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295. “Measuring Electrostatic Fields in Both Hydrogen Bonding and non-Hydrogen Bonding Environments using Carbonyl Vibrational Probes,” Stephen D. Fried, Sayan Bagchi, Steven G. Boxer, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 135 , 11181-11192 (2013). [pdf]

293. “Quantitative Dissection of Hydrogen Bond-Mediated Proton Transfer in the Ketosteroid Isomerase Active Site”, Paul A. Sigala, Aaron T. Fafarman, Jason P. Schwans, Stephen D. Fried, Timothy D. Fenn, Jose M. M. Caaveiro, Brandon Pybus, Dagmar Ringe, Gregory A. Petsko, Steven G. Boxer, and Daniel Herschlag, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110, E2552-E2561 (2013). [pdf]

289. "Experimental quantification of electrostatics in X-H⋅⋅⋅pi hydrogen bonds", Miguel Saggu, Nicholas M. Levinson, and Steven G. Boxer, in press. [pdf]

284. "Solvent-Induced Infrared Frequency Shifts in Aromatic Nitriles are Quantitatively Described by the Vibrational Stark Effect", Nicholas M. Levinson, Stephen D. Fried, Steven G. Boxer, in press. [pdf]

282. "Quantitative, Directional Measurement of Electric Field Heterogeneity Within an Enzyme Active Site", Aaron T. Fafarman, Paul A. Sigala, Jason P. Schwans, Timothy D. Fenn, Daniel Herschlag, and Steven G. Boxer, PNAS, 109, 1824-1825 summary), E299-E308 (full paper) (2012). [pdf]

278. "Direct Measurements of Electric Fields in Weak OH••π Hydrogen Bonds", Miguel Saggu, Nicholas M. Levinson, and Steven G. Boxer, in press. [pdf]

276. "Electrostatic Fields Near the Active Site of Human Aldose Reductase: 2. New Inhibitors and Complications Caused by Hydrogen Bonds", Lin Xu, Aina E. Cohen, and Steven G. Boxer, in press. Biochemistry , 50, 8311-8322, (2011). [pdf] [Supplement]

275."Phosphate Vibrations Probe Local Electric Fields and Hydration in Biomolecules", Nicholas M. Levinson, Erin E. Bolte, Carrie S. Miller, Steven A. Corcelli, and Steven G. Boxer, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 133, 13236-13239 (2011). [pdf]

272. "Nitrile Bonds as Infrared Probes of Electrostatics in Ribonuclease S", Aaron T. Fafarman and Steven G. Boxer, J. Phys. Chem. B, 114, 13536-13544 (2010) [pdf] [Supplement]

271. "Decomposition of Vibrational Shifts of Nitriles into Electrostatic and Hydrogen-Bonding Effects", Aaron T. Fafarman, Paul A Sigala, Daniel Herschlag, and Steven G. Boxer, J. Am. Chem. Soc.,132, 12811-12813 (2010). [pdf] [Supplement]

262."Stark Realities", Steven G. Boxer, J. Phys. Chem. B, 113, 2972-2983, (2009). [pdf] [Cover]

260."Charge Transfer in Photoacids Observed by Stark Spectroscopy", Lisa N. Silverman, D.B. Spry, Steven G. Boxer, and M.D. Fayer, J. Phys. Chem. A, 112, 10244-10249, (2008). [pdf]

256. "Electrostatic Fields Near the Active Site of Human Aldose Reductase: 1. New Inhibitors and Vibrational Stark Effect Measurements", Lauren J. Webb and Steven G. Boxer, Biochemistry, 47, 1588-1598, (2008). [pdf]

255. "Stark Spectroscopy of Mixed-Valence Systems", Lisa N. Silverman, Pakorn Kanchanawong, Thomas P. Treynor, and Steven G. Boxer, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, 366, 33-45 (2008). [pdf]

248. "Vibrational Stark Effect Probes for Nucleic Acids", Lisa N. Silverman, Michael E. Pitzer, Peter O. Ankomah, Steven G. Boxer, and Edward E. Fenlon, J. Phys. Chem B,. 111, 11611-11613 (2007). [pdf] [Supplement]

