535-1700. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.

D'Altroy, Terence N. 1994. Public and private econonmy in the Inka empire. In The Economic anthropology of the state. Ed. Elizabeth M. Brumfiel.anham, MD: University Press of America.

DeFrance, Susan Daggett. 1993. "Ecological Imperialism in the South-Central Andes: Faunal Data from Spanish Colonial Settlements in the Moguegua and Torata Valleys." University of Florida.

Denevan, William M. 2001. Cultivated Landscapes of Native Amazonia and the Andes. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Dolfus, Olivier . 1978. Les Andes intertropicales: une mosaique changeante. Annales: Economies, Societies, Civilizations 33: 895-903.

Dolfus, Olivier, and Daniéle Lavellée. 1973. Ecología y ocupación del espacio en los Andes tropicales durante los últimos veinte milenios. Bulletin De L'Institut Français D'Etudes Andines 2, no. 3: 75-92.
Geographers comment on need to view Andean area from standpoint of human ecology and of microenvironments available to man over last 20,000 years. (HLAS).

Donoso, Claudio, and Antonio Lara. 1995. Utilização de los Bosques Nativos en Chile: Pasado Presente y Futuro. In Ecología de los Bosques Nativos de Chile. Eds. Juan J. Arnesto, Carolin Villagran, and Mary Kalin Arroyo, 363-87. Santiago, Chile: Editorial Universitaria.

Donoso, Claudio, and Antonio Lara. 1995. Utilización de los Bosques Nativos en Chile: Pasado Presente y Futuro. In Ecología de los Bosques Nativos de Chile. Eds. Juan J. Arnesto, Carolin Villagran, and Mary Kalin Arroyo, 363-87. Santiago, Chile: Editorial Universitaria.

Donoso, Mauricio Folchi. 1996. El Volcán 1876-1976. Historia de un enclave minero en perspectiva económico-ecológica. Universidad de Chile.

Drennan, Robert, Luisa Fernanda Herrera, and Carlos Uribe. 1989. Prehispanic Chiefdoms in the Valle de la Plata. The Environmental Context of Human Habitation, 1. Pittsburgh, PN/Bogota, Colombia: University of Pittsburgh -Department of Anthropology/ Departamento de Antropología - Universidad de los Andes.

Earls, John. 1979. Astronomía y ecología: la sincronización alimenticia del maíz. Allpanchis: Revista Del Instituto De Pastoral Andina. 12: 117-35.
Agrees with estimates that there was a large population in the Central Andes before 1532. The feeding of such numbers required efficient coordination among various crops and the zones in which they were grown. Part of this effort consisted in the careful selection of varieties of crops. Since the state's chief interest was maize, the selection effort is most apparent in this crop. Because maize grows at many altitudes, well-adapted varieties were selected and their total numbers decrease. (HLAS).

Ewan, Joseph . 1989. Five American naturalists on the Andes and Amazon: A study in personality. Archives of Natural History 18: 14.

Fagan, Brian M. 1999. Floods, famines, and emperors: el Niño and the fate of civilizations. 1st ed. New York: Basic Books.

Foladori, G, and H Tommasino. 1998. Desarrollo intensivo en la agricultura paranaense: La sustentabilidad socioambiental jaqueada. Revista Mediações 3, no. 2.
Uma revisão da evolução da agricultura no Paraná, Brazil, de 1970 a 1995 e os impactos sobre a sustentabilidade.

Gootenberg, Paul Eliot. 1989. Between silver and guano : commercial policy and the state in postindependence Peru. x, 234 p : map ; 25 cm. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press.

Graffam, Gray. 1992. Beyond State Collapse: Rural History, Raised Fields, and pastoralism in the South Andes. American Anthropologist 94, no. 4: 882-904.

Graham, Alan, Ed. 1973. Vegetation and Vegetational History of Northern Latin America. Amsterdam/New York: Bloomington, Elsevier.
Papers presented as part of a symposium at the American Institute of Biological Sciences meetings in Bloomington, Indiana, in 1970. Climate change, ecology, natural history, paleobotany, and phytogeography of the Caribbean, Central America, and South America since prehistoric times. (Note by FHS)

Grossman, Lawrence S. 1997. Soil Conservation, Political Ecology, and Technological Change on Saint Vincent. Geographical Review 87: 353-74.
Dscusses the history of soil erosion problems and the history of colonial soil conservation policies on the island. (N.A.)

Guillet, David . 1992. Land Tenure, Ecological Zone, and Agricultural Regime in the Central Andes. American Ethnologist 994: 882-904.

