Copy That

Here at Stanford, the Cabrinety-NIST project is nearing the end of its two-year term.  In addition to migrating data from original media and creating photographic documentation, a major aspect of the final phase will be to find and reach out to copyright holders who own the rights for software in the Cabrinety collection. Although we have made contact with some of the major publishers, there are still a significant number of titles for which we have not been able to identify rights holders. Discovery of rights holders is a difficult and time-consuming process.  For many of the items in the Cabrinety collection it has been nearly impossible to determine whom to contact. As a result, we are publishing this open letter here on the HTGG blog.

The following is a generic version of the letter that we have sent to identified publishers in order to engage them in a dialogue about how Stanford University Libraries may provide access to digital materials that are still under copyright. This letter informs rights-holders of the choices they have in allowing the Stanford Libraries to provide access to this software. If you believe that you hold the rights to software in the Cabrinety Collection, please contact us.  Even better, please respond to the letter by filling out the open sections or making choices requested (all highlighted in red).  Note that for the purposes of this open letter, the “Appendix A” section merely lists placeholders as titles; please fill in the titles for which you own copyright. Of course, if you would rather speak with us before completing the letter, please contact us, Henry Lowood (lowood@stanford.edu) or Charlotte Thai (cthai2@stanford.edu).

Finally, at the bottom of this blog post you will find a list of original publishers/manufacturers associated with items in the Cabrinety collection. It is current as of April 14, 2014.  If you have any ideas about who might have acquired copyright from any of these parties, please let us know.

Henry Lowood and Charlotte Thai
Stanford University Libraries, Cabrinety-NIST project

OPEN LETTER TO COPYRIGHT HOLDERS OF COMPUTER GAME SOFTWARE PUBLISHED BETWEEN 1975 and 1995

Subject: Access to Copyrighted Materials in the Stanford University Libraries

To: [Organization/Individual]

We are writing to request a statement of your preferences concerning access to digital materials held in our collections for which we believe that you own the copyright.

Background: The Stanford University Libraries holds the Stephen M. Cabrinety Collection in the History of Microcomputing, circa 1975-1995[1], one of the largest archival collections of historical microcomputing software anywhere in the world. The collection contains more than 15,000 titles, representing hundreds of application types and media formats. For nearly two decades it has provided scholars both at Stanford and around the world with hands-on access to a historical treasure trove of microcomputing history.

However, all digital media is eventually subject to obsolescence, even when kept in excellent physical condition. The oldest software in the Cabrinety collection is almost 40 years old, and it is past time to migrate the software to a stable preservation platform designed for long-term data storage. Stanford’s stewardship of the Cabrinety collection extends beyond just the caretaking of physical boxes and media. It also includes preserving and providing access to the data.

In order to achieve, this, the Stanford University Libraries and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) are working together with support from a two-year grant funded by the National Software Reference Library (NSRL). This cross-country collaboration is part of an ambitious project to fully migrate software from original media in the Cabrinety collection to the Stanford Digital Repository for long-term preservation.  As the first large-scale digital preservation project of its kind, this work has attracted attention internationally. It is of significant interest to stakeholders in the cultural heritage sector such as the U.S. Library of Congress, as seen in this interview from its Signal blog: http://blogs.loc.gov/digitalpreservation/2013/02/video-game-preservation-at-scale-an-interview-with-henry-lowood/.

To the extent possible we have captured data from original software media in a forensically sound manner. In addition to then creating data “images” from these media, we have also photographically scanned box covers, manuals and other printed inserts at high resolution.

Request: After this project is completed, the collected data as described above will serve as a unique, valuable, and practical resource for information about the history and evolution of the microcomputing platform.  Due to the scale of the project and the high profile of this collection within the software and videogame preservationist community, we expect a significant level of interest from scholars desiring access to this data.

We are contacting you/your [organization/individual] for specific guidance about the level of access you will allow us to provide to materials in your copyright. As a research library, our goal is to provide access to the collections in a manner that respects copyright. For this reason, we are asking for your advisement concerning access to two classes of potential researchers: (1) the general public; and (2) the Stanford community (faculty, staff, and students).

Specifically, we are asking you:

a) to verify that you, [organization/person], currently own the copyright for the software titles listed in Appendix A,

and for those titles for which you own copyright,

b) what level of access to these titles’ data will you, [organization/person], give the Stanford University Libraries permission to provide ?

Please refer to the two attached forms: 1) Appendix A and 2) Permissions for Cabrinety-NIST Project Data to verify copyright and make access level selections.

Since the deadline for completion of the project is on August 31, 2014, we would appreciate a response to this query within at least two months of receipt.

We appreciate your time and attention to this important matter.

Appendix A

Please place a check mark next to the titles for which [you/your organization] currently owns the copyright. If [you/your organization] do not own the copyright, but know the correct owner; please list the [person/organization] next to the respective title.

