A Chinese-language book, 北美鐵路華工：歷史、文學與視覺再現 [Chinese Railroad Workers in North America: Recovery and Representation], edited by Hsinya Huang [黃心雅] was published in December in Taipei by Bookman [台北：書林出版社]. The book, which features a preface by Chinese Railroad Workers in North America Project co-directors Gordon H. Chang and Shelley Fisher Fishkin, was produced by scholars from Asia and North America who have been collaborating on Project for the last three years.
Professors Chang and Fishkin were featured speakers (along with Professor Selia Tan of Wuyi University, China) at a book launch at National Sun Yat-sen University in Kaohsiung, Taiwan on December 14, as well as at a book launch at National Taiwan Normal University in Taipei on December 15.
The December 14 event, which was organized by Professor Hsinya Huang (National Sun Yat-sen University), was opened by Professor Ying-Yao Cheng, President of National Sun Yat-sen University. The event included a roundtable featuring many of the seventeen contributors to the volume. Other speakers included Matthew O’Connor (Kaohsiung Branch Chief, AIT), Professors Pin-chia Feng (National Chiao Tung University), Chen-ching Li (Shi Hsin University), Shuli Chang (National Cheng Kung University), and Yu-cheng Lee (Academia Sinica). The book launch in Taipei, at which Chang, Fishkin, and Tan were featured speakers, was coordinated by Professor Bo-Wei Chiang, chair of the Department of East Asian Studies of National Taiwan Normal University, and Professor En-Mei Wang of NTNU, and was moderated by Professor Iping Liang of NTNU, a contributor to the volume.
北美鐵路華工：歷史、文學與視覺再現 [Chinese Railroad Workers in North America: Recovery and Representation] was supported by a grant from the Chiang Ching-Kuo Foundation. Dr. Pauline Yu, CCK Foundation board member (and President of the American Council of Learned Societies) attended the book launch in Taipei.
The book’s seventeen chapters—arranged in sections devoted to recovery, home, memory, labor, and representation—span disparate geographies, histories, and disciplines; texts and contexts; and archival research and field work in locals ranging from the sending villages in China to the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Together they help address the lack of attention that Chinese railroad workers in North America have received. The contributors, who come from history, literature, archaeology, architecture, political science, American Studies and East Asian Studies, are:
This interdisciplinary volume will interest scholars in the humanities, diaspora studies, American history and culture, ethnic studies, minority labor studies, and transnational studies.
The Tacoma Art Museum (TAM) and the Chinese Reconciliation Project Foundation jointly presented a two-part commemorative program on November 4. The day began with a walk from the Chinese Reconciliation Park to the Tacoma Art Museum, following Pacific Avenue—the same road on which the Chinese of Tacoma were expelled from their homes, and then violently driven out of town on November 3, 1885.
The event then hosted a symposium about the Chinese, the railroads, and Tacoma with CRRW Project co-director Professor Shelley Fisher Fishkin (Stanford University), Professor Shawn Wong, (University of Washington), and Professor Zhi Lin (University of Washington), whose one-man show, “Zhi Lin: In Search of the Lost History of Chinese Migrants and the Transcontinental Railroads,” is featured at the museum.
More than 40 participants completed the walk, and more than 60 attended the symposium. One of the activities involved writing names of Chinese railroad workers on small rocks and placing them in the ballast of a piece in Zhi Lin’s exhibit, alongside rocks on which Zhi Lin had previously written many railroad workers’ names.
Shelley Fisher Fishkin wrote Chin Lin Sou’s name on a rock, and then with Zhi Lin, placed the rock in the ballast at the exhibit.
Zhi Lin had already incorporated into the ballast the names of Central Pacific Railroad Chinese railroad workers that the CRRW Project had sent to him, so Chin Lin Sou is represented more than once.
The photo of the four symposium participants includes Theresa Pan, creator of the Chinese Reconciliation Park, and Shawn Wong, Zhi Lin and Professor Fishkin.
During the Symposium for Undergraduate Research and Public Service that took place during the 2017 Stanford University Homecoming Reunion Weekend in October, 2017, Jeongeun Park presented on her research assistance for the Chinese Railroad Workers in North America Project at Stanford University.
The Project has interviewed almost forty descendants of Chinese railroad workers to recover the experiences of those workers through oral history. “This summer, I completed the transcription of all available interviews,” she explained. “While employing Google’s Cloud Speech application programming interface (API) was a breakthrough in the transcription, I also edited the interviews for human variability. Following the completion of the preliminary transcripts, I have been analyzing them on both macro and micro scales.
“As the descendants are several generations apart from the railroad workers of interest, mortality and language have erected barriers to the recovery of an ancestor’s history. Nevertheless, these oral histories speak to the role that the self-identification as a descendant of the Railroad workers plays in the formation of the modern Chinese-American identity.”
