Non-well-founded structures arise in a variety of ways in the semantics of both natural and formal languages. Two examples are non-well-founded situations and non-terminating computational processes. A natural modelling of such structures in set theory requires the use of non-well-founded sets. This text presents the mathematical background to the anti-foundation axiom and related axioms that imply the existence of non-well-founded sets when used in place of the axiom of foundation in axiomatic set theory.

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