We own copyright on all listed titles

Placeholder Title

Placeholder Title

Placeholder Title

Placeholder Title

Name [Please print clearly]:

Organization:

Address:

Signature of copyright holder or representative:

Date:

Permissions for Cabrinety-NIST Project Data

Please refer to the options below and first choose one option for users seeking access to software. Next, please choose a second option for access to photographic images of physical components.

1. Software Files –Disc images, executable files, etc.

World: Unrestricted access.

Research use only: Research access only; no permission to redistribute or copy.

Restricted research use: Research access, with restrictions TBD after negotiation of additional terms between Stanford and [organization/person].

2. Photographic images of physical components–Manuals, box scans, etc.

World: Unrestricted access.

Research use only: Research access only; no permission to redistribute or copy.

Restricted research use: Research access, with restrictions TBD after negotiation of additional terms between Stanford and [organization/person].

Please add any comments or questions below or in a separate communication.

Name [Please print clearly]:

Organization:

Address:

Signature of copyright holder or representative:

Date:

[1] Stephen M. Cabrinety (1966-1995) was an avid collector who developed an interest in computer software when he was still in his teens. His ambition to create a museum dedicated to microcomputing history drove him to amass a collection of approximately 15,000 titles, a number that would have grown even larger had he not died at a young age. After his passing, the Cabrinety family searched for a repository that could both appreciate the historical importance of the collection and accommodate its size. Stanford was seen as a logical choice, since it was already a caretaker for the Silicon Valley Archives. In 1998 Stanford received the entire collection as a gift from the Cabrinety family.


