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English Syntax cover

English Syntax

An Introduction

Jong-Bok Kim and Peter Sells

Focusing on the descriptive facts of English, this textbook provides a systematic introduction to English syntax for students with no prior knowledge of English grammar or syntactic analysis.

English Syntax helps students appreciate the various sentence patterns available in the language, understand insights into the core data of its syntax, develop analytic abilities to explore patterns of English in more depth, and learn precise ways of formalizing syntactic analysis. The text and exercises cover a variety of English data and major constructions such as agreement, raising and control, the auxiliary system, passive, questions, relative clauses, extraposition, and clefts.

“This book is an excellent text that takes nothing for granted. Even the complete novice can use this book to gain familiarity with some of the most subtle and interesting problems of English syntax.”
—Ivan A. Sag, Stanford University

“This is a valuable introductory syntax volume, which strikes a nice balance between data and theory, and leads the student from the most basic notions of syntax to an understanding of analyses of a broad range of English constructions within the HPSG framework.”
—Robert D.  Borsley, University of Essex

Jong-Bok Kim is Associate Professor in the School of English at Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Korea. Peter Sells is Professor of Linguistics at the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London.

Contents

  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • 1 Some Basic Properties of English Syntax
    • 1.1 Some Remarks on the Essence of Human Language
    • 1.2 How We Discover Rules
    • 1.3 Why Do We Study Syntax and What Is It Good for?
    • 1.4 Exercises
  • 2 From Words to Major Phrase Types
    • 2.1 Introduction
    • 2.2 Lexical Categories
      • 2.2.1 Determining the Lexical Categories
      • 2.2.2 Grammar with Lexical Categories
    • 2.3 Phrasal Categories
    • 2.4 Phrase Structure Rules
      • 2.4.1 NP: Noun Phrase
      • 2.4.2 VP: Verb Phrase
      • 2.4.3 AP: Adjective Phrase
      • 2.4.4 AdvP: Adverb Phrase
      • 2.4.5 PP: Preposition Phrase
    • 2.5 Grammar with Phrases
    • 2.6 Exercises
  • 3 Syntactic, Forms, Grammatical Functions, and Semantic Roles
    • 3.1 Introduction
    • 3.2 Grammatical Functions
      • 3.2.1 Subjects
      • 3.2.2 Direct and Indirect Objects
      • 3.2.3 Predicative Complements
      • 3.2.4 Oblique Complements
      • 3.2.5 Modifiers
    • 3.3 Form and Function Together
    • 3.4 Semantic Roles
    • 3.5 Exercises
  • 4 Head, Complements, and Modifiers
    • 4.1 Projections from Lexical Heads to Phrases
      • 4.1.1 Internal vs. External Syntax
      • 4.1.2 Notion of Head, Complements, and Modifiers
    • 4.2 Differences between Complements and Modifiers
    • 4.3 PS Rules, X′-Rules, and Features
    • 4.4 Lexicon and Feature Structures
      • 4.4.1 Feature Structures and Basic Operations
      • 4.4.2 Feature Structures for Linguistic Entities
      • 4.4.3 Argument Realization
      • 4.4.4 Verb Types and Argument Structure
    • 4.5 Exercises
  • 5 More on Subjects and Complements
    • 5.1 Grammar Rules and Principles
    • 5.2 Feature Specifications on the Complement Values
      • 5.2.1 Complements of Verbs
      • 5.2.2 Complements of Adjectives
      • 5.2.3 Complements of Common Nouns
    • 5.3 Feature Specifications for the Subject
    • 5.4 Clausal Complement or Subject
      • 5.4.1 Verbs Selecting a Clausal Complement
      • 5.4.2 Verbs Selecting a Clausal Subject
      • 5.4.3 Adjectives Selecting a Clausal Complement
      • 5.4.4 Nouns Selecting a Clausal Complement
