OPTOGENETIC HARDWARE SETUP

Optogenetics in Neural Systems: Neuron Primer
[ PDF ]

Yizhar O, Fenno LE, Davidson TJ, Mogri M, Deisseroth K.
Neuron. 2011 July;72:9-34.

Here we provide a primer on the application of optogenetics in neuroscience, focusing on the single-component tools and highlighting important problems, challenges, and technical considerations.

Optetrode: a multichannel readout for optogenetic control in freely moving mice.
[ PDF ]

Anikeeva P, Andalman AS, Witten I, Warden M, Goshen I, Grosenick L, Gunaydin LA, Frank LM, Deisseroth K.
Nature Neuroscience. 2011 Dec 4;15(1):163-70.

We designed and validated the optetrode, a device that allows for colocalized multi-tetrode electrophysiological recording and optical stimulation in freely moving mice. Optetrode manufacture employs a unique optical fiber-centric coaxial design approach that yields a lightweight (2 g), compact and robust device that is suitable for behaving mice. This low-cost device is easy to construct (2.5 h to build without specialized equipment). We found that the drive design produced stable high-quality recordings and continued to do so for at least 6 weeks following implantation.

Integrated device for combined optical neuromodulation and electrical recording for chronic in vivo applications.
[ PDF ]

Wang J, Wagner F, Borton DA, Zhang J, Ozden I, Burwell RD, Nurmikko AV, van Wagenen R, Diester I, Deisseroth K.
J Neural Eng. 2012 9:016001.

We previously demonstrated, in vitro, the dual capability (optical delivery and electrical recording) while testing a novel hybrid device (optrode-MEA), which incorporates a tapered coaxial optical electrode (optrode) and a 100 element microelectrode array (MEA). Here we report a fully chronic implant of a new version of this device in ChR2-expressing rats, and demonstrate its use in freely moving animals over periods up to 8 months.

Integrated device for optical stimulation and spatiotemporal electrical recording of neural activity in light-sensitized brain tissue.
[ PDF ]

Zhang J, Laiwalla F, Kim JA, Urabe H, Van Wagenen R, Song YK, Connors BW, Zhang F, Deisseroth K, Nurmikko AV.
J. Neural Eng. 2009 Oct;6(5):055007.

We report here a novel dual-modality hybrid device, which consists of a tapered coaxial optical waveguide (?optrode?) integrated into a 100 element intra-cortical multi-electrode recording array. We first demonstrate the dual optical delivery and electrical recording capability of the single optrode in in vitro preparations of mouse retina, photo-stimulating the native retinal photoreceptors while recording light-responsive activities from ganglion cells. The dual-modality array device was then used in ChR2 transfected mouse brain slices. Specifically, epileptiform events were reliably optically triggered by the optrode and their spatiotemporal patterns were simultaneously recorded by the multi-electrode array.

Optogenetic interrogation of neural circuits: technology for probing mammalian brain structures.
[ PDF ]

Zhang F, Gradinaru V, Adamantidis AR, Durand R, Airan RD, de Lecea L, Deisseroth K.
Nat Protoc. 2010;5(3):439-56.

Interrogation of even deep neural circuits can be conducted by directly probing the necessity and sufficiency of defined circuit elements with millisecond-scale, cell type-specific optical perturbations, coupled with suitable readouts such as electrophysiology, optical circuit dynamics measures and freely moving behavior in mammals. Here we collect in detail our strategies for delivering microbial opsin genes to deep mammalian brain structures in vivo, along with protocols for integrating the resulting optical control with compatible readouts (electrophysiological, optical and behavioral).

An optical neural interface: in vivo control of rodent motor cortex with integrated fiberoptic and optogenetic technology.
[ PDF ]

Aravanis AM, Wang LP, Zhang F, Meltzer LA, Mogri MZ, Schneider MB, Deisseroth K.
J. Neural Eng. 2007;4:S143-S156.

We describe here a novel optical neural interface technology that will allow neuroengineers to optically address specific cell types in vivo with millisecond temporal precision. Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), an algal light-activated ion channel we developed for use in mammals, can give rise to safe, light-driven stimulation of CNS neurons on a timescale of milliseconds. Because ChR2 is genetically targetable, specific populations of neurons even sparsely embedded within intact circuitry can be stimulated with high temporal precision. Here we report the first in vivo behavioral demonstration of a functional optical neural interface (ONI) in intact animals, involving integrated fiberoptic and optogenetic technology.