Arches. Photo by Daniel Chia
HOPES: Huntington's Outreach Project for Education, at Stanford
Oct
27
2010

Glossary

2-DG

3-hydroxykynurenin (3HK)

3-nitroproprionic acid

3-NP

5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA)

5-lipoxygenase

A2A receptor

abnormal involuntary movement scale (AIMS)

Acanthocytosis

acetaldehyde

acetaminophen

acetyl group

acetyl-CoA

acetylation

acetylcholine

acidic

acne

active molecule

active site

acyl-CoA

acyl-CoA synthetase

AD

ADAS

adenine

adenosine

adenosine diphosphate (ADP)

adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

ADHD

ADP

adrenal cortex

adrenal glands

adrenal medulla

adrenaline

adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH)

adult form

adult stem cell plasticity

adult stem cells

adult-onset

adult-onset HD

advance directives

aerobic respiration

afferent neurons

aggresome

agonist

akathisia

akinesia

ALA

aldosterone

allele

alpha helix

alpha wave

alpha-linolenic acid

alpha-tocopherol

alpha-tocotrienol

ALS

altered

Alzheimer's disease

Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS)

amenorrhea

amino acid

aminotransferase

amitriptyline

amniocentesis

amyloid

amyloid fibrils

amyloid plaques

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)

anabolism

anaerobic respiration

analog

androgen receptor (AR)

angiogenesis

animal models

antagonist

anterior horn

anterior pituitary

anti-apoptotic

anti-glutamate

anti-hypertensive drugs

anti-inflammatory

anti-inflammatory cytokines

anti-tumor drug

antiandrogenic therapy

antibiotic

antibody

anticipation

anticodon

anticonvulsant

antigen

antioxidant

antisense gene therapy

AP-1

apoptosis

applied research

AR

arachidonic acid

arginine

artemin

arteriosclerosis

arthritis

ascorbate

ascorbic acid

aspiration pneumonia

aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid)

assay

asthma

astrocyte

asymptomatic

at risk

at-risk

ataxia

atherosclerosis

atom

atomoxetine

ATP

ATP synthase

atrophin 1 protein

atrophin 2 protein

atrophy

autooxidation

autophagosome

autophagy

autosomal

autosomal dominant

autosome

axon

backup

bacteria

ballismus

basal ganglia

basal ganglion

base

baseline firing rate

basepair

basic

basic research

Batten disease

battenin

Bax

BDNF

benign tumor

beta blocker

beta oxidation

beta sheet

beta wave

beta-amyloid

beta-amyloid fibrils

beta-amyloid plaques

bile

bile salts

bilobalide

biological target

biomarker

biophysiological

biopsy

biosynthesis

biotechnology

bipolar disorder

bivalent

blastocyst

blood vessels

blood-brain barrier

bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)

bradykinesia

brain stem

brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)

bulbar region

c - jun

C-terminus

C. elegans

C.I.

Ca2+

CAG codon

calcium

calcium channel

calcium ions (Ca2+)

calpains

cancer

Cannabinoid type 2 receptor (CB2)

carbohydrates

carcinogen

carcinogenic

cardiovascular

carnitine

cascade

caspase

caspase - 6

caspase-3

catabolic

cataract

caudate

caudate nucleus

causality

caveolin-1 (cav1)

CBP

CCI-779

celastrol

celecoxib

cell

cell body

cell cycle

cell cycle arrest

cell division

cell lines

cellular

cellular respiration

central dogma of molecular biology

central nervous system (CNS)

centromeres

centrosomes

cerebellar cortex

cerebellum

cerebral blood flow (CBF)

cerebral cortex

cerebral lupus

cerebral spinal tap

CFTR

chelation therapy

chemical compound libraries

chemotherapy

cholesterol

cholinergic

chorea

chorionic villus sampling (CVS)

chromatin

chromatography

chromosomal mutation

chromosomal rearrangement

chromosome 4

chromosomes

chronic

ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF)

circadian rhythm

citalopram

citric acid cycle

clathrin

cleave

clinical global impression (CGI)

clinical research

clinical trials

clone

clotting

CNS

co-chaperone

co-factor

coactivators

codon

codon repeat

coenzyme

coenzyme Q10

cognition

cognitive

COHORT

collagen

combinatorial chemistry

competitive inhibitor

complement

complementary

Complex I

Complex II

Complex III

Complex IV

confidence interval (C.I.)