247. "Do Ligand Binding and Solvent Exclusion Alter the Electrostatic Character within the Oxyanion Hole of an Enzymatic Active Site", Paul Sigala, Aaron T. Fafarman, Patrick E. Bogard, Steven G. Boxer, and Daniel Herschlag, JACS, 129, 12104-12105 (2007). [pdf]

243. "Site-Specific Conversion of Cysteine Thiols into Thiocyanate Creates an IR Probe for Electric Fields in Proteins", Aaron T. Fafarman, Lauren J. Webb, Jessica I. Chuang, and Steven G. Boxer, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 128, 13356-13357 (2006). [pdf] [Supplement]

241. "Charge Delocalization in the Special-Pair Radical Cation of Mutant Reaction Centers of Rhodobacter Sphaeroides from Stark Spectra and Nonadiabatic Spectral Simulations", Pakorn Kanchanawong, Mats G. Dahlbom, Thomas P. Treynor, Jeffrey R. Reimers, Noel S. Hush, and Steven G. Boxer, J. Phys. Chem. B, 110, 18688-18702 (2006). [pdf]

239. "Electric Fields at the Active Site of an Enzyme: Direct Comparison of Experiment with Theory ", Ian T. Suydam, Christopher D. Snow, Vijay S. Pande, and Steven G. Boxer, Science, 313, 200-204 (2006). [pdf]

224."Probing Excited-State Electron Transfer by Resonance Stark Spectroscopy: 4. Mutations near BL in Photosynthetic Reaction Centers Perturb Multiple Factors that Affect BL / f BL + HL", Thomas P. Treynor and Steven G. Boxer, J. Phys. Chem. B, 108, 13523-13535 (2004). [pdf]

223."Probing Excited-State Electron Transfer by Resonance Stark Spectroscopy: 3. Theoretical Foundations and Practical Applications", Thomas P. Treynor and Steven G. Boxer, J. Phys. Chem. B, 108, 13513-13522 (2004). [pdf]

221."A Theory of Intervalence Band Stark Effects", Thomas P. Treynor and Steven G. Boxer, J. Phys. Chem. A, 108, 1764-1778 (2004). [pdf]

219."Vibrational Stark Effects Calibrate the Sensitivity of Vibrational Probes for Electric Fields in Proteins", Ian T. Suydam and Steven G. Boxer, Biochemistry, 42, 12050-12055, (2003). [pdf]

218."Intervalence Band Stark Effect of the Special Pair Radical Cation in Bacterial Photosynthetic Reaction Centers", Thomas P. Treynor, Steven S. Andrews and Steven G. Boxer, J. Phys. Chem. B, 107, 11230-11239 (2003). [pdf]

207. "Origins of the Sensitivity of Molecular Vibrations to Electric Fields: Carbonyl and Nitrosyl Stretches in Model Compounds and Proteins", Eun Sun Park and Steven G. Boxer, J. Phys. Chem. B, 106, 5800-5806 (2002). [pdf]

205. "Vibrational Stark Effects of Nitriles II. Physical Origins of Stark Effects from Experiment and Perturbation Models", Steven S. Andrews and Steven G. Boxer, J. Phys. Chem. A, 106, 469-477 (2002). [pdf]

202. "Electrostatic and Conformational Effects on the Electronic Structures of Distortional Isomers of a Mixed-Valence Binuclear Cu Complex", Stefan Franzen, Vincent M. Miskowski, Andrew P. Shreve, Stacie E. Wallace-Williams, William H. Woodruff, Mark R. Ondrias, Mary E. Barr, Laura Moore, and Steven G. Boxer, Inorg. Chem., 40, 6375-6382 (2001). [pdf]

199. "Analysis of Noise for Rapid-Scan and Step-Scan Methods of FT-IR Difference spectroscopy", Steven S. Andrews and Steven G. Boxer, Applied Spectroscopy, 55, 1161-1165 (2001). [pdf]