Publishers Found during Cabrinety-NIST Project

 1 Step Software, Inc.                              
 Aardvark Software                                  
 Abacus Software                                    
 ABC Publishing Companies                           
 Abracadata, Ltd.                                   
 Absolute Entertainment                             
 ABT Microcomputer Software                         
 Academy Software                                   
 Accelerated Software, Inc.                         
 Access Software Inc.                               
 Acclaim Entertainment, Inc.                        
 Accolade, Inc.                                     
 AccuSoft                                           
 Accustar Software, Inc.                            
 Acorn Software Products, Inc.                      
 Actionware Corporation                             
 Activision Inc.                                    
 Addison-Wesley Publishing Company Inc.             
 Aditus Inc.                                        
 Ad Lib Inc.                                        
 Adlist, Inc.                                       
 Advanced American Computer Technology              
 Advanced Ideas Inc.                                
 Advanced Learning Technology, Inc.                 
 Advanced Logic Systems, Inc.                       
 Advanced Support Group                             
 Adventure International                            
 Aegis Development, Inc.                            
 Affinity Microsystems, Ltd.                        
 ALA Enterprises, Inc.                              
 Alan Bonadio Associates                            
 Allegro New Media                                  
 Allegro Software                                   
 AlohaFonts                                         
 Alternative Software Limited                       
 amaze!nc                                           
 American Educational Computer, Inc.                
 American Greetings, Corp.                          
 American Laser Games, Inc.                         
 American Micro Products, Inc.                      
 American Microware, Inc.                           
 American Peripherals                               
 American Videogame                                 
 America Online                                     
 Amfas Computer Software, Ltd.                      
 Amish Software, Inc.                               
 ANALOG 400/800 Corp.                               
 Analog Software                                    
 Anco Marketing Ltd.                                
 Anco Software, Ltd.                                
 Ann Arbor Softworks, Inc.                          
 Antic Publishing, Inc.                             
 Antic Software                                     
 Apollo, Inc.                                       
 Apple Computer Inc.                                
 Applications Plus                                  
 Applied Systems Knowledge Limited                  
 Arcade Plus                                        
 Arcadia                                            
 Arcadia Systems, Inc.                              
 Arcana Software Ltd.                               
 ARC Software                                       
 Ariolasoft UK Limited                              
 Aris Entertainment                                 
 Artech Digital Entertainments, Inc.                
 Artworx Software Company Inc.                      
 ASAP Systems, Inc.                                 
 Asgard Software                                    
 Ashton-Tate                                        
 Asmik Corporation of America                       
 Assimilation, Inc.                                 
 Atari                                              
 Atarisoft                                          
 Atlantis Software Ltd.                             
 AT&T Corp.                                         
 Attitash Software, Inc.                            
 Automated Simulations, Inc.                        
 Avantage Software                                  
 Avant-Garde Creations                              
 Avant-Garde Publishing Corporation                 
 Axlon, Inc.                                        
 A.X. Productions, Inc.                             
 Bandai America, Inc.                               
 Bantam Electronic Publishing                       
 Baseline Publishing, Inc.                          
 Batteries Included                                 
 Baudeville                                         
 Baudville                                          
 BBC Enterprises, Ltd.                              
 BBC Frontline Ltd.                                 
 BCI                                                
 BCI Software                                       
 BeachWare Inc.                                     
 Beagle Bros, Inc.                                  
 Beck-Tech                                          
 Behavioral Engineering                             
 Bell Labs                                          
 Berkeley Systems                                   
 Bertamax, Inc.                                     
 Bethesda SoftWorks                                 
 Bez                                                
 Binary Computer Products, Inc.                     
 Bitstream Inc.                                     
 Black Legend                                       
 BLOC Publishing Corporation                        
 Blue Chip Software                                 
 Bob Jack Software                                  
 Bogas Productions                                  
 Borland International Inc.                         
 Boston Electronic Systems Training                 
 Boston Software Publishers Incorporated            
 Box Car Salvage                                    
 Box Office, Inc.                                   
 Bram, Inc.                                         
 Bright Star Technology, Inc.                       
 Britannica Inc.                                    
 Broderbund Software Inc.                            
 Buena Vista Software                               
 Bull City Software                                 
 Bullet Proof Software, Inc.                        
 Bullseye Software                                  
 ButtonWare                                         
 Bytec Management Corporation                       
 California Dreams                                  
 Capcom USA, Inc.                                   
 Capstone                                           
 Career Publishing, Inc.                            
 CasadyWare                                         
 Cases Computer Simulations Ltd.                    
 Castle Software, Inc.                              
 Cavalier Computer                                  
 CBS Electronics                                    
 CBS, Inc.                                          
 CBS Software                                       
 CBS Video Games                                    
 C&C Software                                       
 Cdex Corporation                                   
 CDRP, Inc.                                         
 CDS Software Ltd., Nimrod House                    
 Celery Software                                    
 Central Point Software                             
 CE Software Inc.                                   
 Challenger Software                                
 Chang Laboratories, Inc.                           
 Channelmark Corporation                            
 Chestnut                                           
 Chicago Fine Print, Inc.                           
 Children's Computer Workshop                       
 ChipSoft, Inc.                                     
 Chris Crawford Games                               
 Chris Gray Enterprises, Inc.                       
 Chronicle Computing, Inc.                          
