"For many years, the most popular explanation for the achievement gap has been the 'oppositional culture theory': the idea that black students underperform in secondary schools because of a group culture that devalues learning....In a careful quantitative assessment of the oppositional culture hypothesis, Angel L. Harris tested its empirical implications systematically and broadened his analysis to include data from British schools. From every conceivable angle of examination, the oppositional culture theory fell flat."
Kids don't want to fail : oppositional culture and the Black-White achievement gap. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press; 2011.