Denny Lab


Denny, M.W. (1988) Biology and the Mechanics of the Wave-Swept Environment. Princeton University Press. 329 pp.

Denny, M.W. and S. Gaines. (2000) Chance in Biology Princeton University Press. 291pp.

Denny M.W. (1993) Air and Water: The Biology and Physics of Life's Media. Princeton University Press. 341pp.

Denny, M.W. and J.L. Nelson.(2006) Conversations with Marco Polo: The Remarkable Life of Eugene C. Haderlie. Xlibris Corp. 270pp.

Denny M. W. and S. D. Gaines, eds. (2007) Encyclopedia of Tidepools and Rocky Shores. University of California Press. 735 pp.

Denny, M. W. (2008) How the Ocean Works: An Introduction to Oceanography. Princeton University Press, 344 pp.

Theses (listed chronologically)

Bell, E. C. 1992. Consequences of morphological variation in an intertidal macroalga: physical constraints on the growth and survivorship of Mastocarpus papillatus Kützing. 263 pp.

Mead, K. S. 1996. Sex in the surf zone: the effect of hydrodynamic shear stress on the fertilization and early development of free-spawning invertebrates. Stanford University, 186 pp.

Gaylord, B. 1997. Consequences of wave-induced water motion to nearshore macroalgae. 419 pp.

Leichter, J. J. 1997. Coastal ocean physical forcing: influences of internal tidal phenomena on coral reefs. 166 pp.

Roberson, L. M. 2001. Evolution of kelp morphology in response to local physical factors: the effect of small-scale water flow on nutrient uptake, growth, and speciation in the southern sea palm, Eisenia arborea. 264 pp.

Hale, B. 2001. Macroalgal materials: foiling fracture and fatigue from fluid forces. 367 pp.

Nelson, E. K. 2002 Mathematics of gamete diffusion and fertilization in aquatic habitats.517 pp.

O'Donnell, M. J. 2005. Habitats and Hydrodynamics on Wave-swept Rocky Shores. 158 pp.

Hunt, L. J. H. 2006. The rise of Endocladia muricata: Punctuated change at an abrupt range edge. 152 pp.

Martone, P. T. 2007. Biomechanics of flexible joints in the calcified seaweed Calliarthron cheilosporoides. 160 pp. PDF

Miller, L. P. 2008. Life on the edge: morphological and behavioral adaptations for survival on wave-swept shores. 205 pp. PDF


Research Monographs (listed chronologically)

Denny, M.W., T. Daniel and M.A.R. Koehl (1985) Mechanical limits to size in wave-swept organisms. Ecol. Monogr. 55: 69-102.

Gaylord, B, C. Blanchette and M.W. Denny. (1994) Mechanical consequences of size in wave-swept algae. Ecol. Monogr. 64: 287-313.

Denny, M.W. (1995) Predicting physical disturbance: mechanistic approaches to the study of survivorship on wave-swept shores. Ecol. Monogr. 65: 371-418.

Denny, M. W., Helmuth, B., Leonard, G., Harley, C. D. G., Hunt, L. J. H. & Nelson, E. K. (2004) Quantifying scale in ecology: lessons from a wave-swept shore. Ecol. Monogr, 74: 513-532.


Research Articles (listed alphabetically by first author)

Abelson, A. and M.W. Denny. (1998) The roles of hydrodynamic forces in the settlement of marine propagules. Ann Rev. Syst. Ecology 28:317-339.

Bell, E. C. (1993) Photosynthetic response to temperature and desiccation of the intertidal alga Mastocarpus papillatus. Mar. Biol. 117: 337-346

Bell, E.C. and M.W. Denny. (1994) Quantifying "wave exposure": A simple device for recording maximum velocity and results of its use at several field sites. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 181: 9-29.

Brawley, S.H.; Johnson, L.E. (1993) Predicting desiccation stress in microscopic organisms: The use of agarose beads to determine evaporation within and between intertidal microhabitats. J. Phycol. 29: 528-535

Carrington, E. (1990) Drag and dislodgment of an intertidal macroalga: consequences of morphological variation in Mastocarpus papillatus Kützing. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 139: 185-200.

Cooper, S. and M.W. Denny. (1997) The relationship of bacterial shape to motility: A conjecture on shape determination in motile, rod-shaped bacteria. FEMS Microbiology Letters 148: 227-231.

