When vesicles are tethered to a patterned supported lipid bilayer containing a small percentage of negatively charged lipids, the tethered vesicles move in the direction of electro-osmosis. In the video on the left, the vesicles first move to one side of the corral (50 μm grid), and upon reversing the direction of the field, the vesicles move the opposite direction. The negatively charged dye molecules in the supported bilayer move toward the positive electrode by electrophoresis, as seen in the video on the right. Once the field is removed, the dye molecules then diffuse randomly within the corral.
"Controlling Two-Dimensional Tethered Vesicle Motion Using an Electric Field: Interplay of Electrophoresis and Electro-Osmosis", Chiaki Yoshina-Ishii and Steven G. Boxer, Langmuir, 22, 2384-2391 (2006). [pdf]