IBM ALMADEN RESEARCH

 

Jane Frommer

James L. Hedrick

Robert D. Miller

Mark Sherwood

William Swope

Charles G. Wade

 

 

Jane Frommer(top)

IBM Almaden Research Center, 650 Harry Road, San Jose, CA 95120; Phone: (408) 927-2224, Fax: (408) 927-2100, E-mail: frommer@almaden.ibm.com

Jane Frommer received her B.S. in Chemistry at Tufts University in 1975 while performing undergraduate research at MIT in Bioorganicchemistry.   She then worked in Endocrinology at Harvard Medical School on the Photobiochemistry of VitaminD.  Her Ph.D. was obtained in 1980 from Caltech in Organometallic Chemistry.  Following graduate school, she entered the young field of electronically conducting polymers at Allied Corporate Research Center (Morristown NJ) where she discovered the solution state of organic electronic conductors.  In 1986 she joined IBM's Almaden Research Center and became involved in another newly evolving field: scanning probe microscopy.  Her early accomplishments included the identification and manipulation of organic molecules by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM).    Momentum was carried over to early application of atomic force microscopy (AFM) to organics, much of which was performed while on leave to the University of Basel Switzerland.  Among those early studies were demonstrations of molecular resolution imaging in vanderWaals-bound films and of chemical species sensitivity in lateral force measurements.  

Her present AFM lab at IBM collaborates with a wide variety of laboratories involved in materials research, including lithography, chromatography, and storage, both at IBM and in academia.   Common to all these studies is Frommer's interest in the properties and structure of molecules in confined geometries.

SELECTED PUBLICATIONS

  1. J.E.Frommer "Conducting Polymers: The Introduction of Solutions," Accounts of Chemical Research 19, 2, 1986.
  1. J.E.Frommer and R.R.Chance "Electrically Conductive Polymers," in Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Engineering, Vol.5, second edition, edited by M.Grayson and J.Kroschwitz, Wiley, New York, p.462, 1986.
  1. J.S.Foster, J.E.Frommer, and P.C.Arnett "Molecular Manipulation Using a Tunnelling Microscope" Nature 331, 324,1988.
  1. J.Frommer "The Emerging Presence of STM and AFM in Organic Chemistry" Angewandte Chemie Int. Ed. Engl., 31, 1298, 1992.
  1. R. Overney, E. Meyer, J. Frommer, D. Brodbeck, R. Lüthi, L. Howald, H.-J. Güntherodt, M. Fujihira, H. Takano, Y. Gotoh "Friction measurements on phase-separated domains in thin organic film with a modified atomic force microscope", Nature 359, 133, 1992.
  1. J. Frommer, R. Luethi, E. Meyer, D. Anselmetti, R. Overney, H. Guentherodt, and M. Fujihira "Mixed Energy Surfaces for Selective Adsorption", Nature, 364, 198, 1993.
  1. J. Frommer Founding Editor, R. Colton,  A.. Engel, J. Frommer, H. Gaub, A. Gewirth, M. Guckenberger, W. Heckl, B. Parkinson "Procedures in Scanning Probe Microscopies" Eds. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, 1998.
  1. J. Frommer, R. Overney "Interfacial Properties on the Submicron Scale" ACS Symposium Series 781, Oxford University Press, 2001.
  1. J. Liu, S. Cruchon-Dupeyrat, J. Garno, J. Frommer,  and G-Y Liu "Three-Dimensional Nanostructure Construction via Nanografting: Positive and Negative Pattern Transfer"  Nano Lett. 2, 937, 2002.

 

James L. Hedrick (top)

Research Staff Member, IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA 95120. B.S. Chemistry, Virginia Tech 1981; Ph.D. Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Tech 1985. Phone: (408) 927-1632, Fax (408)927-3310, email: hedrick@almaden.ibm.com.

Our interest has focused on the sythesis of multiphase block copolymers and polymers with complex architectures. Dendritic and multifunctional orthogonal initiators, living/controlled polymerization procedures, quantitative organic transformations and new monomers have been prepared and used for the construction of these complex materials including star-shaped, dendrimer-like star, hyperbranched, radical block copolymers (unimolecular micelles) and dendritic-linear architectures. Nanophase separated block copolymers having diverse morphologies and properites have been tailored to address such important issues in microelectronic fabrication as stress, dielectric constant, adhesion and lithography.