 Cinemaware                                         
 Cinemaware Corporation                             
 Cineplay Interactive, Inc.                         
 City Software Distributors, Inc.                   
 Claris Corporation                                 
 Club 100: A Model 100 User Group                   
 Club KidSoft                                       
 Codemasters                                        
 CodeWriter Corporation                             
 Cogito Software Company                            
 Coleco                                             
 Coleco Industries, Inc.                            
 CommaVid, Inc.                                     
 Comm*Data Computer House, Inc.                     
 Commercial Data Systems Ltd.                       
 Commodore-Amiga, Inc.                              
 Commodore Business Machines, Inc.                  
 Commodore Electronics Ltd.                         
 Compact Publishing, Inc.                           
 Compaq                                             
 Comptons NewMedia, Inc.                            
 CompuAdd Inc.                                      
 Compu-Teach, Inc.                                  
 Computek                                           
 COMPUTE! Publications, Inc.                        
 Computer-Advanced Ideas, Inc.                      
 Computer Directions                                
 ComputerEasy                                       
 Computer Fenestrations                             
 Computer Magic Ltd.                                
 Computerose, Inc.                                  
 Computer Software Associates                       
 Computer Spectrum, Inc.                            
 Computer's Voice                                   
 Computer Under-ware                                
 Contact Plus Corporation                           
 Continental Software                               
 Control Data Publishing Company, Inc.              
 Cosmi Corporation                                  
 Courseware, Inc.                                   
 CPG Products Corp.                                 
 Creative Software                                  
 CRL Group                                          
 Crystalware, Inc.                                  
 CSA, Inc.                                          
 Culture Brain, USA, Inc.                           
 Custom Micro Systems, Ltd.                         
 D.A. Brumleve                                      
 DAK Industries, Inc.                               
 Damar Enterprises                                  
 Dana                                               
 Data Age, Inc.                                     
 Database Publications Ltd.                         
 Data East USA, Inc.                                
 Data Equipment Supply Corporation                  
 Data Express, Inc.                                 
 Data General Corporation                           
 Data Innovations, Inc.                             
 Datamost                                           
 Data Plus                                          
 Datasoft                                           
 Data Transforms, Inc.                              
 Datatronic AB                                      
 Datawatch Corporation                              
 Data World, Inc.                                   
 DAVCO                                              
 Davidson & Associates, Inc.                        
 Davka Corporation                                  
 DayFlo Tracker Corporation                         
 DDA (Dietary Data Analysis)                        
 Decision Development Corporation                   
 Delphine Software                                  
 Delrina Corporation                                
 Dennis Publishing Ltd.                             
 Designing Minds, Inc.                              
 Design Software, Inc.                              
 DesignWare, Inc.                                   
 Destination Software, Inc.                         
 Developmental Learning Materials                   
 Digital Concepts                                   
 Digital Integration, Ltd.                          
 DigiTek Software                                   
 dilithium Software                                 
 Dinamic                                            
 Discovery Software International, Inc.             
 Disk-Count Software, Inc.                          
 Disks O'Plenty Inc.                                
 DLM Teaching Resources                             
 Dolphin Marine Systems, Inc.                       
 Domark Group Ltd.                                  
 Domark Ltd.                                        
 Domark Software, Inc.                              
 Dongleware Publishing, Inc.                        
 Don't Ask Computer Software                        
 Door Openers, Inc.                                 
 Dorsett Educational Systems, Inc.                  
 Double Eagle Software, Inc.                        
 Double-Gold Software                               
 Dow Jones & Company, Inc.                          
 DPS Solutions, Inc.                                
 Dream Maker Software                               
 DreamPark Development                              
 DreamWorks                                         
 DreamWorks, Inc.                                   
 Dr. T's Music Software                             
 Dubl-Click Software, Inc.                          
 Duplicating Technologies, Inc.                     
 Dynamix Inc.                                       
 Eagle                                              
 Eagle Computer, Inc.                               
 Eagle Software Publishing, Inc.                    
 Earthware Computer Services                        
 EAS Software                                       
 Ebook, Inc.                                        
 Edmark Corporation                                 
 Educational Software, Inc.                         
 EduSoft                                            
 Edu-Soft                                           
 Edu-Ware Services, Inc.                            
 Eidersoft USA Inc.                                 
 Electric Book Company                              
 Electric Dreams                                    
 Electric Transit, Inc.                             
 Electro Brain                                      
 Electrocoin Software                               
 Electronic Arts, Inc.                              
 Electronic Zoo                                     
 Elfring Soft Fonts                                 
 Elite Systems Limited                              
 Ellis Enterprises                                  
 EMAP                                               
 EMAP Images                                        
 Emerald Software                                   
 Empire Interactive                                 
 Empire Software                                    
 Enabling Technologies, Inc.                        
 English Software                                   
 Enterset                                           
 Enzan-Hoshigumi Co., Ltd.                          
 Epic MegaGames Inc.                                
 Epyx, Inc.                                         
 Ere Informatique                                   
 ERIC Software Publishing                           
 Europress Publications Ltd.                        
 Expert Software Inc.                               
 Facts Online                                       
 FanFare                                            
 Fat Cat Software                                   
 Faulkner & Gray, Inc.                              
 Federal Data Corporation                           
 Field Integration Technology, Inc.                 
 Fifth Generations Systems Inc.                     
