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Term Definition
Earn out acquisition

An acquisition in which additional payments are made to the seller after the sale day if the acquired company reaches pre-specified milestones.

Efficacy endpoints

A result during an animal or clinical study that demonstrates efficacy (i.e. a therapeutic effect). Endpoints are what a study is designed to prove.

Eligibility criteria

Summary criteria for participant selection in clinical studies; includes Inclusion and Exclusion criteria.


Based on experimental data, not on a theory.


Study of factors affecting the health and illness of a population that are used as the basis of making interventions in the interest of public health.

EPO (European Patent Office)

The office that provides unified patent filing for 38 European countries.

Equipment & facility controls

One subsystem of a Quality Management system; it ensures that standard operating procedures have been designed and implemented for all equipment and facilities.

Equity ownership

Ownership of a piece of a company.

ESD (Examination Support Document)

A document that allows the inventor filing a patent to go beyond the 5/25 limit of pages/claims.

Ethnographic research

Understanding a particular culture or way of life by studying the members of that culture or group.


The process of introducing modifications to existing inventions and then applying for new patents to protect the original patent beyond its original 20-year patent.


Treatments, guidelines, and processes based on the results and outcomes generated from experiments and observation that uses specific evidence of outcomes and suggests treatment or processes based on such evidence.

Exclusion criteria

Characteristics or contraindications that eliminate subjects from participating in a clinical study.

Exclusionary rights

The rights of the inventor or group of inventors, who has/ve been issued a patent on an invention, to be the sole person(s) creating and marketing that invention.

Exclusive agreement

Agreements that may limit the company with a given technology from sharing it with any other firms (thereby giving the licensor a strong positional advantage). In turn, the licensor may or may not agree to use only this one technology and not seek alternative suppliers.

Exclusive license

A license that grants only the licensee (and not even the licensor) the right to use a technology.

Exit event

When a company is either acquired or has an IPO.

Expansion funding

Funding required to ensure completion of clinical trials, initiation of additional trials or initial product launch. Such funding is often acquired through VCs or corporate investment.

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