SELECTED PUBLICATIONS

  1. Shah, R.; Mecerreyes, D.; Husemann, M.; Hawker, C.J.; Hedrick, J.L. "Use of ATRP to Amplify Initiators Patterned on Surfaces by Microcontact Printing into Polymeric Barriers for Wet Chemical Etchants". Macromolecules, in press, 4390, 1998.
  2. Trollsas, M.; Lowenhielm, P.; Lee, V.; Moeller, M.; Miller, R.D.; Hedrick, J.L. "A New Apporach to Hyperbranched Polyesters: Self-Condensing Cyclic Ester Polymerization of Bis(hydroxymethyl) Substituted e-caprolactone". Macromolecules, in press, 1998.
  3. Trollsas, M.; Hedrick, J.L.; Kelly, M.A.; Claesson, H.; Siemens, R. "Highly Branched Block Copolymers: Design, Synthesis and Morphology". Macromolecules 32, 4917, 1999.
  4. Hedrick, J.L.; Carter, K.; Labadie, J.; Miller, R.D.; Yoon, D.; Russell, T.; McGrath, J.E.; Brider, R. "Nanoporous Polyimides". Adv. Polym. Sci., 140, 1, 1999.
  5. Trollsas, M.; Hedrick, J.L. "Dendrimer-like Star Polymers". J. Am. Chem. Soc., 120, 4644, 1999.
  6. Trollsas, M.; Atthoff, B.; Claesson, H.; Hedrick, J.L. "Layered Dendritic Block Copolymers". Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. Engl., 37, 3132, 1999.
  7. Husemann, M.; Shah, R.; Abbott, N.L.; Mecerreyes, D.; Hawker, C.J.; Hedrick, J.L. "Surface-Initiated Polymerization of Self-Assembled Monolayers Patterned by Microcontact Printing". Angewandte Chemie, 38 , 647, 1999.
  8. Heise, A.; Hedrick, J.L.; Frank, C.W.; Miller, R.D. "Star-like Block Copolymers with Amphilic Arms as Models for Unimolecular Micelles". J. Am. Chem. Soc., 121, 8647, 1999.

Robert D. Miller (top)

Research Staff Member, IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA (b. 1941). B.S. Chemistry, 1963, Lafayette College, Easton, PA.; Organic Chemistry, Ph.D., 1968 Cornell University, Ithaca, NY; Postdoctoral Fellow 1968-69 Union Carbide Research Institute. Phone: (408) 927-1646, Fax: (408) 927-3310, email: rdmiller@almaden.ibm.com.

My current research interests include: basic photochemical processes, new synthetic methods, polymeric materials for nonlinear optical applications, novel polymeric organic light emitting diodes, spectroscopy in restricted media, new dielectric materials, and polymers with novel molecular architectures.

SELECTED PUBLICATIONS

  1. Verbiest, T.; Burland, D.M.; Jurich, M.C.; Lee, V. Y.; Miller, R.D.; Volksen, W. "Exceptionally Thermally Stable Polyimides for Second-Order Nonlinear Optical Applications". Science, 268, 1604, 1995.

  2. Miller, R.D.; Hedrick, J.L.; Yoon, D.Y.; Cook, R.F.; Hummel, J.P. "Phase-Separated Inorganic-Organic Hybrids for Microelectronic Applications". MRS Bulletin: Special Edition on Low k Materials, 22(10), 44, 1997.

  3. Sekkat, Z.; Knoessen, A.; Lee, V.Y.; Miller, R.D. "Observation of Reversible Photochemical 'Blow Out' of the Third-Order Molecular Hyperpolarizability of Push-Pull Azo Dyes in High Glass Transition Temperature Polymides". J. Phys. Chem. B., 101(24), 4733, 1997.

  4. Sekkat, Z.; Wood, J; Knoll, W.; Volksen, W; Miller, R.D.; Knoesen, A. "Light Induced Orientation in Azo-Polyimide Polymers 325° C Below the Glass Transition Temperature". J. Opt. Soc. Am. B., 14(4), 829, 1997.

  5. Despotopoulou, M. M.; Frank, C.W.; Miller, R.D.; Rabolt, J.F. "Kinetics of Chain Organization in Ultra Thin Poly(di-n-hexylsilane) Films". Macromolecules, 29, 5797, 1996.

  6. Klaerner, G.; Miller, R.D. "Polyfluorine Derivatives: Effective Conjugation Lengths from Well-Defined Oligomers". Macromolecules, 31(6), 2007, 1998.

  7. Klaerner, G.; Davey, M.H.; Chen, W.D.; Scott, J.C.; Miller, R.D. "Colorfast Blue Light Emitting Random Copolymers Derived from Di-n-hexylfluorene and Anthracene". Adv. Mater., 10, 993, 1998.

  8. Kreyenschmidt, M.; Klaerner, G.; Fuhrer, T. Ashenhurst, J.; Karg, S.; Chen, W.D; Lee, V.Y.; Scott, J.C. "Thermally Stable Blue Light Emitting Copolymers of Poly(alkylfluorene)". Macromolecules, 31(4), 1099, 1998.

