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Individual Difference in Online Computer-based Learning cover

Individual Difference in Online Computer-based Learning

Gifted and Other Diverse Populations

Patrick Suppes

In 1894 John Dewey established his experimental laboratory school at the University of Chicago, with a focus on teaching each student according to their individual differences. This concept indicated a shift away from the emphasis on communal, classroom teaching, which marked educational practices in the nineteenth century during the advent of widely available public education.

With the introduction of computer-based online instruction in schools, curricula are able to be fully informed by individual difference, subtly and quickly tracking students' progress. In these courses, teachers play the role of troubleshooters instead of lecturers. Individual Differences examines a large number of studies on computer-based and online instruction, with special attention paid to gifted students in the fields of mathematics, science, technology, and engineering. Other chapters also focus on a wide variety of student populations: deaf students, American Indian rural students, and underachieving, impoverished students.

Patrick Suppes (1922–2014) was Lucie Stern Professor of Philosophy, Emeritus, at Stanford.

Contents

  • Preface xiii
  • I Gifted Students
    • 1 The High Dimensionality of Gifted Students' Individual Differences in Performance in EPGY's K-6 Computer-based Mathematics Curriculum 3 with Kalée Tock
      • 1 Introduction 3
      • 2 EPGY Trajectories 4
        • 2.1 Computer-Time Trajectories 7
        • 2.2 Fitting algorithm 8
        • 2.3 Calendar-Time Trajectories 8
        • 2.4 Trajectory Parameters 10
      • 3 Individual Differences 12
        • 3.1 The Multidimensionality of Individual Differences 12
        • 3.2 The Robustness of Individual Differences 15
      • 4 The Undominated Set 16
      • 5 Conclusion 19
      • A Distributions and Fits of Computer-Time Parameter Values 20
      • B Distributions and Fits of Calendar-Time Parameter Values 28
      • C Joint Distributions and Fits of Trajectory Parameter Values 35
      • D Further Discussion of Student Ages in EPGY 42
      • E Distributions and Fits of the Five Ability Parameter Values 44
      • F Sample Partial Orderings of Students Above Dominated Students 62
      • G Partial Orderings for Various Dimensions in Each Grade 65
    • 2 Gifted Students' Individual Differences in EPGY Grades 2-7 “Math-races” Data 107 with Kalée Tock and Yong Liang
      • 1 Introduction and Background 107
      • 2 Response Times 109
        • 2.1 Individual Differences in Response Times for Correct Answers 109
        • 2.2 Robustness of Individual Differences in Response Times for Correct Answers 110
        • 2.3 Gender Differences in Response Times for Correct Answers 112
        • 2.4 Response Time Patterns and Evidence of Priming 112
      • 3 Error-rates 114
        • 3.1 Individual Differences in Error-rates 114
        • 3.2 Robustness of Individual Differences in Error-rates 116
        • 3.3 Gender Differences in Error-rates 116
        • 3.4 Error-rate Patterns and Evidence of Priming 116
        • 3.5 Modeling Error Rates 117
        • 3.6 Relationship Between Error-rates and Response Times 118
      • 4 The Undominated Set 120
      • 5 Math-races Choices 121
      • 6 Exercise Types 123
      • 7 Math-races Revisions: May 2003 125
        • 7.1 Investigation of and Revisions to Math-races Expected Latencies 125
        • 7.2 Investigation of Math-races Error-rates 126
        • 7.3 Inclusion of Different Categories of Students 127
      • 8 Conclusions 127
    • 3 Geometric Data Analysis of Gifted Students' Individual Differences 129 by Birgitte Le Roux and Henry Rouanet
      • 1 Introduction 129
      • 2 Data and Coding 130