Davison, I.R.; Johnson, L.E.; Brawley, S.H. (1993) Sublethal stress in the intertidal zone: Tidal emersion inhibits photosynthesis and retards development in embryos of the brown alga Pelvetia fastigiata. Oecologia 96:483-492.

Denny, M.W. (1976) The physical properties of spiders' silk and their role in the design of orb-webs. J. Exp. Biol. 65:483- 506.

Denny, M.W. (1980) The silks - their properties and functions. Symposia of the Soc. for Exp. Biol. 34:247-72.

Denny, M.W. (1980) Locomotion: the cost of gastropod crawling. Science 208:1288-90.

Denny, M.W. (1980) The role of gastropod pedal mucus in locomotion. Nature (London) 285:160-1.

Denny, M.W. (1981) A quantitative model for the adhesive locomotion of the terrestrial slug, Ariolimax columbianus. J. Exp. Biol. 91:195-217.

Denny, M.W. (1982) Forces on intertidal organisms: design and application of a wave-force telemetry system. Limnol. Oceanogr. 27:178-183.

Denny, M.W. (1983) A simple device for measuring the maximum force imposed on intertidal organisms. Limnol. Oceanogr. 28(6):1269-1274.

Denny, M.W. (1983) "Molecular Biomechanics of Molluscan Mucous Secretions" in Biology of Mollusca, Vol. l Metabolic Biochemistry and Molecular Biomechanics. K. Wilbur, K. Simkiss, and P. Hochachka (Ed.) Academic Press, N.Y. pp. 431- 465.

Denny, M.W. (1984) Mechanical properties of pedal mucus and their consequences for gastropod structure and performance. Am. Zool. 24(1):23-36.

Denny, M.W. (1985) Wave forces on intertidal organisms: a case study. Limnol. Oceanogr. 30: 1171-1187.

Denny, M.W. (1985) Water motion, pp. 7-29 in Handbook of Phycological Methods Vol. IV Ecology, M. Littler (ed.) Cambridge Univ. Press

Denny, M.W. (1987) Life in the maelstrom: The biomechanics of wave-swept rocky shores. Trends in Ecol. Evol. 2: 61-66

Denny, M.W. (1987) Lift as a mechanism of patch initiation in mussel beds. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 113:231-245

Denny, M.W. (1989) A limpet shell that reduces drag: laboratory demonstration of a hydrodynamic mechanism and an exploration of its effectiveness in nature. Can J. Zool. 67:2098-2106.

Denny, M.W. (1989) Invertebrate mucous secretions: Functional alternatives to vertebrate paradigms. Symp. Soc. Exp. Biol. 43: 337-366

Denny, M.W. (1990) Terrestrial versus aquatic biology: the medium and its message. Amer. Zool. 30: 111-121

Denny, M.W. (1991) Biology, natural selection and the prediction of maximal wave-induced forces. S. Afr. J. Mar. Sci. 10:353-363.

Denny, M.W. (1993) Disturbance, natural selection, and the prediction of maximal wave-induced forces. Contemporary Mathematics 141: 65-90.

Denny, M.W. (1994) Roles of hydrodynamics in the study of life on wave-swept shores. pp. 169-204 in P.C. Wainwright and S.M. Reilly, editors. Ecomorphology: Integrative Organismal Biology. University of Chicago Press.

Denny, M.W. (1994) Extreme drag forces and the survival of wind- and water-swept organisms. J. Exp. Biol. 194: 97-115

Denny, M.W. (1995) Predictions from a random environment: Size and survival in the surf zone. Amer. Sci. 83:166-173.

Denny, M.W. (1999) Are there mechanical limits to size in wave-swept organisms? J. Exp. Biol. 202:3463-3467.

Denny, M.W. (2000) Limits to optimization: Fluid dynamics, adhesive strength, and the evolution of shape in limpet shells. J. Exp. Biol. 203:2603-2622.

Denny, M. W. (2001). The rewards of chance. Nat. History 110(4):72-77.

Denny, M. W. (2006) Ocean waves, nearshore ecology, and natural selection. Aquatic Ecology 40: 439-461.

Denny, M.W. and C. A. Blanchette. (2000) Hydrodynamics, shall shape, behavior, and survivorship in the owl limpet, Lottia gigantea. J. Exp. Biol. 203:2623-2639.

Denny, M.W., V. Brown, E. Carrington, G. Kraemer, and A. Miller. (1989) Fracture mechanics and the survival of wave-swept macroalgae. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 127:211-228.

Denny, M.W., J. Dairiki and S. Destefano. (1992) Biological consequences of topography on wave- swept rocky shores: I. enhancement of external fertilization. Biol. Bull. 183: 220-232.

