| OVERHEADS | GLOSSARY | REFERENCES | SKILLS | CLASSIC |
Extended Research Ideas
Please see the classroom experiments for other ideas that could easily be extended
into longer term experiments: EXPERIMENTS and SPERM
These are ideas that go beyond the one period classroom experience. Some could
be appropriate for special interest students, others for science fair projects,
etc. Each web page shows a new skill or method and suggestions for new investigations.
[Listed in order of increasing difficulty] see also the Scientific
- Shaking - simulating wave action on young
- Ultraviolet Light Effects - UV causes damage
to genetic and protein material in the eggs and sperm. How much does it take
and what is affected?
- Modified Seawater Formulations - What are
the effects of varying formulas on fertilization and development? What happens
when the MAGNESIUM is left out? CALCIUM? SODIUM?
- Osmotic vs. Ionic - Is it the ions in the
seawater or the osmotic pressure that is important for fertilization and normal
- Artificial Activation - Shown are several ways
to "activate" the egg without a sperm. Are males needed at all?
- Carnoy's Fixative - This fixative is used to
preserve detail for later examination of embryos. Fixatives work by selective
extraction and preservation. What can you see in the fixed developing embryo
you could not see in the live ones?
- Isolating the Mitotic Apparatus - Illustrates
mechanisms for removing the plasma membrane and other cell components to enhance
viewing of microtubules, chromosomes and centrosomes in the dividing cell.
- Gamete Storage - Gamete Storage - Whereas we
can keep cow and sheep gametes and embryos for years, at best we can keep
sea urchin gametes for only a few weeks. But even this is an improvement over
the past, where urchin eggs essentially had to be fertilized when fresh.
Examples of Student Work
Egyptian Project Page - see how above principles have actually been applied in a real research project