  9. Hedrick, J.L.; Miller, R.D.; Hawker, C.J.; Carter, K.R.; Volksen, W.; Yoon, D.Y.; Trollsas, H. "Templating Nanoporosity in Thin Film Dielectric Insulators". Adv. Mater., 10(13), 1049, 1998.

  10. Avgeropoulos, A.; Chan, V.Z.-H.; Lee, V.Y.; Ngo, D.; Miller, R.D.; Hadjichristidis, N.; Thomas, E.L. "Synthesis and Morphological Behavior of Silicon-Containing Triblock Copolymers for Nanostructure Applications". Chem. Mater., 10(8), 2109, 1998.

Mark Sherwood (top)


Advisory Scientist, IBM Almaden Research Center; B.S., Chemistry, 1983, Colorado State University;  Ph.D., Physical Chemistry, 1991, University of Utah; Phone: (408) 927-1636; Fax: (408) 927-3310; email: mwood@almaden.ibm.com

He is a co recipient of the 2002 Photopolymer Science and Technology Award for an outstanding contribution published in the Journal of Photopolymer Science and Technology.

Sherwood applies nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) to problems related to information processing and storage technologies.  Recently he has developed new techniques for acquiring NMR spectra of monomer-thin liquid polymer films.  These techniques comprise a valuable new tool for probing details of the orientational order and motional dynamics of individual segments in confined polymer chains.

SELECTED PUBLICATIONS

  1. Leisen, J; Boeffel, C.; Spiess, H. W.; Yoon, D. Y.; Sherwood, M. H.; Kawasumi, M.; Percec, V. "Conformational Behavior of the Spacer in a Liquid Crystalline Main-Chain Polymer in Its Nematic and Glassy States". Macromolecules, 28, 6937, 1995.
  1. M. H. Sherwood, "Chemical Shift Tensors in Single Crystals". Encyclopedia of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, D. M. Grant and R. K. Harris, Eds.; John Wiley and Sons: Chichester, 1996.
  1. Leung, D.; Vandersypen, L.; Zhou, X.; Sherwood, M.; Yannoni, C.; Kubinec, M.; Chuang, I. "Experimental Realization of a Two-bit Phase Damping Quantum Code". Phys. Rev. A, 60, 1924, 1999.
  1. Yannoni, C. S.; Sherwood, M. H.; Miller, D. C.; Chuang, I. L.; Vandersypen, L. M. K.; Kubinec, M. G. "Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Quantum Computing Using Liquid Crystal Solvents". Appl. Phys. Lett., 75, 3563, 1999.
  1. Vandersypen, L. M. K.; Yannoni, C. S.; Sherwood, M. H.; Chuang, I. L. "Realization of Logically Labeled Effective Pure States for Bulk Quantum Computation". Phys. Rev. Lett., 83, 3085, 1999.
  1. Ito, H.; Dalby, C.; Pomerantz, A.; Sherwood, M.; Sato, R.; Sooriyakumaran, R.; Guy, K.; Breyta, G. "Monomer Reactivities and Kinetics in Radical Copolymerization of Hydroxystyrene Derivatives and tert-Butyl (Meth)acrylate". Macromolecules, 33, 5080, 2000.
  1. Vandersypen, L. M. K.; Steffen, M.; Sherwood, M. H.; Yannoni, C. S.; Breyta, G.; Chuang, I. L. "Implementation of a Three-bit Search Algorithm". Appl. Phys. Lett., 76, 646, 2000.
  1. Vandersypen, L. M. K.; Steffen, M.; Breyta, G.; Yannoni, C. S.; Sherwood, M. H.; Chuang, I. L. "Experimental Realization of Shor's Quantum Factoring Algorithm Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance". Nature, 414, 883, 2001.
  1. Verhulst, A. S.; Liivak, O. L.; Sherwood, M. H.; Vieth, H. M.; Chuang, I. L. "Non-thermal Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Quantum Computing Using Hyperpolarized Xenon". Appl. Phys. Lett., 79, 2480, 2001.
  1.  Zharov, I,; Michl, J.; Sherwood, M. H.; Sooriyakamaran, R.; Larson, C. E.; DiPietro, R. A.; Breyta, G.; Wallraff, G. M. "Mechanistic studies of the Acidolysis Reactions Occurring in Silicon-Containing Bilayer Photoresists". Chem. Mater., 14, 656, 2002.
  1.  Verhulst, A. S.; Liivak, O.; Sherwood, M. H.; Chuang, I. L. "A Rapid and Precise Probe for Measurement of Liquid Xenon Polarization". J. Magn. Reson., 155, 145, 2002.
  1.  Sherwood, M. H.; Schwickert, B. "New Techniques For NMR Spectroscopy of Monomer-thin Liquid Polymer Films". Polymer Preprints, In Press, 2003.