187. "Vibrational Stark Effects of Nitriles I. Methods and Experimental Results", Steven S. Andrews and Steven G. Boxer, J. Phys Chem. A, 104, 11853-11863 (2000). [pdf]

186. "Vibrational Stark Spectroscopy of NO Bound to Heme: Effects of Protein Electrostatic Fields on the NO Stretch Frequency", Eun Sun Park, Melissa R. Thomas, and Steven G. Boxer, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 122, 12297-12303 (2000). [pdf]

183. "A liquid nitrogen immersion cryostat for optical measurements", Steven S. Andrews and Steven G. Boxer, Reviews of Scientific Instrumentation, 71, 3567-3569 (2000). [pdf]

176. "Vibrational Stark Spectroscopy in Proteins: A Probe and Calibration for Electrostatic Fields", Eunice Park, Steven Andrews and Steven G. Boxer, Journal of Physical Chemistry, 103, 9813-9817 (1999). [pdf]

174. "Excited State Electronic Asymmetry of the Special Pair in Photosynthetic Reaction Center Mutants: Absorption and Stark Spectroscopy", Laura J. Moore, Huilin Zhou, and Steven G. Boxer, Biochemistry, 38, 11949-11960 (1999). [pdf]

169. "Stark Effect Spectroscopy of the Heme Charge Transfer Bands of Deoxymyoglobin", Stefan Franzen, Laura J. Moore, William H. Woodruff, and Steven G. Boxer, Journal of Physical Chemisty, 103, 3070-3072 (1999). [pdf]

167. "Studies of the Electronic Structure of Metallocene-based Second-order Non-linear Optical Dyes", Stephen Barlow, Heather E. Bunting, Catherine Ringham, Jennifer C. Green, Gerold U. Bublitz, Steven G. Boxer, Joseph W. Perry, and Seth Marder, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 121, 3715-3723 (1999). [pdf]

165. "Probing Excited State Electron Transfer by Resonance Stark Spectroscopy. II. Theory and Application," Huilin Zhou and Steven G. Boxer, Journal of Physical Chemistry, 102, 9148-9160 (1998). [pdf]

164. "Probing Excited State Electron Transfer by Resonance Stark Spectroscopy. I. Experimental Results for Photosynthetic Reaction Centers," Huilin Zhou and Steven G. Boxer, Journal of Physical Chemistry, 102, 9139-9147 (1998). [pdf]

163. "The Electronic Structure of the Chromophore in Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP)". Gerold Bublitz, Brett King, and Steven G. Boxer, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 36, 9370-9371 (1998). [pdf]

161. "Effective Charger Transfer Distances in Mixed-Valence Transition Metal Complexes", Gerold U. Bublitz, William M. Laidlaw, Robert G. Denning and Steven G. Boxer, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 120, 6068-6075 (1998). [pdf]

159. "Effective Polarity of Frozen Solvent Glasses in the Vicinity of Dipolar Solutes", Gerold U. Bublitz and Steven G. Boxer, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 120, 3988-3992 (1998) [pdf]

153. "Characterization of the Light Harvesting Antennas of Photosynthetic Purple Bacteria by Stark Spectroscopy: I. LH1 Antenna Complex and the B820 Subunit from Rhodospirillum rubrum", Lucas M.P. Beekman, Martin Steffen, Ivo H.M. van Stokkum, John D. Olsen, C. Neil Hunter, Steven G. Boxer, and Rienk van Grondelle, Journal of Physical Chemistry, 101, 7284-7292 (1997). [pdf]

150. "Charge Resonance Effects on Electronic Absorption Lineshapes: Application to the Heterodimer Absorption of Bacterial Photosynthetic Reaction Centers", Huilin Zhou and Steven G. Boxer, Journal of Physical Chemistry, 101, 5759-5766 (1997). [pdf]

148. "Large Molecular Third-Order Optical Nonlinearities in Polarized Carotenoids", S.R. Marder, W.E. Torruellas, M. Blanchard-Desce, V. Ricci, G.I. Stegeman, S. Gilmour, J.-L. Brédas, J. Li, Gerold Bublitz, and Steven G. Boxer, Science, 276, 1233-1236 (1997). [pdf]