confocal microscope

confound

congenital

Congo Red

conjugate

conserved sequence

constitutive

contractile ring

contraction

control

corpus callosum

corpus striatum

correlation

cortex

cortical neurons

corticosteroids

corticosterone

cortisol

cortisone

cover slip

COX

COX-1

COX-2

COX-2 inhibitors

Cr

creatine (Cr)

CREB-binding protein (CBP)

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)

crossing over

CT

culture

culture dish

culture medium

Cushing´s syndrome

cyclic adenosine monophosphate

cyclocreatine

cyclooxygenase (COX)

cystamine

cysteine

Cystic Fibrosis

cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator

cytochrome b-c1 complex

cytochrome C

cytochrome oxidase complex

cytokine

cytoplasm

cytoplasmic

cytosine

cytoskeleton

cytosol

daf-2

dalton

daughter cells

degeneration

degenerative

degrade

delta wave

delta-5 desaturase

dementia

dendrites

dentate gyrus

dentate nucleus

Dentatorubro-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA)

deoxyribonucleic acid

deoxyribose

dexamethasone

DGLA

DHA

diabetes mellitus

diagnose

differentiate

digestive system

dihommogamma-linoleic acid (DGLA)

dilution

dimer

diploid

disaccharide

diuretic

divided attention

DNA

DNA Polymerase

docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)

domain

dominance

dopamine

dorsal root ganglion

dose response relationship

dose-dependent

double blind

double helix

double-blind

downregulation

Drosophila

drug candidates

Drug Enforcement Agency

drug target

drug therapy

drugable

dry lab

dynactin

dynein

Dysarthria

dyskinesia

dysmorphology

dysphagia

dystonia

E. coli

early-onset HD

efferent neurons

EGb 761

eicosanoids

eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)

electrochemical

electroencephalogram

electroencephalograph (EEG) testing

electron

electron carrier

electron transport chain

electroretinography

embryo

embryogenesis

embryonic germ (EG) cells

embryonic stem (ES) cells

encephalomyopathy lactic acidosis

encephalopathy

endocrine system

endocytosis

endogenous

endorphins

energy metabolism

enkephalin

enzyme

EPA

epidemiologist

epidemiology

epididymis

epiglottis

epinephrine

episodic memory

epitope

equal crossing over

esophagus

essential

essential fatty acids (EFAs)

estrogen

ethanol

etiology

excitation

excitatory

excitotoxicity

excitotoxins

exogenous

exon

expanded polyglutamine chain

expansion

exportins

extracellular fluid

extraneural

FAD

FALS

false positives

familial dysautonomia (FD)

family systems theory

fast track product

fat-soluble

fats

fatty acid

FDA

FDA

feedback loop

fermentation

ferritin

fertility

fetal neurons

fetus

fibril

fibrinogen

fitness (reproductive fitness)

fixation

Flavin-adenine dinucleotide (FAD)

Flavin-mononucleotide (FMN)

flavins

flavonoids

flax oil

fluoxetine

FMN

fMRI

Foci

folate

folding

folic acid

Food and Drug Administration (FDA)

forensics

formulation

founder's effect

free radicals

French paradox

frequency

friedreich's ataxia

frontal cortex

frontal lobes

functional capacity

GA

GABA

gamete

gamma linoleic acid (GLA)

gamma wave

gamma-carbolines

ganglia

GAPDH

gastrointestinal

gel electrophoresis

geldanamycin

gene

gene expression

gene knockdown

gene locus

gene map

gene silencing

gene splicing

gene therapy

gene therapy

gene transcription

generalized seizure

generalized tonic-clonic

genetic

genetic disorder

genetic drift

genetic map

genetic markers

Genetic Modifier

genetic research cycle

genetic screen

genetically engineer

geneticist

genetics

genome

genotype

genotyping

germ cell

germ line

Ginkgo biloba

ginkgolide

gland

glia

glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)

glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GNDF) family

glial cells

gliosis

globus pallidus

glucocorticoid degenerative cascade

glucocorticoid receptors

glucocorticoid-glucocorticoid receptor complex

glucocorticoid-GR complex

glucocorticoids

glucose

glutamate

glutamine

glutathione

glutathione peroxidase (GPx)

glycogen

glycolysis

gonadal ridge

gossypol

graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)

grafting

grand mal

granule cells

gray matter

green fluorescent protein (GFP)