 Final Frontier Software                            
 Firebird Licensees, Inc.                           
 Firebird Software                                  
 First Magnitude                                    
 First Star Software, Inc.                          
 Fisher-Price                                       
 Five Star Software                                 
 Flying Edge                                        
 Folkstone Design Inc.                              
 Ford Motor Company                                 
 Foundation Publishing, Inc.                        
 Fox Interactive                                    
 Fox Video Games, Inc.                              
 Free Spirit Software Inc.                          
 FrontRunner Development Corporation                
 FTL Games                                          
 Fujisankei Communications International, Inc.      
 Funtastic, Inc.                                    
 Futurehouse, Inc.                                  
 Future Publishing                                  
 FWB Software                                       
 Gale Research, Inc.                                
 Game Designers' Workshop                           
 Game Gems, Inc.                                    
 Games by Apollo, Inc.                              
 GAMESTAR, Inc.                                     
 GameTek                                            
 Gamma Software                                     
 Gardé                                   
 Gebelli Software, Inc.                             
 genSoft Development Corporation                    
 Global Village Communication, Inc.                 
 Gold Disk Inc.                                     
 Goliath Games                                      
 Gonzo Games                                        
 GP Publications, Inc.                              
 Great Game Products                                
 Great Plains Software, Inc.                        
 Great Wave Software                                
 Greene Inc.                                        
 Green Valley Publishing                            
 Gremlin Graphics Software Ltd.                     
 Grolier Electronic Publishing, Inc.                
 Groupware                                          
 GTE Vantage Incorporated                           
 GT Software Corp.                                  
 Haba Systems, Inc.                                 
 Hal America, Inc.                                  
 H.A.L. Labs                                        
 Handic Software AB                                 
 Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc.                    
 Hayden Book Company, Inc.                          
 Hayden Software Company, Inc.                      
 hDC Computer Corporation                           
 Henderson Associates                               
 Hewlett Packard                                    
 Hewson Consultants Limited                         
 Highlands Computer Services                        
 HI Tech Expressions                                
 Hi-Tec Software, Ltd.                              
 Home & Personal Computers                          
 Hopkins Technology                                 
 Houghton Mifflin Co.                               
 Howard Software Services                           
 Howard W. Sams & Co., Inc.                         
 Human Edge Software Corp.                          
 Human Engineered Software                          
 HyperMedia Concepts, Inc.                          
 Hyperpress Publishing Corporation                  
 IBM Inc.                                           
 ICOM Simulations Inc.                              
 Ideaform, Inc.                                     
 IDG                                                
 IDG Communications                                 
 IDG Media                                          
 Image Works                                        
 Imagic                                             
 Imagine Publishing, Inc.                           
 Imagitec Design Limited                            
 Impressions                                        
 Incentive Software Limited                         
 Individual Software Inc.                           
 Infocom                                            
 Infogrames                                         
 Inhome Software, Inc.                              
 Inline Design                                      
 Innerprise Software, Inc.                          
 Innersprise Software, Inc.                         
 Insight Software Corporation                       
 Insoft, Inc.                                       
 Instant Software, Inc.                             
 Institute For Computers in Jewish Life             
 Insurance Agency Computer Power                    
 IntelliCreations, Inc.                             
 Intelligent Statements, Inc.                       
 Intellisoft International                          
 Intellivision, Inc.                                
 Interactive Publishing Ltd.                        
 International Computer Disc, Inc.                  
 International Computer Programs, Inc.              
 International Software Marketing                   
 Interphase Technologies, Inc.                      
 Interplay                                          
 Interplay Productions, Inc.                        
 Interstel Corporation                              
 IntraCorp, Inc.                                    
 Intuit Inc.                                        
 INTV Corporation                                   
 Ion International, Inc.                            
 Irem Corp.                                         
 IrwinWare                                          
 ISA Software, Inc.                                 
 Isoft                                              
 Jagware Inc.                                       
 Jamsa Press                                        
 John Konopa                                        
 Joker Software Ltd.                                
 Jor-And                                            
 JVC Musical Industries, Inc.                       
 JV Software, Inc.                                  
 Kaneko USA, Ltd.                                   
 K-BYTE                                             
 Keypunch Software, Inc.                            
 KIDware                                            
 Koala Technologies Corporation                     
 Konami                                             
 Konami (America) Inc.                              
 Kracker Jax                                        
 Krentek Software                                   
 Krisalis Software Ltd.                             
 Lance Haffner Games                                
 Leading Edge Products, Inc.                        
 Learning Technologies                              
 Level-10, a division of Dakin5 Corporation         
 Lifestyle Software Group                           
 Lightspeed Software, Inc.                          
 Live Studios, Inc.                                 
 Living Videotext, Inc.                             
 LJK Enterprises                                    
 LJN Ltd.                                           
 Load 'N' Go!                                       
 Logical Design Works, Inc.                         
 Logotron Entertainment                             
 Logotron, Ltd.                                     
 London Software                                    
 Longman Crown, Inc.                                
 Longman Group Limited                              
 Loriciel                                           
 Lotus Development Corporation                      
 L & S Computerware                                 
 LucasArts Entertainment Company LLC.               
 Lucasfilm Games                                    
 Luna Software, Inc.                                