147. "Stark Spectroscopy: Applications in Chemistry, Biology and Materials Science", Gerold Bublitz, and Steven G. Boxer, Annual Reviews of Physical Chemistry, 48, 213-242 (1997). [pdf]

146. "Stark Spectroscopy of Donor/Acceptor Substituted Polyenes", Gerold U. Bublitz, Raphael Ortiz, Seth R. Marder, and Steven G. Boxer, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 119, 3365-3376 (1997). [pdf]

143. "Stark Spectroscopy of Donor-Acceptor Polyenes: Correlation with Nonlinear Optical Measurements", Gerold U. Bublitz, Rafael Ortiz, Claude Runser, Alain Fort, Marguerite Barzoukas, Seth R. Marder, and Steven G. Boxer, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 119, 2311-2312 (1997). [pdf]

136. "Ultra-fast Excited State Dynamics in Green Fluorescent Protein: Multiple States and Proton Transfer", Mita Chattoraj, Brett A. King, Gerold U. Bublitz, and Steven G. Boxer, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 93, 8362-8367 (1996). [pdf]

133. "Stark Spectroscopy of Photosynthetic Systems", Steven G. Boxer (J. Amesz and A. Hoff eds.), Biophysical Techniques in in Photosynthesis, Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 3, 177-189 (1996). [pdf]

132. "Dipolar Character of Ligand-Centered Transitions in Transition Metal Tris-bipyridine Complexes", Stephan J. Hug, and Steven G. Boxer, Inorganica Chimica Acta, 242, 323-327 (1996). [pdf]

127. "Effects of Applied Electric Fields on the Quantum Yields for the Initial Electron Transfer Steps in Bacterial Photosynthesis: II. Dynamic Stark Effect", Kaiqin Lao, Stefan Franzen, Martin Steffen, David Lambright Robert Stanley, and Steven G. Boxer, Chemical Physics, 197, 259-275 (1995). [pdf]

124. "Stark Effect Spectroscopy of Tryptophan", Daniel W. Pierce and Steven G. Boxer, Biophysical Journal, 68, 1583-1591 (1995). [pdf]

122. "Vibrational Stark Effect Spectroscopy", Arun Chattapadhyay and Steven G. Boxer, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 117, 1449-1450 (1995). [pdf]

120. "Higher-Order Stark Spectroscopy: Polarizability of Photosynthetic Pigments", Kaiqin Lao, Laura J. Moore, Huilin Zhou, and Steven G. Boxer, Journal of Physical Chemistry, 99, 496-500 (1995). [pdf]

113. "Dielectric Asymmetry in the Photosynthetic Reaction Center", Martin A. Steffen, Kaiqin Lao, and Steven G. Boxer, Science, 264, 810-816 (1994). [pdf]

109. "Effects of Applied Electric Fields on the Quantum Yields of the Initial Electron-Transfer Steps in Bacterial Photosynthesis. 1. Quantum Yield Failure", Kaiqin Lao, Stefan Franzen, Robert J. Stanley, David G. Lambright, and Steven G. Boxer, Journal of Physical Chemistry, 97, 13165-13171 (1993). [pdf]

108. "Stark Effect Spectroscopy of the 1250 nm P+ Band of Rhodobacter sphaeroides Reaction Centers and Related Model Compounds", Jonathan W. Stocker, Stephan Hug and Steven G. Boxer, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1144, 325-330 (1993). [pdf]

106. "Stark Effect (Electroabsorption) Spectroscopy of Photosynthetic Reaction Centers at 1.5 K: Evidence that the Special Pair has a Large Excited-State Polarizability", Thomas R. Middendorf, Laura T. Mazzola, Kaiqin Lao, Martin A. Steffen, and Steven G. Boxer, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1144, 223-234 (1993). [pdf]

104. "Temperature Dependence of the Electric Field Modulation of Electron-Transfer Rates: Charge Recombination in Photosynthetic Reaction Centers", Stefan Franzen, and Steven G. Boxer, Journal of Physical Chemistry, 97, 6304-6318 (1993). [pdf]

100. "Photosynthetic Reaction Center Spectroscopy and Electron Transfer Dynamics in Applied Electric Fields", Steven G. Boxer (J. Deisenhofer and J.R. Norris, eds.), The Photosynthetic Reaction Center , Academic Press, 2, 179-220 (1993).