GRIK2 (GluR6)

growth factors

GRP-78

guanine

hairpin

hairpin-mediated polymerase slippage model

half-life

HAP-1

haploid

haplotype

HD allele

HD Motor Rating Scale (HDMRS)

HDAC

HDAC inhibitors

HDBP1

HDBP2

HDJ1

HDSA Center of Excellence

heart attack

heart disease

HEAT repeat sequences

HEAT repeats

heat shock

heat shock factor 1 (HSF-1)

heat shock protein (Hsp)

heat shock response

helicase

heme

heme oxygenase

hemisphere

hemoglobin

hemorrhage

hereditary

heredity

heterozygous

high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)

high throughput machines

high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol

highly unsaturated fatty acids

HIP-1

hippocampal region

hippocampus

histone

histone acetyltransferases

histone deacetylase (HDAC)

histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDAC inhibitors)

histone methyltransferase (HMT)

histones

homeostasis

homing

homocysteine

homolog

homologous chromosomes

homozygote

homozygous

hormone

HPA axis

HSF-1

Hsp

Hsp 40

HSP 70 and HSP 40

HSP 90

Htt

human development

huntingtin aggregates

huntingtin protein

Huntington disease-like (HDL)

Huntington gene

Huntington Study Group

Huntington's disease

Huntington's Disease Society of America

Huntington’s disease-like 2 (HDL2)

hydrocortisone

hydrogen bond

hydrogen peroxide

hydrogenation

hydrolysis

hydrophilic

hydrophobic

hydroxyl radical

hyperglycemia

Hyperreflexia

hypertension

hypothalamus

hypothesis

hypoxia

I5-lipoxygenase

ibuprofen

IL-1

IL-1 beta

immune system

immunocytochemistry (IC)

immunohistochemistry (IH)

immunostaining

immunosuppressant

implant

implantation

implicit memory

impulse (nerve impulse)

in vitro

in vivo

in-vitro fertilization (IVF)

incidence

inclusion bodies

independent assortment

inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS)

inferior olive

inflammation

inflammatory bowel disease

inflammatory mediators

inflammatory response

inhibition

inhibitory

inner cell mass

iNOS

inosital hexaniacinate

Institutional Review Board (IRB)

insulin

insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)

interleukin-1 (IL-1)

interleukin-6 (IL-6)

interleukin-beta

interneurons

interphase

intestines

intracellular

intracellular receptor

ion

ion channels

iron

isocortex

Japanese knotweed

junctophilins (JPHs)

juvenile form

juvenile HD

Kearns-Sayre syndrome

kidney

kinase

kinesin

kinetics

KMO

knock out

knock-in

knockout

Krebs cycle

L-type Ca2+ channel

LA

lactate

lactic acid

lactose

Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela

lamotrigine

lateral geniculate body

LAX-101

lead compound

lesion

lethargy

leukotriene

LI 1379

limbic system

linkage

linoleic acid

lipid

lipid peroxidation

lipid-soluble

lipocortin

lipoic acid

lipoxygenase

lithium chloride

liver

locus

low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol

low-density lipoproteins (LDL)

lymphatic system

lymphocyte

lysosome

MAC

macrophage

mad cow disease

magnesium ion (Mg2+)

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

malonate

mammal

marker

mass

maximum tolerated dose (MTD)

median

medium

medulla

meiosis

MELAS

melatonin

memantine

membrane

membrane attack complex (MAC)

membrane fluidity

menstruation

MERRF

messenger cascade

messenger RNA (mRNA)

metabolic

metabolism

methionine

methionine cycle

methionine synthase (MS)

methyl group

methyltetrahydrofolate (methylTHF)