Guillet, David. 1989. The struggle for autonomy: irrigation and power in highland Peru. In Human systems ecology: studies in the integration of political economy, adaptations, and socionatural regions. Eds. Sheldon Smith, and Ed Reeves. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Gunckel, Hugo. 1980. Utilización de la Araucaria Chilena en el Siglo XVIII. Noticiaro Mensual (Museo Nacional De Historia Natural) 25, no. 1980: 3-7.

Herrera, Luisa Fernanda. 1985. Agricultura aborígen y Cambios de Vegetación en la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. Bogota: Fundación de Investigaciones Arqueológicas Nacionales.

Kane, Joe. 1995. Savages. 1st ed ed. New York: Knopf.

Knapp, Gregory. 1991. Andean ecology adaptive dynamics in Ecuador. Dellplain Latin American Studies, no. 27. Boulder: Westview Press.

Knapp, Gregory. 1996. Cultural Economics Past and Present. Professional Geographer 48: 115 (2 pages).

Knapp, Gregory.1988. Ecologia Cultural Prehispanica del Ecuador. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador.

Knapp, Gregory. 1989. Landscape and Culture: Geographical and Archaeological Perspectives. Economic Geography 65: 91 (3 pages).

Knapp, Gregory. 1996. Las Chacras de Coporaque: Andeneria y Riego en el Valle del Colca. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 86: 786 (3 pages).

Knapp, Gregory. 1992. Riego Precolonial y Tradicional en la Sierra Norte del Ecuador. Hombre y Ambiente 22.

Knapp, Gregory, William M. Denevan, and K. Mathewson, Eds. 1987. Pre-Hispanic Agricultural Fields in the Andean Region. Oxford: BAR International Series.

Kozdon, Paul . 1958. Las Coníferas Autóctonas y Su Progresiva Desaparición en la Cordillera Andina. Montes 14: 463-72.

Larson, Brooke. 1988. Colonialism and Agrarian Transformation in Bolivia: Cochabamba, 1550-1900. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
Land use and class relations in a warm Andean valley that supported irrigated grain agriculture under the Incas and the Spanish and served as a beachhead for missionary exploration of the western Amazonian rain forests. (Note by FHS).

Ledger, Charles. 1985. Alpacas and Quinine. London: MacMillan.

Lehmann, David, ed. 1982. Ecology and Exchange in the Andes. Cambridge/New York : Cambridge University Press.

Martinez-Alier, Joan. 1992. La interpretacion ecologista de la historia economica. Algunos ejemplos andinos. Quaderni Di Storia Ecologica , no. 1: 61-84.

Masuda, Yoshio, Izumi Shimada, and Craig Morris. 1985. Andean ecology and civilization: An interdisciplinary perspective on Andean ecological complementarity. : Papers From Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research Symposium, 91. Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press.

Mathew, W. M . 1977. A Primitive Export Sector: Quano Production in Mid-nineteenth Century Peru. Journal of Latin American Studies 9: 35-57.
Mathew describes the way in which quano was dug and removed from the Chincha islands when the Peruvian trade was at its height (Review from Environmental Review, Bibliographic Supplement II 1978).

McNeill, John R., Ed. 2000. Environmental History of the Pacific Basin. Aldershot, UK: Variorum.
This is a collection of articles some of which pertain to the Pacific coasts of Latin America.

Moseley, Michael Edward. 1992. The Incas and their ancestors the archaeology of Peru. London: Thames and Hudson.

Moseley, Michael Edward. 1974. The maritime foundations of Andean civilization. Cummings Archaeology Series. Menlo Park, Calif: Cummings Pub. Co.

Murra, John. 1980. The Economic Organization of the Inka State. Greenwich, Conn.: Jai Press.

Olarte, Mauricio Neto. 2000. Remedios para el Imperio - Historia Natural y la apropriación del Nuevo Mundo. Bogota, Colombia: Instituto Colombiano de Antropologia e Historia.

Oliver-Smith, Anthony . 1977. Disaster rehabilitation and social change in Yungay, Peru. Human Organization : Journal of the Society for Applied Anthropology 36, no. 1: 5-12.

Oliver-Smith, Anthony. 1986. The martyred city: Death and rebirth in the Andes. 1st ed ed. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.

Oliver-Smith, Anthony, and Susannah M Hoffman. 1999. The angry earth: Disaster in anthropological perspective. New York: Routledge.

Ouweneel, Arij. Shadows over Anáhuac: An Ecological Interpretation of Crisis and Development in Central Mexico, 1730-1800. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.