 

William Swope(top)

 

Charles G. Wade (top)

Manager, Materials Analysis and Characterization Department in the Science and Technology Function, IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA. Ph.D. Physical Chemistry, MIT; Postdoctoral research at the University of Chicago; Chemistry faculty of the University of Texas at Austin. (1967-1979). Phone: (408)927-1650, Fax:(408)927-3310, email: cwade@almaden.ibm.com.

Our research uses nuclear magnetic resonance to study dynamics and microstructure of polymers and thin films. My department has four NMR spectrometers: 300 MHz (proton) solids and 250 MHz, 300 MHz, and 500Mhz liquids. These are all multinuclear instruments, but the nuclei of most interest are 13C, 1H, 19F, 29Si, and 2H. The 500 MHz spectrometer is modified to do solids 2H experiments. Much of the recent NMR work in CPIMA has focussed on an amorphous carbon overcoat (COC) used to protect magnetic storage disks in hard drives from corrosion. The COC is coated with a monolayer lubricant (a perfluoropolyether) and the system is crucial to the long term performance of the drive. A CPIMA collaboration with Professor Chris Klug at Stanford studies NMR relaxation of the lubricants. We use NMR to relate the microstructures to the performance characteristics of the drives. My department at IBM provides a range of techniques for analysis of polymeric, organic, and inorganic structures: NMR, Auger, thermal, photoelectron spectroscopy, SEM, TEM, X-ray, GPC, and Rutherford scattering.

SELECTED PUBLICATIONS

  1. Anet, F.A.L.; O'Leary, D.J.; Wade, C.G.; Johnson, R.D. "NMR Relaxation by the Antisymmetric Component of the Shielding Tensor: a Longer Transverse than Longitudinal Relaxation Time". Chem Phys. Lett., 171, 401, 1990.
  2. Cook, R.; Green, M.; Munoz, B.; Johnson, R.; Wade, C.G. "Solvent Dependence of Chain Dimensions of Poly(n-hexyl-isocyanate)". Macromolecules, 23, 3454, 1990.
  3. Toppel, S.; Johnson, R.D.; Siemens, R.; Wade, C G.; Burns, J.; Crowder, M. "Virtual Machine (VM) Network Interface for Thermal Analysis: DuPont and Omnitherm Systems". IBM RJ, 7950, 1991.
  4. Frazier, J.D.; Johson, R.D.; Wade, C.G.; O'Leary, D. J. "The Composition of a Variety of Nonylphenol poly(ethylene-oxide) Phosphate Anionic Surfactants". Comun. Jorn. Com. Esp. Deterg., 22, 99, 1991.
  5. Toppel, S.; Johnson, R.D.; Siemens, R.; Wade, C.G.; Burns, J.; Crowder, M. "Network Data Station Systems for Thermal Analysis". IBM RJ, 74036, 1991.
  6. Sankar, S.S.; Stejskal, E.O.; Fornes, R.E.; Fleming, W.W.; Russel, T.E.; Wade, C.G."Solid-state Carbon-13 CPMAS-NMR Study of an A/B Block Copolymer of Polystyrene (PS) and Poly(methyl-methacrylate) (PMMA)". Polym. Fiber Sci.: Recent Adv., R.E. Fornes and R.D. Gilbert, eds., VCH: New York, N.Y., 133, 1993.
  7. Sherwood, M.; Sigaud, G.; Yoon, D.Y.; Wade, C.G.; Kawasumi, M.; Percec. V. "Molecular Order in the Nematic Melt of a Semiflexible Polyether by Deuteron NMR". Mol. Cryst. and Liq. Crystl., 254 , 455, 1994.
  8. Bluemler, P.; Sherwood, M.; Wade, C.G.; Moore, J.; Collins, R.; Mapoles, E.; Magn, J. "NMR Imaging of Hydrogen Isotopes Below 20űK". Res., Series A, 110, 248, 1994.
  9. Blum, F.D.; Sherwood, M.; Wade, C.G. "Dynamics of Adsorbed Poly(vinyl acetate) in Bulk and on Silica". Macromolecules, 29, 8740, 1996.
  10. Smith, G.D.; Yoon, D.Y.; Wade, C.G.; O'Leary, D.; Chen, A.; Jaffee, R. "Dynamics of Poly(oxyethylene) Melts: Comparison of 13C NMR Spin Lattice Relaxation and Dielectric Relaxation as Determined from Simulations and Experiments". J.Chem. Phys., 106, 3798, 1997.

 

 

 

 

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