Mg2+

MHC II

microglia

microgram (mcg)

microRNA (miRNA)

microsatellite

microtubule

microtubule motor proteins

midbrain

mineralcorticoids

mini mental state examination (MMSE)

minocycline

Miraxion

misfolded protein

mismatch repair enzyme

mithramycin

mitochondria

mitochondrial creatine kinase (mtCK)

mitochondrial myopathies (mm)

mitochondrion

mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase

mitosis

mitotic spindle

MLK2

models

modified Motor Score (mMS)

modifier

molecular chaperones

molecular compounds

molecular mechanism

molecular pathways

molecular structure

molecule

monoamine oxidase (MAO)

monomer

monounsaturated fat

motor cortex

motor neuron

mouse model

MPTP

mRNA

MSH2

mtCK

mTOR

multipotent

muscular system

mutagen

mutant huntingtin

mutation

myelin

myoclonic seizure

myoclonus

myorelaxation

myotonia

Myotonic Dystrophy type 1 (DM1)

N-terminus

NAD

necropsy

negative feedback

negative regulator

neocortex

nerve cell

nerve cell body

nerve growth factor

nerve growth factor (NGF) superfamily

nervous system

neural connections

neurochemicals

neuroD (ND)

neurodegeneration

neurodegenerative

neurogenesis

neuroglia

neurokine superfamily

neurological

neurologist

neuron

neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs)

neuronal inclusions (NI)

neuropathy

neuroplasticity

neuroprogenitor cells

neuroprotectant drugs

neuroprotection

neuroprotective

neuropsychiatrist

neuropsychological tests

neuropsychology

neurotoxic

neurotransmitter

neurotrophic factor

neurotrophic factor hypothesis

neurotrophin-3 (NT-3)

neurotrophin-4 (NT-4)

neurturin

new indication studies

NF-kappa B (NF-KB)

NI

niacin

nicotinamide

nicotinic acid

nitric acid

nitric oxide (NO)

nitric oxide synthase

nitrogenous base

NMDA receptor

non-coding region

non-competitive inhibitor

non-HD allele

non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep

non-refined

non-specific

nondisjunction

nonpolar

nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)

noradrenaline

norepinephrine

normal huntingtin

NRSE (nerve cell restrictive silencer element)

NSAIDs

nuclear envelope

nuclear export signal (NES)

nuclear inclusions

nuclear membrane

nucleosome

nucleosome

nucleotide

nucleus

nullizygous

nurse practitioner

observational study

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

occupational therapy

oligodendrocytes

oligomenorrhea

oligonucleotide

oligopeptide

omega-3 fatty acid

omega-6 fatty acid

open-label

operationalize

optic nerve

optic tract

optimal dosage

optimization

organelle

organism

orphan drug

osteoporosis

oxidation

oxidative damage

oxidative phosphorylation

oxidative stress

oxygen

P53

p75 receptor

pancreas

parasite

parietal lobes

Parkinson's disease

parkinsonism

paroxetine

partial seizure

paternally

pathogen

pathogenesis

pathology

PCr

PDC

PDC Kinases

pedigree

peptide

peptide bond

Peripheral immune system

peripheral nervous system (PNS)

peripheral neurons

peripheral neuropathy

peristriatal area

permeability

peroxides

persephin

PET

petri dish

PG1 and PG3

PG2

pH

pharmacodynamics

pharmacokinetics

pharmacological

PHAROS

phase I clinical trial

phase II clinical trial

phase III clinical trial

phenotype

phenylbutyrate

phosphate

phosphate group

phosphocreatine (PCr)

phospholipase A2 (PLA2)

phospholipid

phosphorylation

photoreceptor

physical therapy

physiological

physiotherapy

phytoalexin

pipetting

PLA2

placebo

plasmid

plastic

platelet-activating factor (PAF)

platelets

plexus

pluripotent

pneumonia

PNS

point mutation

poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP1)

polyglutamine

polyglutamine expansion disorders

polymer

polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

polymerase slippage

polymerase slippage model

polymerization

polymorphism

polypeptide

polyunsaturated fat

pons

pool therapy

population genetics

postmortem

postsynaptic

postsynaptic cell

PPAR-gamma

PPAR-gamma activators

pre-clinical development

pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD)

pre-symptomatic

pre-synaptic terminal

precursor

PREDICT-HD

predictive testing

Prednisolone

Prednisone

presynaptic

presynaptic cell

pretest counseling

prevalence

primary structure

primate

primordial germ cells

prion

pro-inflammatory cytokines

proline

promoter

promoter region

prostaglandins

protease

proteasome

protein

protein aggregate

protein aggregation

protein chaperones

protein complex

protofibrils

proton gradient

proximal

psychiatric

psychopathy

psychosocial

psychostimulants

Purkinje cells

putamen

pyramidal nerve cells

pyruvate

pyruvate dehydrogenase complex

pyruvate oxidation

quinolinic acid (QUIN or QA)

