*Molecular dynamics simulation of electro-osmotic flows in rough wall nanochannels*. D. Kim and E. Darve. *Physical Review E*, 73, 2006. (URL)

We performed equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulation to study electro-osmotic flows inside charged nanochannels with different types of surface roughness. We modeled surface roughness as a sequence of two-dimensional subnanoscale grooves and ridges (step function-type roughness) along the flow direction. The amplitude, spatial period, and symmetry of surface roughness were varied. The amplitude of surface roughness was on the order of the Debye length. The walls have uniform negative charges at the interface with fluids. We included only positive ions (counterions) for simplicity of computation. For the smooth wall, we compared our molecular dynamics simulation results to the well-known Poisson-Boltzmann theory. The density profiles of water molecules showed layering near the wall. For the rough walls, the density profiles measured from the wall are similar to those for the smooth wall except near where the steps are located. Because of the layering of water molecules and the finite size effect of ions and the walls, the ionic distribution departs from the Boltzmann distribution. To further understand the structure of water molecules and ions, we computed the polarization density. Near the wall, its z component dominates the other components, indicating the preferred orientation (ordering) of water molecules. Especially, inside the groove for the rough walls, its maximum is 10\% higher (stronger ordering) than for the smooth wall. The dielectric constant, computed with a Clausius-Mosotti-type equation, confirmed the ordering near the wall and the enhanced ordering inside the groove. The residence time and the diffusion coefficient, computed using the velocity autocorrelation function, showed that the diffusion of water and ions along the direction normal to the wall is significantly reduced near the wall and further decreases inside the groove. Along the flow direction, the diffusion of water and ions inside the groove is significantly lowered while it is similar to the bulk value elsewhere. We performed nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulation to compute electro-osmotic velocities and flow rates. The velocity profiles correspond to those for overlapped electric double layers. For the rough walls, velocity inside the groove is close to zero, meaning that the channel height is effectively reduced. The flow rate was found to decrease as the period of surface roughness decreases or the amplitude of surface roughness increases. We defined the zeta potential as the electrostatic potential at the location of a slip plane. We computed the electrostatic potential with the ionic distribution and the dielectric constant both from our molecular dynamics simulation. We estimated the slip plane from the velocity profile. The zeta potential showed the same trend as the flow rate: it decreases with an increasing amplitude and a decreasing period of surface roughness.

`@ARTICLE { kim_darve_2006,`

AUTHOR = { D. Kim and E. Darve },

TITLE = { Molecular dynamics simulation of electro-osmotic flows in rough wall nanochannels },

YEAR = { 2006 },

JOURNAL = { Physical Review E },

VOLUME = { 73 },

ABSTRACT = { We performed equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulation to study electro-osmotic flows inside charged nanochannels with different types of surface roughness. We modeled surface roughness as a sequence of two-dimensional subnanoscale grooves and ridges (step function-type roughness) along the flow direction. The amplitude, spatial period, and symmetry of surface roughness were varied. The amplitude of surface roughness was on the order of the Debye length. The walls have uniform negative charges at the interface with fluids. We included only positive ions (counterions) for simplicity of computation. For the smooth wall, we compared our molecular dynamics simulation results to the well-known Poisson-Boltzmann theory. The density profiles of water molecules showed layering near the wall. For the rough walls, the density profiles measured from the wall are similar to those for the smooth wall except near where the steps are located. Because of the layering of water molecules and the finite size effect of ions and the walls, the ionic distribution departs from the Boltzmann distribution. To further understand the structure of water molecules and ions, we computed the polarization density. Near the wall, its z component dominates the other components, indicating the preferred orientation (ordering) of water molecules. Especially, inside the groove for the rough walls, its maximum is 10\% higher (stronger ordering) than for the smooth wall. The dielectric constant, computed with a Clausius-Mosotti-type equation, confirmed the ordering near the wall and the enhanced ordering inside the groove. The residence time and the diffusion coefficient, computed using the velocity autocorrelation function, showed that the diffusion of water and ions along the direction normal to the wall is significantly reduced near the wall and further decreases inside the groove. Along the flow direction, the diffusion of water and ions inside the groove is significantly lowered while it is similar to the bulk value elsewhere. We performed nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulation to compute electro-osmotic velocities and flow rates. The velocity profiles correspond to those for overlapped electric double layers. For the rough walls, velocity inside the groove is close to zero, meaning that the channel height is effectively reduced. The flow rate was found to decrease as the period of surface roughness decreases or the amplitude of surface roughness increases. We defined the zeta potential as the electrostatic potential at the location of a slip plane. We computed the electrostatic potential with the ionic distribution and the dielectric constant both from our molecular dynamics simulation. We estimated the slip plane from the velocity profile. The zeta potential showed the same trend as the flow rate: it decreases with an increasing amplitude and a decreasing period of surface roughness. },

URL = { http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.73.051203 },

}