        • 2.1 Variables Retained for Analysis 130
        • 2.2 Univariate Analyses and Coding of Variables 130
        • 2.3 Response Patterns 134
      • 3 mca 135
        • 3.1 Theoretical Sketch of MCA 135
        • 3.2 Application to the EPGY Data Set 137
      • 4 Interpretation of Axes 138
        • 4.1 Aids to Interpretation 138
        • 4.2 First Interpretation of Axes of EPGY Data Set 139
        • 4.3 Interpretation of Axis 1 (λ1 = .3061) 142
        • 4.4 Interpretation of Axis 2 ((λ2 = .2184) 144
        • 4.5 Typical Response Patterns Emerging from Analysis 144
      • 5 Cloud of Individuals 144
        • 5.1 Description of Cloud 144
        • 5.2 Structured Data Analysis 148
        • 5.3 Structured Analysis of EPGY Data Set 149
      • 6 Euclidean Classification 151
        • 6.1 Theoretical Sketch of Euclidean Classification 151
        • 6.2 Classification of the EPGY Data Set 152
      • 7 Conclusions 157
    • 4 Gifted Students' Individual Differences in Computer-based Algebra and Precalculus Courses 163 with Constance Stillinger
      • 1 Gifted Students' Individual Differences in Computer-Based Algebra and Precalculus Courses 163
      • 2 Procedures 164
        • 2.1 Course structure 164
        • 2.2 Participants 166
      • 3 Results 166
        • 3.1 Total Elapsed Time and Trajectories 167
        • 3.2 Trajectories 168
        • 3.3 Session duration 171
        • 3.4 Exercises 175
      • 4 Discussion 179
    • 5 Computer-based Advanced Placement Calculus for Gifted Students 183 with Tryg Ager
      • 1 Introduction 183
      • 2 Overview of the project 185
        • 2.1 Purpose of the Dfx system 185
        • 2.2 Pedagogical summary of the Dfx system 186
        • 2.3 Hardware and software summary 187
      • 3 Calculus prerequisites 187
        • 3.1 Foothill Community College ATYP program 188
        • 3.2 Selection criteria for precalculus 188
      • 4 The precalculus course 189
        • 4.1 Course description 189
        • 4.2 Profile of the precalculus class 190
      • 5 The calculus course 190
        • 5.1 Instructional regime 192
        • 5.2 AP examination preparation 192
      • 6 Rates of Progress 193
        • 6.1 Rates of progress 195
      • 7 Attitudes and preferences 197
      • 8 On-line problem-solving 200
      • 9 Some implications and general conclusions 201
    • 6 Gifted Students' Individual Differences in Distance-learning Computer-based Calculus and Linear Algebra 207 with Eric W. Cope
      • 1 Introduction 207
      • 2 The EPGY calculus and linear algebra curriculum 209
      • 3 Student selection 211
      • 4 Main results of individual differences 213
        • 4.1 Trajectories 213
        • 4.2 Error Rates 221
        • 4.3 Markov Analysis of Student Error Rates 223
        • 4.4 Response Latencies 228
        • 4.5 Distributions of latencies per student 229
      • 5 Conclusions 232
      • A Guide to boxplots 234
      • B Correlation matrices 235
    • 7 Automated Evaluation Methods with Attention to Gifted Students' Individual Differences: A Case Study of a Computer-based Course in C 239 with Tammy Rosenthal and Nava Ben-Zvi
      • 1 Background 240
      • 2 Automated Methods for Evaluation 243
      • 3 A Model for Program Evaluation 246
      • 4 Qualitative Tests for Achievement and Ability 248
    • 8 Gifted Students' Individual Differences in a Computer-based C Programming Course 253 with Tammy Rosenthal
      • 1 Introduction 253
        • 1.1 Background and Preliminary Considerations 254
        • 1.2 Student Selection 256
        • 1.3 Course Setup 257
        • 1.4 The Structure and Curriculum of the Course 257
      • 2 Students' Performance 260
        • 2.1 Students' Performance in Reports 260
        • 2.2 Students' Performance in Programming Assignments 265
        • 2.3 Time Spent by Students on Programming Assignments 270
      • 3 Calendar Time 270
      • 4 Students' Difficulties 272