R&D pipeline

R6

randomized

rapamycin

rapid eye movement (REM) sleep

reactive oxygen species (ROS)

receptor

recessive

recombination

red blood cells

red nucleus

redox-buffer

refined

refractory period

remacemide

renal dysfunction

renal system

repeat region

replication

repressor element 1/neuron restrictive silencing element (RE1/NRSE)

repressor element 1/neuronal restrictive silencing transcription factor (REST/NSRF)

reproductive system

research and development

resolution

respiratory chain

restriction enzymes

resveratrol

retina

reuptake

Reye's syndrome

ribonucleic acid

ribose

ribosome

rifampicin

rigidity

riluzole

RNA

RNA interference (RNAi)

RNA polymerase

RNA world

rofecoxib

Rotarod

RRS1

SAHA

salicylates

saturated fat

Schedule I controlled substance

schizophrenia

scientific method

scrapie

screening assay

second-generation

seizure

selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)

selenium

self-complementary

self-renewal

self-replication

semantic memory

sequencing

serotonin

sex chromosome

sex-linked

short interference RNA (siRNA)

side effects

signal

signal transduction

signaling pathway

silent mutation

single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)

sirolimus

sirtuins

sister chromatid

small interfering RNA (siRNA)

sodium (Na+) channels

sodium butyrate

sodium selenite

soma

spatial resolution

specialized cells

spermatogonia (singular: spermatogonium)

spider cell

spinal chord

spinobulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA)

spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs)

spiny neurons

sporadic

statistical significance

statistically significant

stem cell factor

stem cells

stereotactic lesions

sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs)

stimulus

stress

stress response

stressor

striatal neurons

striatonigral pathway

striatum

stroke

stromal cells

suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA)

substance P

substantia nigra

substrate

subthalamic nuclei/subthalamic nuclus

sugar

suicide ideation

SUMO-1

superhelices

superoxide

superoxide anion

sympathetic nervous system

symptoms

synapse

tagging

target site

tau pathologies

tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA)

telomeres

temporal lobe

temporal resolution

teratogenic

terpenoids

tertile

testosterone

tetrabenazine

tetracycline

TFC

TGase

thalamus

thivoflavine S

thivoflavine T

thymine

thymus gland

thyroid gland

Tibetan Buddhism

tissue culture

tolerabilitty

tonic-clonic

total functional capacity (TFC)

total homocysteine (tHcy)

totipotent

toxic soluble oligomers

trachea

trait

trans-fat

trans-sulfuration pathway

transcribe

transcript

transcription

transcription factor

transcriptional dysregulation

transfer RNA (tRNA)

transforming growth factor-ß (TGFß) superfamily

transgene

transgenic

transglutaminase

transglutaminase 2

translation

transmissible spongiform encepalopathy

transposable element

trehalose

tremor

triglyceride

trimer

trinucleotide repeat

trinucleotide repeat disorder

triplet repeat

tryptophan

tryptophan hydroxylase

tubulin

tumor

tumor suppresor

tyrosine receptor kinases

ubiquinone

ubiquitin

ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS)

UHDRS

unequal crossing over

unequal crossing over model

Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS)

unsaturated fat

upregulation

UPS

uracil

uterus

validation

vascular

vasodilation

vector

ventral horn

ventricles

vertebrate

vesicles

vesicular monoamine transporters (VMATs)

virus

visual cortex

vitamin A

vitamin B11

vitamin B3

vitamin C

vitamin D

vitamin E

voltage

warfarin

water-soluble

wet lab

white blood cells

white matter

wild-type

X chromosome

Xenazine

XIAP gene

XIAP gene therapy

Y chromosome

zebrafish

zygote