99. "Electric Field Effects on the Quantum Yields and Kinetics of Fluorescence and Transient Intermediates in Bacterial Reaction Centers", Steven G. Boxer, Stefan Franzen, Kaiqin Lao, David J. Lockhart, Robert Stanley, Martin Steffen, and Jonathan W. Stocker (J. Breton and A. Vermeglio, Eds.), The Photosynthetic Bacterial Reaction Center II, Plenum Press, New York, 271-282 (1992).

94. "Electric Field Effects on Kinetics of Electron Transfer Reactions: Connection Between Experiment and Theory", Stefan Franzen, Kaiqin Lao, and Steven G. Boxer, Chemical Physics Letters, 197, 380 (1992). [pdf]

91. "Studies of Crystalline Aggregates of Pheophorbide and Bacteriopheophorbide by Electro-Absorption (Stark Effect) Spectroscopy and Powder X-ray Diffraction", David S. Gottfried and Steven G. Boxer, Journal of Luminescence (special issue), 51, 39-50 (1992). [pdf]

85. "Stark Effect Spectroscopy of Carotenoids in Reaction Center and Antenna Complexes from Photosynthetic Bacteria", David S. Gottfried, Martin A. Steffen, and Steven G. Boxer, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1059, 76-90 (1991). [pdf]

84. "Stark Effect Spectroscopy of Bacteriochlorophyll in Light-harvesting Complexes from Photosynthetic Bacteria", David S. Gottfried, Jonathan Stocker, and Steven G. Boxer, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1059, 63-75 (1991). [pdf]

83. "Electroabsorption (Stark Effect) Spectroscopy of Mono- and Biruthenium Charge-Transfer Complexes: Measurements of Changes in Dipole Moments and Other Electrooptic Properties", Dennis H. Oh., Mitsura Sano, and Steven G. Boxer, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 113, 6880-6890 (1991). [pdf]

82. "Manipulation of Electron-Transfer Reaction Rates with Applied Electric Fields: Application of Long Distance Charge Recombination in Photosynthetic Reaction Centers", Stefan Franzen, and Steven G. Boxer (J.R. Bolton, N. Mataga, G. McLendon, eds.), Advances in Chemistry Series, 228, 149-162 (1991).

81. "Electric Field Effects on Emission Line Shapes when Electron Transfer Competes with Emission: an Example from Photosynthetic Reaction Centers", David J. Lockhart, Sharon L. Hammes, Stefan Franzen. and Steven G. Boxer, Journal of Physical Chemistry, 95, 2217-2226 (1991). [pdf]

80. "Large Protein-Induced Dipoles for a Symmetric Carotenoid in a Photosynthetic Antenna Complex", David S. Gottfried, Martin A. Steffen, and Steven G. Boxer, Science, 251, 662-665 (1991). [pdf]

78. "Electric Field Modulation of the Fluorescence Lineshape for Photosynthetic Reaction Centers: A New Probe of the Primary Electron Transfer Mechanism", S. G. Boxer, D. J. Lockhart, S. Franzen and S. H. Hammes, Springer Series in Biophysics (M.-E. Michel-Beyerle, Ed.), 6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 147-155 (1990).