 MacPlay                                            
 MacSoft                                            
 Magic Bytes                                        
 Magnavox Consumer Electronics Company              
 Magnetic Fields (Software Design) Ltd.             
 Magnetic Images                                    
 Magnum Software                                    
 Mainstay                                           
 Main Street Publishing, Inc.                       
 Marathon Technology, Inc.                          
 Mark of the Unicorn, Inc.                          
 Mars Merchandising                                 
 Marvel Comics Group                                
 Master Control Software, Inc.                      
 Master Designer Software, Inc.                     
 Master Publishing, Inc.                            
 Mastertronic                                       
 Mattel Electronics, Inc.                           
 Mattel, Inc.                                       
 Maximus, Inc.                                      
 Maxis                                              
 Maxis Software                                     
 MaxWell CPU                                        
 MBI Software, Inc.                                 
 MECA (Micro Education Corporation of America)      
 MECC (Minnesota Educational Computing Corporation) 
 Media Vision                                       
 Media Vision, Inc.                                 
 Megahaus Corporation                               
 Megasoft, Inc.                                     
 Mego Corporation                                   
 Melbourne House                                    
 Meldac of America, Inc.                            
 Melody Hall Publishing Corporation                 
 Merit Software                                     
 Methods & Solutions, Inc.                          
 MichTron                                           
 MichTron, Inc.                                     
 Microcomputer Games                                
 Micro Courseware Corporation                       
 Microdaft                                          
 MicroDeal                                          
 Microdeal, Ltd.                                    
 Microdigital                                       
 Micro Fun                                          
 Microids                                           
 Microillusions                                     
 MicroLab, Inc.                                     
 MicroLeague Interactive Software                   
 Micro League Sports Association                    
 Microlytics, Inc.                                  
 Micro-MRP, Inc.                                    
 micro-partner Software GmbH                        
 MicroPlay Software                                 
 Micro Power & Light Co.                            
 MicroPro                                           
 MicroProse Software                                
 Microsoft                                          
 Microsoftware International                        
 Micro Software International Inc.                  
 Micro Sports, Inc.                                 
 Micro-Systems Development, Inc.                    
 Microtec Entertainment                             
 Microtechnic Solutions                             
 Micro-Ware Distributing Inc.                       
 Mid-America Digital                                
 Midisoft Corporation                               
 Migent, Inc.                                       
 Migent Software, Inc.                              
 Miles Computing, Inc.                              
 Millennium                                         
 Milliken Publishing Co.                            
 Milton Bradley Company                             
 Mindcraft Software, Inc.                           
 Mindscape, Inc.                                    
 Mindware, Inc.                                     
 Mindware International                             
 Mirage Concepts, Inc.                              
 Mirrorsoft Ltd.                                    
 MIS                                                
 MIS: Press                                         
 Mitchell Publishing, Inc.                          
 Mix Software, Inc.                                 
 Monarch Data Systems                               
 Monster Disc, Inc.                                 
 Moon Valley Software Inc.                          
 Mosaic Media, Inc.                                 
 Motes Educational Software                         
 MPP (Microbits Peripheral Products)                
 MST Inc.                                           
 Multi-Ad Services, Inc.                            
 Multicom Publishing                                
 MUSE Software                                      
 MVP Software                                       
 My Software Company                                
 Mythicon, Inc.                                     
 Namco Hometek, Inc.                                
 Namco, Ltd.                                        
 NAM (North American MarketShare, Inc.)             
 Nantucket Corporation                              
 Nashoba Systems, Inc.                              
 NEC Home Electronics (USA) Inc.                    
 NetManage                                          
 Nevins Microsystems, Inc.                          
 New England Shareware                              
 NewSoft                                            
 New World Computing, Inc.                          
 Nexus Productions Ltd.                             
 Nickelodeon Entertainment                          
 Ninga Software Corporation                         
 Nintendo of America, Inc.                          
 No Hands Software                                  
 NOLO Press                                         
 Nordic Software, Inc.                              
 North American Philips Consumer Electronics Corp.  
 Norton Software                                    
 Novell Inc.                                        
 Nufekop                                            
 Nuvo Labs                                          
 Oberon International, Ltd.                         
 Ocean Software Ltd.                                
 OCO Software Inc.                                  
 Odesta Corporation                                 
 Olduvai Corporation                                
 Olduvai Software, Inc.                             
 Olympic Educational Software                       
 Omnitrend Software, Inc.                           
 On-Line Systems                                    
 Opcode Interactive                                 
 Opcode Systems                                     
 Optimum Resource Inc.                              
 Opus 2 Software                                    
 Orange Cherry Software                             
 Orange Software                                    
 Origin                                             
 Origin Systems, Inc.                               
 OsoSoft                                            
 Pacific Coast Software                             
 Pacific Tri Micro                                  
 Pacific TriMicro, Inc.                             
 Palace Software                                    
 Paladin Software Corporation                       
 Palantir Software                                  
 Panda, Inc.                                        
 Panther Games Pty Ltd                              
 Paradox Software Ltd.                              
 Paragon Publishing Ltd.                            
 Paragon Software                                   
 Parker Brothers                                    
 Parsons Technology                                 
 Paul Lutus                                         
 PBI Software, Inc.                                 
 PC-Kwik Co.                                        