On August 26 at St. Jude’s Church Parish Hall in Cupertino, Shelley Fisher Fishkin, Co-Director of the Chinese Railroad Workers in North America Project at Stanford, gave a talk to the US-China People’s Friendship Association South Bay Chapter on “Seeing Absence, Listening to Silence: The Challenge of Reconstructing Chinese Railroad Workers Lives.”
Attendees included several people who have been involved in the Chinese Railroad Workers Project, such as Monica Yeung Arima, an enthusiastic supporter of the Project, current Stanford graduate student Hao Zou, and former Stanford graduate student Catherine Zhao, both of whom have contributed research and expertise. Former Southern Pacific employee, Audie Chang was also present.
Winny Lim (Center), president of the US-China People’s Friendship Association, and Shirley Lin Kinoshita, representing the USCPFA Board of Directors, present a Certificate of Recognition to Shelley Fisher Fishkin after her lecture. Photo by Hao Zou.
Shelley Fisher Fishkin, Co-Director of the CRRW Project, contributed an essayto Zhi Lin: In Search of the Lost History of Chinese Migrants and the Transcontinental Railroads, the exhibition catalogue accompanying the current exhibit by artist Zhi Lin at the Tacoma Art Museum. Fishkin attended the opening of the exhibit on June 27 and signed books with fellow contributors, Zhi Lin and novelist Shawn Wong.
Shawn Wong (left), Zhi Lin (center) and Shelley Fisher Fishkin (right) holding the exhibition catalogue. (Photo courtesy of Shelley Fisher Fishkin)
Fishkin’s essay, entitled “Seeing Absence, Evoking Presence: History and the Art of Zhi Lin,” explores the history of the Chinese who built the Central Pacific Railroad and the Northern Pacific Railroad, and who sustained the Union Pacific railroad by mining the coal that fueled the engines of its trains. They were rewarded for their efforts with gratuitous violence and expulsion from the communities they had done so much to build, including Tacoma.
(Photo by Shelley Fisher Fishkin)
In “Invisible and Unwelcomed People: Chinese Railroad Workers,” Zhi Lin evokes terrains on which the Chinese worked, lived, and died—with no Chinese in them. He paints hauntingly empty landscapes of the American West that the Chinese changed forever—scenery that the Chinese railroad workers inhabited as they built and maintained the railroad—but with none of the workers themselves in the picture. He aims to do more than commemorate the Chinese role in transforming the American West: he wants to help his viewer become aware not only of what they did, but also of their erasure in the stories the nation has told about itself to itself. By helping us to see these workers’ absence, Fishkin notes, Zhi Lin manages to evoke their presence.
Chinese Reconciliation Park, 2017. Chinese ink on paper, 8¾ × 12 inches.
There are surface resemblances between Zhi Lin’s work and that of Western landscape artists such as Thomas Girtin and John Constable on the one hand, and an Eastern landscape artist like the 11th-century Northern Song dynasty artist Qu Ding. But, as Fishkin observes, while drawing his inspiration from both Eastern and Western artistic traditions, Zhi Lin challenges the adequacy of either to do justice the complicated history that his art engages. The most recent work in the exhibition, which Fishkin also discusses, deals specifically with the violent expulsion of the Chinese from Tacoma in 1885.
As he visually and verbally evokes the presence of the “invisible and unwelcomed” Chinese railroad workers whose Herculean feats helped America become a thriving modern nation, Zhi Lin reminds us of the power of art to illuminate the complexity of the past.
Fishkin will speak on a panel with Zhi Lin in Tacoma on November 3, the anniversary of the Chinese expulsion from Tacoma. The exhibit will be on display at the Tacoma Art Museum through February 18, 2018.
Stanford Sierra Camp sits on the shores of Fallen Leaf Lake
In late July, project co-director Gordon H. Chang presented two talks on the Chinese railroad workers to Stanford alumni and friends at the Stanford Sierra Camp on Fallen Leaf Lake, near Lake Tahoe. Two hundred audience members attended the talks, which focused on the work the Chinese completed in the Sierras. Many in the audience had seen the rail line in the area above Donner Lake and near Truckee, but didn’t know its history.
Chang spoke about tunneling and constructing “China Walls,” the massive retaining walls that hold up parts of the rail line. The director of the camp noted that he had heard that several of the stone walls around the camp had also been built by Chinese. History was right there!