Denny, M.W. and S. Gaines. (1990) On the prediction of maximum intertidal wave forces. Limnol. Oceanogr. 35: 1-15.

Denny, M.W. and B. Gaylord. (1996) Why the urchin lost its spines: hydrodynamics and survivorship in three echinoid species. J. Exp. Biol. 199:717-729.

Denny, M. W. and B. Gaylord. (2002) The mechanics of wave-swept algae. J. Exp. Biol. 205: 1355-1362.

Denny, M.W. and B. Gaylord. Ocean waves, nearshore ecology, and natural selection. (submitted to Aquatic Biology).

Denny, M. W. & Harley, C. D. G. (2006). Hot limpets: predicting body temperature in a conductance-mediated thermal system. Journal of Experimental Biology, 209, 2409-2419.

Denny, M. W., Miller, L. P. & Harley, C. D. G. (2006). Thermal stress on intertidal limpets: long-term hindcasts and lethal limits. Journal of Experimental Biology, 209, 2420-2431

Denny, M.W., B.P. Gaylord, and E. Cowen. (1997) Flow and flexibility II: The roles of size and shape in determining wave forces on the bull kelp, Nereocystis luetkeana. J. Exp. Biol. 200:3165-3183.

Denny, M.W., B. P. Gaylord, B. Helmuth, and T.L. Daniel. (1998) The menace of momentum: Dynamic forces on flexible organisms. Limnol. Oceanogr. 43:955-968.

Denny, M.W. and J.M. Gosline (1980) The physical properties of the pedal mucus of the terrestrial slug, Ariolimax columbianus. J. Exp. Biol. 88:375-93.

Denny, M. W. and B. Hale. (2003). Cyberkelp: an integrative approach to the modeling of flexible organisms. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc (in press).

Denny, M., B. Helmuth, G. Leonard, E. Nelson, and L. Hunt. Scale in ecology: lessons from a wave-swept shore (to be submitted to Ecological Monographs).

Denny, M.W. and J.A.C. Humphrey. (1989) Fluid mechanical constraints on biotic functions. Mechanical Engineering 111:49-53.

Denny, M. & Miller, L. (2006). Jet propulsion in the cold: mechanics of swimming in the Antarctic scallop Adamussium colbecki. Journal of Experimental Biology, 209, 4503-4514.

Denny, M. W., L. P. Miller, M. D. Stokes, L. J. H. Hunt, and B. S. T. Helmuth. (2003) Extreme water velocities: topographical amplification of wave-induced flow in the surf zone of rocky shores. Limnol. Oceanogr. 48: 1-8.

Denny, M. W., E. K. Nelson, and K. S. Mead. (2002) Revised estimates of the effects of turbulence on fertilization in the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Biol. Bull. 203: (in press)

Denny, M.W. and R.T. Paine. (1998) Celestial mechanics, sea-level changes, and intertidal ecology. Biol. Bull. 194:108-115.

Denny, M. and L. Roberson. (2002) Blade motion and the nutrient flux to the kelp Eisenia arborea. Biol. Bull. 203: 1-13

Denny, M.W. and M.F. Shibata. (1989) Consequences of surf-zone turbulence for settlement and external fertilization. Amer. Nat. 134: 859-889.

Denny, M.W. and D.Wethey. (2000) Physical processes that generate patterns in marine communities. Chapter 1 in M. Bertness, M. Hay, and S. Gaines (eds.) Marine Community Ecology, Sinauer Press, N.Y.

Friedland, M.T. and M.W. Denny. (1995) Surviving hydrodynamic forces in a wave-swept environment: Consequences of morphology in the feather boa kelp, Egregia menziesii (Turner). J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 190: 109-133.

Gaines, S.D. and M.W. Denny (1993) The largest, smallest, highest, lowest, longest and shortest: extremes in ecology. Ecology 74: 1677-1692.

Gaylord, B. (1999) Detailing agents of physical disturbance: wave-induced velocities and accelerations on a rocky shore. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 239: 85-124

Gaylord, B. (2000) Biological implications of surf-zone flow complexity. Limnol. Oceanogr. 45:174-188.

Gaylord, B. P. and M.W. Denny (1997) Flow and Flexibility I: Effects of size, shape, and stiffness in determining wave forces on stipitate kelps, Eisenia arborea and Pterygophora californica. J. Exp. Biol. 200:3141-3164.