 PC World Communications, Inc.                      
 Peachtree Software Inc.                            
 Penguin Software, Inc.                             
 Personal Computer Solutions                        
 Personal Software, Inc.                            
 Personics Corporation                              
 Peter J. Phethean, Ltd.                            
 Phoenix Technologies                               
 Piccadilly Software, Inc.                          
 Pinpoint Publishing                                
 PlayNET                                            
 Play-Rite Software Inc.                            
 Playskool, Inc.                                    
 PLUG, The Plus/4 Users' Group                      
 Polarware, Inc.                                    
 Polarware/Penguin Software, Inc.                   
 Polygot Software                                   
 Powersource, Inc.                                  
 Power Source, Inc.                                 
 Practical Computer Applications, Inc.              
 Premier Technology, Inc.                           
 Prentice-Hall Courseware                           
 Prentice Hall Press                                
 Presto Studios, Inc.                               
 Price/Stern/Sloan Publishers                       
 Primera Software                                   
 Prism Leisure Corporation Plc.                     
 Prodigy Services Company                           
 Professional Software Inc.                         
 Professional Software Technology, Inc.             
 Program Design, Inc.                               
 Program Design International                       
 Progressive Computer Applications                  
 Progressive Peripherals & Software                 
 Prometheus Products, Inc.                          
 Prosonus                                           
 Prospero Software                                  
 Provocative Software                               
 Pryority Software, Inc.                            
 Psion Limited                                      
 Psygnosis Ltd.                                     
 Publishing International                           
 Pyramid Software Inc.                              
 Quality Software                                   
 Qualtronic Devices, Inc.                           
 Quantum Axcess                                     
 Quantum Computer Services, Inc.                    
 Quantum Quality Productions, Inc.                  
 Que Corporation                                    
 Quest Learning Systems, Inc.                       
 Quicksilva Inc.                                    
 QuickView Systems                                  
 QUMAX                                              
 Radio Shack                                        
 Rainbird Software                                  
 Rainbow Arts GmbH                                  
 Rainbow Computing, Inc.                            
 Random House Software                              
 Rantom                                             
 Rasputin                                           
 RAW Entertainment, Inc.                            
 ReadySoft Inc.                                     
 RealData, Inc.                                     
 Reality Technologies                               
 Reference Software International                   
 Regent Software                                    
 reLINE Software GmbH                               
 Renovation Products, Inc.                          
 Reston Publishing Company, Inc.                    
 Revolution Software, Inc.                          
 Rhode Island Soft Systems                          
 RIX SoftWorks, Inc.                                
 Robert L. Nicolai                                  
 Robert Scott Enterprises                           
 Roger Wagner Publishing, Inc.                      
 Roklan Corporation                                 
 Romox, Inc.                                        
 ROMsoft Electronic Publishing                      
 Romstar, Inc.                                      
 Rubicon Publishing                                 
 Sachs Enterprises                                  
 Sage's Creation, Inc.                              
 Samna Corporation                                  
 Santa Cruz Educational Software                    
 Saturn Systems, Inc.                               
 Scarborough Systems, Inc.                          
 Scetlander Limited                                 
 Scholastic                                         
 Schwane Software                                   
 Scott Adams, Inc.                                  
 Scott Lamb (personal name)                         
 Screen Magic, Inc.                                 
 Screenplay, Inc.                                   
 Sears, Roebuck and Co.                             
 Sega Enterprises, Inc.                             
 Sega Enterprises, Ltd.                             
 Sega of America                                    
 Seismic, Inc.                                      
 Sendai Interactive                                 
 Sendai Publishing Group, Inc.                      
 Seymor-Radix                                       
 Shades                                             
 Shareable Software                                 
 ShareData, Inc.                                    
 Shareware International                            
 Shareware Unlimited                                
 Shelbourne Software Systems, Inc.                  
 Shever Software                                    
 ShirtPocket Software                               
 Showcase Software                                  
 Sierra Online, Inc.                                
 Sierra On-Line, Inc.                               
 Sikka Corporation                                  
 Silicon Beach Software, Inc.                       
 Silicon Mountain Systems                           
 Silicon Valley Systems, Inc.                       
 Simon & Schuster, Inc.                             
 SimSystems                                         
 Sinclair Research Ltd.                             
 Sirius Publishing                                  
 Sirius Software, Inc.                              
 Sir-tech Software, Inc.                            
 Skisoft, Inc.                                      
 Slash Corporation                                  
 Snake River Software, Inc.                         
 Softdisk                                           
 Softdisk Publishing, Inc.                          
 SofTechnics                                        
 Softie, Inc.                                       
 Softsmith Corporation                              
 SoftStream International, Inc.                     
 SoftStyle                                          
 SoftStyle, Inc.                                    
 Software Applications Specialists                  
 Software Arts, Inc.                                
 Software Country                                   
 Software Dispatch                                  
 Software Heaven, Inc.                              
 Software Horizons Ltd.                             
 Software Masters                                   
 Software of the Month Club                         
 Software Publishing Corporation                    
 Software Supply                                    
 Software Toolworks Inc.                            
 Solutions, Inc.                                    
 Sony Imagesoft                                     
 Sound Ideas                                        
 Sound Source Unlimited, Inc.                       
 Southwestern Data Systems                          
 Space Tech Enterprises, Inc.                       
 Specialized Business Solutions                     
 Spectra Video, Inc.                                