Parsons, James Jerome. 1968. Antioqueno colonization in Western Colombia. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Parsons, James Jerome. 1967. Antioquia's corridor to the sea: an historical geography of the settlement of Urabá. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Philip, Kavita. 1995. Imperial Science Rescues a Tree: Global Botanic Networks, Local Knowledge and the Transcontinental Transplantation of Cinchona. Environment and History 1: 173-200.
This paper follows the official records of the quinine story, in particular the memoirs of Sir Clements Markham, an employee of the East India Company and an amateur geographer who volunteered to undertake the exploration of the Peruvian forests in search of the cinchona tree. (Note by FHS).

Piñeros S., Fernando. 1988. "Paleoecología de los últimos 13.700 años y cambios culturales prehispánicos en la región de Merenberg, Valle de la Plata." Universidad de los Andes.
Dissertation for the Department of Anthropology.

Quilter, Jeffery, and Terry Stocker. 1983. Subsistence Economies and the Origins of Andean Complex Societies. American Anthropologist , no. 85: 545-62.

Ramírez Morales, Fernando . 1991. Apuntes para una Historia Ecológica de Chile. Cuadernos De Historia 11.
Edited by the Departamento de Ciencias-Históricas de la Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile

Ramírez Morales, Fernando. 1996. Ecohistoria y destrucción en Chile Continental: El Valle del Vodudahue 1700 -1996. Bases Históricas del Desarrollo Regional de Chile. Actas VII Jornada Nacional de Historia Regional de Chile. Santiago: Universidad de Chile.

Raymond, J. Scott. 1988. Contributions from the Selva: A View from the Tropical Forest.Richard W. Keatinge. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Cultural developments in the pre-history of the Amazon. (Note by FHS).

Raymond, J. Scott.  The Maritime Foundations of Andean Civilization: A Reconsideration of the Evidence. American Antiquity 46, no. 4: 806-21.

Raymond, J. Scott . 1983. Subsistence Economies and the Origins of Andean Complex Societies. American Anthropologist 85: 545-62.

Romero, Maria Eugenia, and Claudia Romero. 1989. Desde el Orinoco hacia el Siglo XXI: El Hombre, La Fauna y Su Medio. Bogota, Colombia: Fondo FEN Colombia.

Sarmiento, Fausto. 1995. The Birthplace of Ecology. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 76, no. 2: 104-5.

Sarmiento, Fausto. 1994. Human Impacts on the Cloud Forests of the Upper Guayllabamba River, Ecuador. Ecological Studies , no. 110: 284-95.

Sharon, Douglas, and Doonan. Christopehr. 1977. The Magic Cactus: Ethnorcheological Continuity in Peru. Archeology 30: 374-93.
Since pre-columbian times Peruvian folk-healers have continued to use the hallucinogenic cactus, Tricocereus panchanoi. (Review from Environmental Review, Bibliographic Supplement II 1978).

Shimada, Izumi. 1991. Cultural Impacts of Severe Droughts in the Prehistoric Andes: Application of a 1,500-Year Ice Core Precipitation Record. World Archaeology 22, no. 3: 247-65.

Smith, Richard, and Sheldon Smith. 1989. Horizontal and vertical linkages in highland Antioquia: the architecture of the landscape. In Human systems ecology: studies in the integration of political economy, adaptations, and socionatural regions. Eds. Sheldon Smith, and Ed Reeves.Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Spalding, Karen. 1982. Essays in the political, economic and social history of colonial Latin America. Occasional Papers and Monographs / Univeristy of Delaware, Latin American Studies Program: Occasional Papers and Monographs (University of Delaware. Latin American Studies Program), no. 3. Newark, Del: Latin American Studies Program, University of Delaware.
Includes bibliographical references

Tenreiro, Tomas Perez. 1983. Bolivar y sus decretos conservacionistas. Boletin De La Academia Nacional De La Historia (Venezuela) 66, no. 263: 597-604.

Van Buren, Mary. 1996. Rethinking the Vertical Archipelago. American Anthropologist 92, no. 2: 338-51.

Van der Hammen, Thomas, ed. 1978. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. Vol. 25.

Walker, Charles F. 1999. Shaking the Unstable Empire: The Lima, Quito, and Arequipa Earthquakes, 1746, 1783, and 1797. Dreadful visitations: Confronting natural catastrophe in the age of enlightenment. Alessa Johns, 113-44. New York: Routledge.

Zimmerer, Karl S. 1996. Changing fortunes biodiversity and peasant livelihood in the Peruvian Andes. Berkeley: University of California Press.