76. "Electrochromism in the Near-Infrared Absorption Spectra of Bridged Ruthenium Mixed-Valence Complexes", Dennis H. Oh and Steven G. Boxer, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 112, 8161-8162 (1990). [pdf]

75. "Electric Field Effects on the Initial Electron-Transfer Kinetics in Bacterial Photosynthetic Reaction Centers", David J. Lockhart, Christine Kirmaier, Dewey Holten, and Steven G. Boxer, Journal of Physical Chemistry, 94, 6987-6995 (1990). [pdf]

73. "Stark Effect Spectroscopy of the Rhodobacter sphaeroides Reaction Center Heterodimer Mutant", Sharon Hammes, Laura Mazzola, Steven G. Boxer, Dale F. Gaul, and Craig C. Schenck, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 87, 5682-5686 (1990). [pdf]

72. "Electric Field Modulation of Electron Transfer Reaction Rates in Isotropic Systems: Long-Distance Charge Recombination in Photosynthetic Reaction Centers", Stefan Franzen, Robert F. Goldstein, and Steven G. Boxer, Journal of Physical Chemistry, 94, 5135-5149 (1990). [pdf]

70. "Electric Field Effects on the Initial PS Electron Transfer Kinetics and Spectra of Wild-Type and Heterodimer Mutant Rb. sphaeroides Reaction Centers", Steven G. Boxer, David J. Lockhart, Sharon Hammes, Laura Mazzola, Christine Kirmaier, Dewey Holten, Dale Gaul, and Craig Schenck, in Current Research in Photosynthesis, M. Baltscheffsky, Ed., Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1, 113-116 (1990).

67. "Mechanism of Charge Separation in Photosynthetic Reaction Centers: Electric Field Effects on the Initial Electron Transfer Kinetics", Steven G. Boxer, David J. Lockhart, Christine Kirmaier, and Dewey Holten, Proceedings of the 22nd Jerusalem Symposium on Quantum Chemistry and Biochemistry, J. Jortner and B. Pullman, Eds., Kluwer Academic Publishers, 39-52 (1990).

66. "Excited States, Electron Transfer Reactions, and Intermediates in Bacterial Photosynthetic Reaction Centers", Steven G. Boxer, Richard A. Goldstein, David J. Lockhart, Thomas R. Middendorf and Larry Takiff, Journal of Physical Chemistry, 93, 8280-8294 (1989). [pdf]

58. "Stark Effect Spectra of Ru(Diimine)32+ Complexes", Dennis H. Oh and Steven G. Boxer, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 111, 1130-1131 (1989). [pdf]

56. "Electric Field Effects on Electron Transfer Reaction in Isotropic Systems", Steven G. Boxer, David J. Lockhart, and Stefan Franzen, in Photochemical Energy Conversion, J.R. Norris, Jr. and D. Meisel, Eds., Elsevier, New York, pp. 196-210 (1989).

54. "Structure-Based Analysis of the Initial Electron Transfer Step in Bacterial Photosynthesis: Electric Field Induced Fluorescence Anisotropy", David J. Lockhart, Robert F. Goldstein, and Steven G. Boxer, Journal of Chemical Physics, 89, 1408-1415 (1988). [pdf]

48. "Electric Field Modulation of the Fluorescence Spectrum from Rhodobacter Sphaeroides Reaction Centers", David J. Lockhart and Steven G. Boxer, Chemical Physics Letters, 144, 243-250 (1988). [pdf]

47. "Stark Effect Spectroscopy of Rhodobacter Sphaeroides and Rhodopseudomonas Viridis Reaction Centers," David J. Lockhart and Steven G. Boxer, Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, U.S.A., 85, 107-111 (1988). [pdf]

46. "Photochemical Holeburning and Stark Spectroscopy of Photosynthetic Reaction Centers", Steven G. Boxer, David J. Lockhart, and Thomas R. Middendorf, Springer Proceedings in Physics, 20, 80-90 (1987).

41. "Magnitude and Direction of the Change in Dipole Moment Associated with Excitation of the Primary Electron Donor in Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides Reaction Centers", David J. Lockhart, and Steven G. Boxer, Biochemistry, 26, 664-668; (1987). [pdf]

   
       
     
       
The Boxer LaboratoryStanford UniversityDepartment of Chemistry • 380 Roth Way, Stanford, California, 94305-5012 • (650) 723-4482
Questions about this website may be directed to Debra Frank. • Website updated March 2012.