        • 4.1 Translating Problems into Algorithmic Steps 272
        • 4.2 Problems Students Faced with Debugging their Programs 273
        • 4.3 Technical Difficulties and Installation Problems 274
        • 4.4 Compilation Problems 274
      • 5 Correlation Measures 274
      • 6 Measures of Students' Individual Ability and Achievement 277
        • 6.1 List of Concepts used in the Analysis 277
        • 6.2 Students' Measures of Performance 280
        • 6.3 Diversity of Students' Measures of Performance 281
        • 6.4 Analysis of Undominated Sets of Measures 289
      • 7 Web References 294
    • 9 Gifted Students' Individual Differences in Distance-learning Computer-based Physics 297 with Eric Cope
      • 1 Introduction 297
      • 2 The EPGY Physics C Curriculum 298
      • 3 Student Selection 298
      • 4 Main Results of Individual Differences 299
        • 4.1 Computer-time Trajectories 300
        • 4.2 Calendar Time to Completion 309
        • 4.3 Response Latencies 310
        • 4.4 Error Rates 312
      • 5 Dimensionality of Student Performance 313
      • 6 Conclusions 318
    • 10 Individual Differences in Student Proofs in a Course on Axiomatic Set Theory 321
      • 1 The Set-Theory Curriculum 321
      • 2 The EXCHECK Proof-Checker 322
      • 3 Individual Differences Between Student Proofs 325
  • II Other Diverse Populations
    • 11 Individual Differences Among Title I Students in EPGY's K-4 Computer-based Mathematics Curriculum 333 with Kalée Tock
      • 1 Introduction 333
      • 2 Number of Exercises Worked 334
      • 3 Trajectories 334
      • 4 Individual Differences 337
      • 5 The Undominated Set 339
      • 6 Conclusion 341
    • 12 Performance Models of American Indian Students on Computer-assisted Instruction in Elementary Mathematics 343 with J.D. Fletcher and M. Zanotti
      • 1 The IMSSS CAI System 344
      • 2 The Elementary-School Mathematics Strands Curriculum 345
      • 3 Method 346
        • 3.1 Subjects 346
        • 3.2 Procedure 346
      • 4 Results and Discussion 349
        • 4.1 Investigation of the Theory 350
        • 5 Summary and Conclusions 351
      • 13 Models of Individual Trajectories in Computer-assisted Instruction for Deaf Students 355 with J.D. Fletcher and M. Zanotti
        • 1 Introduction 355
        • 2 Theory 356
        • 3 Method 359
        • 3.1 The Mathematics Strands Curriculum 359
        • 3.2 Equipment 360
        • 3.3 Students 361
        • 3.4 Measures of Achievement 363
      • 4 Results 363
        • 4.1 Descriptive Statistics 363
        • 4.2 External Measurements of Achievement 363
        • 4.3 Tests of the Theory 365
        • 4.4 Discussion 369
    • 14 Structural Variables Affecting CAI Performance on Arithmetic Word Problems of Disadvantaged and Deaf Students 373 with Barbara W. Searle and Paul Lorton, Jr.
      • 1 Introduction 373
      • 2 Description of the Problem-Solving Course 374
      • 3 Pilot Study 374
      • 4 Variables Characterizing Problem Difficulty 376
      • 5 The Regression Model 377
      • 6 Construction of the Curriculum 379
      • 7 Subjects 379
      • 8 Results 380
      • 9 Summary 385
    • 15 A Survey of Cognition in Handicapped Children 387
      • 1 Language Skills 388
        • 1.1 Blind Children 388
        • 1.2 Mentally Retarded Children 391
        • 1.3 Deaf Children 394
      • 2 Concept Formation and Abstraction 398
        • 2.1 Blind Children 398
        • 2.2 Retarded Children 400
        • 2.3 Deaf Children 403
      • 3 Arithmetic Skills 405
        • 3.1 Blind Children 405
        • 3.2 Retarded Children 405
        • 3.3 Deaf Children 407
      • 4 Concluding Remarks 410
  • Subject Index 421
  • Author Index 430

October 2013

ISBN (Paperback): 9781575866246
ISBN (Cloth): 9781575866253
ISBN (electronic): 9781575867021

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