      • 5.4.5 Prepositions Selecting a Clausal Complement
    • 5.5 Excercises
  • 6 Noun Phrases and Agreement
    • 6.1 Classification of Nouns
    • 6.2 Syntactic Structures
      • 6.2.1 Common Nouns
      • 6.2.2 Pronouns
      • 6.2.3 Proper Nouns
    • 6.3 Agreement Types and Morpho-syntactic Features
      • 6.3.1 Noun-Determiner Agreement
      • 6.3.2 Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement
      • 6.3.3 Subject-Verb Agreement
    • 6.4 Semantic Agreement Features
    • 6.5 Paritive NPs and Agreement
      • 6.5.1 Basic Properties
      • 6.5.2 Two Types of Partitive NPs
      • 6.5.3 Measure Noun Phrases
    • 6.6 Modifying an NP
      • 6.6.1 Adjectives as Prenominal Modifiers
      • 6.6.2 Postnominal Modifiers
    • 6.7 Exercises
  • 7 Raising and Control Constructions
    • 7.1 Raising and Control Predicates
    • 7.2 Differences between Raising and Control Verbs
      • 7.2.1 Subject Raising and Control
      • 7.2.2 Object Raising and Control
    • 7.3 A Simple Transformational Approach
    • 7.4 A Nontransformational Approach
      • 7.4.1 Identical Syntactic Structures
      • 7.4.2 Differences in Subcategorization
      • 7.4.3 Mismatch between Meaning and Structure
    • 7.5 Explaining the Differences
      • 7.5.1 Expletive Subject and Object
      • 7.5.2 Meaning and Preservation
      • 7.5.3 Subject vs. Object Control Verbs
    • 7.6 Exercises
  • 8 Auxiliary Constructions
    • 8.1 Basic Issues
    • 8.2 Transformational
    • 8.3 A Non-Transformational Analysis
      • 8.3.1 Modals
      • 8.3.2 Be and Have
      • 8.3.3 Periphrasic do
      • 8.3.4 Infinitival Clause Marker to
    • 8.4 Explaining the NICE Properties
      • 8.4.1 Auxiliaries with Negation
      • 8.4.2 Auxiliaries with Inversion
      • 8.4.3 Contracted Auxiliaries
      • 8.4.4 Auxiliaries with Ellipsis
    • 8.5 Exercises
  • 9 Passive Constructions
    • 9.1 Introduction
    • 9.2 Relationships between Active and Passive
    • 9.3 Approaches to Passive
      • 9.3.1 From Structural Description to Structural Change
      • 9.3.2 A Transformational Approach
      • 9.3.3 A Lexicalist Approach
    • 9.4 Prepositional Passives
    • 9.5 Exercises
  • 10 Wh-Questions
    • 10.1 Clausal Types and Interrogatives
    • 10.2 Movement vs. Feature Percolation
    • 10.3 Feature Percolation with No Abstract Elements
      • 10.3.1 Basic Systems
      • 10.3.2 Non-Subject Wh-Questions
      • 10.3.3 Subject Wh-Questions
    • 10.4 Indirect Questions
      • 10.4.1 Basic Structures
      • 10.4.2 Non-Wh Indirect Questions
      • 10.4.3 Infinitival Indirect Questions
      • 10.4.4 Adjunct Wh-questions
    • 10.5 Exercises
  • 11 Relative Clause Constructions
    • 11.1 Introduction
    • 11.2 Non-Subject Wh-Relative Clauses
    • 11.3 Subject Relative Clauses
    • 11.4 That-relative clauses
    • 11.5 Infinitival and Bare Relative Clauses
    • 11.6 Restrictive vs. Nonrestrictive Relattive Clauses
    • 11.7 Constraints on the GAP
    • 11.8 Exercises
  • 12 Special Constructions
    • 12.1 Introduction
    • 12.2 ‘Easy’ Constructions
      • 12.2.1 Basic Properties
      • 12.2.2 Transformational Analysis
      • 12.2.3 A Lexicalist Analysis
    • 12.3 Extraposition
      • 12.3.1 Basic Properties
      • 12.3.2 Transformational Analysis
      • 12.3.3 A Lexicalist Analysis
    • 12.4 Cleft Constructions
      • 12.4.1 Basic Properties
      • 12.4.2 Distributional Properties of the Three Clefts
      • 12.4.3 Syntactic Structures of the Three Types of Cleft: Movement Analyses
      • 12.4.4 A Lexicalist Analysis
    • 12.5 Exercises

  • References
  • Index

4/1/2008

ISBN (Paperback): 9781575865683
ISBN (Cloth): 9781575865676

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