A plaque commemorates the building of the “China Wall” in the Sierra Nevada, a “railroad retaining wall…constructed of Sierra granite.” These structures helped the Central Pacific Railway (and later the Southern Pacific Railway) cross the mountains. (Source: UCSB)
An example of a retaining wall is visible in the background behind the plaque. (Photo by Wayne Hsieh)
Hilton Obenzinger, Associate Director of the CRRW Project, presented a talk on the Chinese and the Transcontinental Railroad during the Chinese Historical Society of Southern California’s “5th Annual Pilgrimage to Yosemite National Park Commemorating the Contributions of the Chinese in the Sierra Nevada,” which ran from July 27 to August 2, 2017.
The annual pilgrimage is inspired by famous “mountain chef” Ty Sing and the Chinese American workers who built the Wawona Road in 1875 and the Tioga Road in 1882 through Yosemite. Ty Sing ran a field kitchen for the Chief Geographer of the United States Geological Survey.
In 1915 he cooked for the famous Stephen Mather, first director of the National Park Service, and his mountain expedition of 18 powerful men from the public and private sector. The expedition helped to garner support for the development of the National Parks. The men on the expedition hailed the Chinese cook as “a gourmet chef of the Sierra” and “philosopher of the Sierra.” One of the mountains in Yosemite National Park was subsequently named Sing Peak in honor of Ty Sing, and every year during the pilgrimage hardy participants climb the peak.
The talk, held in the “Grey Barn” in the historic district of Wawona, was open to the public and well attended with many questions and insights from the audience. Other events of the Pilgrimage included a hike along the original Tioga Road, walks to other historic sites, such as where Chinese worked to service the hotel in the area, and demonstrations of Chinese cooking from a hundred years ago.
Though it cannot be confirmed, it is quite possible that some of the Chinese workers who built the roads and staffed the hotels in Yosemite may have also worked on constructing the transcontinental railroad, as well as other North American railroads of the late-nineteenth century. Hilton Obenzinger was greatly honored to participate in the Pilgrimage, and the talk was well received.
Hilton Obenziger gives a lecture on the Chinese Railroad Project to Pilgrimage participants. (Photos by CJ Joee)
Yosemite Park Ranger Yenyen Chan discusses park history with the Pilgrimage group. (Photo by Hilton Obenzinger)
On the banks of the river (Photo by Hilton Obenzinger)
Hilton Obenzinger with Yosemite Park Ranger Yenyen Chan. (Courtesy of Hilton Obenzinger)
Group photo of the CHSSC 5th Annual Pilgrimage on the Tuolumne River (Photo by Jack Hsu)
The Chinese American Historical Society of North America hosted a panel organized by Lotus Yee Fong, on the topic of “‘The Golden Spike’ Chinese and Irish Labor versus the Big Four.” The event on July 12 was part of the LaborFest celebration in San Francisco.
Paulette Liang, a descendant of a railroad worker, related her family’s history. Hilton Obenzinger, of the Chinese Railroad Workers in North America Project, told the story of the 1867 strike of the Chinese workers in the Sierra. Loni Ding’s film “The Canton Army in the High Sierra” was screened, and CCSF Labor Professor Bill Shields and others spoke to a full house. Rick Quan, familiar to Bay Area people as a sportscaster, also attended the event.
Paulette Liang, a descendant of a Chinese railroad worker:
Hilton Obenzinger spoke about the 1867 strike by Chinese workers:
Bay Area sports journalist and television personality Rick Quan with Hilton Obenzinger:
On April 11, 2017, Hilton Obenzinger, Associate Director of the Chinese Railroad Workers in North America Project, joined Sue Lee, Executive Director, Chinese Historical Society of America, Paulette Liang, Chinese Railroad worker descendant, and James Zarsadiaz, Assistant Professor of History, University of San Francisco, on a panel to discuss the role of Chinese workers to build the transcontinental railroad. Paulette Liang’s presentation was particularly powerful, as she discussed her ancestor who worked on the railroad and on the accomplishments of her family in California through the years. San Francisco University President Rev. Paul Fitzgerald also spoke to introduce the panel, underscoring the relevance of the history of the Chinese railroad workers to issues today, particularly the importance of immigrants in U.S. history in an atmosphere of increasing anti-immigrant sentiment. Thanks also to Jessica Lu and Sherise Kimura, of the Gleeson Library, for organizing the event.
Panel at the event, including Associate Director Hilton Obenzinger (center)
Obenzinger presenting to the event:
USF President Rev. Paul Fitzgerald speaking before the event:
This forum was perhaps the first event to ever bring together the Irish and Chinese communities to discuss the role of both groups in the construction of the Transcontinental Railroad, which was followed by anti-Chinese agitation, leading to the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882.
An overflow crowd of over 140 listened to presentations by Barry McCarron, assistant professor of Irish Studies at NYU, and Gordon H. Chang, professor of history and co-director of the Chinese Railroad Workers in North America Project at Stanford.