Gaylord, B., M. W. Denny, and M. A. R. Koehl. (2002) Modulation of wave forces on kelp canopies by alongshore currents. Limnol. Oceanogr. (in press).

Gaylord, B., B. B. Hale, and M. W. Denny. (2000) Consequences of transient fluid forces for compliant benthic organisms. J. Exp. Biol. 204:1347-1360.

Gosline, J.M., M.W. Denny and E.M. Demont (1984) Spider silk as rubber. Nature (London) 309:551- 552.

Gosline, J.M., E.M. Demont and M.W. Denny (1986) The structure and properties of spider silk. Endeavor 10(1): 37-44. (translated and reprinted in Natuur en Techniek, Holland)

Gosline, J.M., C.C. Pollack, P.A. Guerette, A. Cheng, M.E. DeMont and M.W. Denny. (1994) Elastomeric network models for the frame and viscid silks from the orb web of the spider Araneus diadematus. Amer. Chem Soc. Symp. Series 544: 328-341

Gosline, J.M., R.E. Shadwick, M.E. Demont, and M.W. Denny. (1988) Non-Gaussian elastic properties in biopolymer networks. in Biological and Synthetic Polymer Networks, (O. Kramer, ed.), Plenum Press. pp. 57-77.

Hahn, T. and M. W. Denny. (1989) Bird predation, adhesive tenacity and the spatial distribution of limpets. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 53:1-10.

Helmuth, B. and M. W. Denny. (2003) Predicting wave exposure in the rocky intertidal zone: do bigger waves always lead to larger forces? Limnol. Oceanogr. (in review)

Holbrook, N.M., M.W. Denny and M.A.R. Koehl. (1991) Intertidal "trees": consequences of aggregation on the mechanical and photosynthetic properties of sea palms Postelsia palmaeformis Ruprecht. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 146: 39-67.

Humphrey, J.A.C. and M.W. Denny. (1989) Ballooning spiders. Mechanical Engineering 111(11): 84-87.

Huryn, A. D. and M. W. Denny. (1997) A biomechanical hypothesis explaining upstream movements in the freshwater snail Elimia. Functional Ecology 11: 472-483.

Johnson, L.E.; Brawley, S.H. (1998) Dispersal and recruitment of a canopy-forming intertidal alga: the relative roles of propagule availability and post-settlement processes. Oecologia 117: 517-526.

Leichter, J.J.; Miller, S.L. (1999) Predicting high-frequency upwelling: spatial and temporal patterns of temperature anomalies on a Florida coral reef. Cont. Shelf Res.19:911-928.

Leichter, J.J.; Shellenbarger, G.; Genovese, S.J.; Wing, S.R. (1998) Breaking internal waves on a Florida (USA) coral reef: A plankton pump at work? Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 166:83-97.

Leichter, J.J., S.R. Wing, S.L. Miller, & M.W. Denny. (1996) Pulsed delivery of sub-thermocline water to Conch Reef, Florida Keys by internal tidal bores. Limnol. Oceanogr. 41: 1490-1501.

Mach, K.J., D.V. Nelson, & M.W. Denny (2007) Techniques for predicting the lifetimes of wave-swept macroalgae: a primer on fracture mechanics and crack growth. Journal of Experimental Biology. 210(13): 2213-2230

Mach, K.J., Hale, B.B., M.W. Denny, & D.V. Nelson (2007) Death by small forces: a fracture and fatigue analysis of wave-swept macroalgae. Journal of Experimental Biology. 210(13): 2231-2243

Mead, K. and M.W. Denny. (1995) Effects of turbulence on fertilization in the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Biol. Bull. 188: 46-56

Utter, B.D. and M.W. Denny. (1996) Wave-induced forces on the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera: Field test of a computational model. J. Exp. Biol. 199: 2645-2654

Wing, S.R., J.J. Leichter and M.W. Denny. (1993) A dynamic model for wave-induced light fluctuations in a kelp forest. Limnol. Oceanogr. 38: 396-407.


Book Reviews

Denny, M. (1983) Structural Biomaterials by J.F.V. Vincent, Quarterly Review of Biology 58(2):310- 311.

Denny, M. (1985) Animal Mechanics by R. McN. Alexander. American Scientist, September issue

Denny, M.W. (1993) Plant Biomechanics by K. Niklas, Quarterly Review of Biology 68(4): 597.

Denny, M.W. (1995) Life In Moving Fluids by S. Vogel, Bulletin of Mathematical Biology 57: 949-951