Introductions were given by Hillary Flynn of Irish Crossroads and Lotus Fong, Chinese American community activist. There was difficult history to encounter, but the basis was set for further joint actions. Professor McCarron is launching a project on Irish railroad workers that will do much to help the CRRWP.
The event took place on March 25, 2017 at the United Irish Community Cultural Center in San Francisco.
From left, Hilton Obenzinger, Prof. Barry McCarron, Lotus Fong, Hillary Flynn, Prof. Gordon H. Chang
Philip Choy, architect, educator and activist, passed away at 91 on March 16, 2017. He was a stalwart in the social justice movement, and a leading advocate for the recognition of the role the Chinese had played in shaping the United States. A pioneering teacher and scholar, he co-taught with Him Mark Lai the first Chinese American history class in the nation at San Francisco State University.
In 1969, as president of the Chinese Historical Society of America (CHSA), Choy joined others at the 100th anniversary of the Golden Spike ceremony commemorating the completion of the transcontinental railroad. The CHSA had prepared two commemorative plaques in English and Chinese to be placed in Sacramento and at the site of the Golden Spike ceremony to honor the Chinese, who constituted as much as 90 percent of the workforce of the Central Pacific Railroad.
At the ceremony, they heard Secretary of Transportation John Volpe declaim: “Who else but Americans could drill ten tunnels in mountains 30 feet deep in snow? Who else but Americans could chisel through miles of solid granite? Who else but Americans could have laid ten miles of track in 12 hours?”
Choy, Thomas Chinn, Connie Young Yu, and the members and officers of the CHSA, sat shocked and outraged. It was Chinese workers—men who were barred from becoming “Americans” at the time—who had actually done the drilling, chiseling and track laying across the Sierra Nevada of California and the deserts of Nevada and Utah. Yet Secretary Volpe, the official speaker of the day, had failed to even mention them. The deliberate snub was one more spark fueling the nascent Asian American movement.
Philip Choy speaking at the Chinese Railroad Workers in North America Project Archaeology Workshop at Stanford, October 10-12, 2013
Philip Choy was a participant in the founding workshop/conference of the Chinese Railroad Workers in North America Project at Stanford, and gave presentations at the Project’s first workshop of its archaeologists network. He will be greatly missed—and he will be remembered and honored at the 150th anniversary of the Golden Spike in 2019.
Below is a link to his obituary in TheSan Francisco Chronicle:
A film by Glenn Robert Lym as a part of his San Francisco Bay Area Video Podcast series called HERE. The whole series can be found on iTunes and Youtube.
This film is the story of railroad worker Lim Lip Hong and his wife, Chan Shee. It tells of their life and the family they raised in the 1800s on a ranch in Dogpatch, the Potrero, in San Francisco. In it, Glenn Robert Lym (great grandson of Lim Lip Hong and Chan Shee) explores why they chose to raise their family in outer San Francisco, and how they managed to do this so successfully in a period of intense anti-Chinese discrimination in Western United States.
Synopsis from Mr. Lym:
This is the story of my Chinese great grandfather Lim Lip Hong and my great grandmother Chan Shee and the family they raised in the late 1800’s on a ranch in Dogpatch, the Potrero, San Francisco on the then Bay shoreline. Lim Lip Hong had returned to San Francisco after working more than a decade in the Sierra’s and beyond, helping build railroads that criss-crossed the American West.
Why did they raise their family on a ranch in rural, outlying San Francisco instead of in protected Chinatown? And how could they do this during a period of intense anti-Chinese discrimination in San Francisco and throughout the West?
The ranch was half a acre large and located at the front gate of the biggest Potrero factory at the time – Tubbs Cordage. The ranch was intact for over 4 decades. Yet the family was never run off the property. Seven children and several grand children total were born at the ranch.
There are indications that the oldest son was employed at Tubbs as a teenager. By 1910, he was in business, doing many of the same services for Asian ships that Tubbs Cordage had done for Caucasian interests.
The 1906 Earthquake led to a dispersal of the family. Most the older offspring relocated with their own families to East Bay. The elders, the oldest son and his family and the youngest offspring remained in on the ranch. But by the early 1920’s, the ranch was demolished to make way for the construction of Minnesota Street. With the end of the ranch came the death of Lim Lip Hong.
Chan Shee and the remaining family members moved to two adjoining houses erected on a 1/10 of the original ranch land, lands post-deeded to the oldest son after the Earthquake destroyed City property records. This transaction was never contested by the Tubb family, who in fact gifted one of the houses to the oldest son in exchange for moving it from its earlier location that blocked expansion of the nearby vinegar, yeast and fertilizer factory.
This six decade tale leads to interesting suggestions about the identify of great grandfather Lim Lip Hong. Life at the ranch gave me a profound understanding of my own grandfather, Lim Lip Hong’s second son.