 Spectravideo International, Ltd.                   
 Spectrum Computers                                 
 Spectrum HoloByte Inc.                              
 Spinnaker Software Corp.                           
 Spotlight Software                                 
 Springboard Software, Inc.                         
 Starbyte Software Ltd.                             
 Star Development Corporation                       
 Starpath Corporation                               
 StarSoft Development Laboratories                  
 Star Soft International, Inc.                      
 Startech, Inc.                                     
 Stephen E. Manousos                                
 Sterling Swift Publishing Company                  
 Stiller Research                                   
 Stimutech, Inc.                                    
 Stone & Associates                                 
 Stoneware Incorporated                             
 Strategic Simulations, Inc.                        
 Studio Zero, Inc.                                  
 StyleWare, Inc.                                    
 subLOGIC Corporation                               
 Substance Abuse Education, Inc.                    
 Summit Software Corporation                        
 Suncom, Inc.                                       
 Sun Corporation of America                         
 Sun Remarketing, Inc.                              
 Super Software                                     
 Supra Corporation                                  
 Survivor Software Ltd.                             
 Swifty Software, Inc.                              
 Symantec                                           
 Symmetry Corporation                               
 Synapse                                            
 Synapse Software                                   
 Syncro, Inc.                                       
 Synergistic Software                               
 System Three Software, Ltd.                        
 Taito America Corp.                                
 Taito Corp.                                        
 Taito Software, Inc.                               
 Takara U.S.A. Corp.                                
 Tandy Corporation                                  
 Task Force Games                                   
 TDC Distributors, Inc.                             
 Team17                                             
 Tecmo, Inc.                                        
 Tecmo Ltd.                                         
 Telarium Corp.                                     
 Telecomsoft                                        
 Tele-Games                                         
 Telesys                                            
 Teligraphics                                       
 Tengen                                             
 TENpointŌ                           
 Terrapin, Inc.                                     
 Terrific Software                                  
 Texas Instruments Incorporated                     
 T & F Software Company                             
 TG Software                                        
 Thalion Software GmbH                              
 The ALIEN Group                                    
 The Avalon Hill Game Company                       
 The Cornsoft Group                                 
 The EDGE                                           
 The Ford Motor Company                             
 The ImagiNation Network                            
 The Learning Advantage                             
 The Learning Company Inc.                          
 The Muse Co.                                       
 The Original Statistical Golf Association          
 The Other Valley Software                          
 The Pierstorff Co.                                 
 The Programmer's Guild                             
 The Regents/ALA Company                            
 T.H.E.S.I.S.                                       
 The Software Group, Inc.                           
 The Software Guild                                 
 The Software Toolworks                             
 The Sunrise-Littleton Technology Company           
 The Voyager Company                                
 The Wizard's Magic Toy Box                         
 Think Educational Software, Inc.                   
 Think Technologies, Inc.                           
 Thorn EMI Computer Software, Inc.                  
 Thorn EMI Video Programmes Ltd.                    
 Thunder Mountain                                   
 Tiger Developments (Entertainment) Ltd.            
 Tiger Electronics Inc.                             
 Tiger Electronic Toys, Inc.                        
 Time Warner Interactive Group                      
 Time Warner Interactive, Inc.                      
 Timeworks                                          
 Timeworks, Inc.                                    
 Timex Sinclair                                     
 Titus Software                                     
 TK Computer Products, Inc.                         
 T/Maker Company                                    
 T/Maker Graphics                                   
 Tom Mix Software                                   
 Tom Snyder Productions, Inc.                       
 Tomy Corporation                                   
 Tony Severa's Computer Service                     
 Top Ten Software                                   
 Tradewest, Inc.                                    
 Treco Corporation Ltd.                             
 Trendware Corporation                              
 TRIAD Software Products                            
 Trillium Corp.                                     
 TRI-MICRO, INC.                                    
 Troika Multimedia, Inc.                            
 Tronix                                             
 Tronix Publishing, Inc.                            
 TSASA, Inc.                                        
 Tsunami Media                                      
 Tynesoft Computer Software                         
 UBI Soft Entertainment                             
 Ultra Software Corporation                         
 Unison World                                       
 United Microware Industries, Inc.                  
 University of California, Berkeley                 
 Unknown                                            
 U.S. Games Corporation                             
 U.S. Gold Ltd.                                     
 UXB                                                
 Vartek Inc.                                        
 Verbatim                                           
 Versa Computing, Inc.                              
 Vertex Systems                                     
 Vic Tokai, Inc.                                    
 Victory Software                                   
 Video Wizard's Inc.                                
 Videx, Inc.                                        
 Viking Technologies, Inc.                          
 Virgin Games                                       
 Virgin Interactive Entertainment, Inc.             
 Virgin Mastertronic                                
 Virgin Mastertronic International, Inc.            
 Virtual Vegas, Inc.                                
 Visible Ink Software                               
 VisiCorp                                           
 Visionary Design Technologies, Inc.                
 Vision Software, Inc.                              
 Vital Information, Inc.                            
 Vitesse, Inc.                                      
 Vivid Image Developments Ltd.                      
 Voyager Software                                   
 Walt Disney Computer Software, Inc.                
 Walt Disney Productions                            
 Weekly Reader Family Software                      
 Wesson International                               
 William and Macias                                 
 Wilson WindowWare                                  
 Windcrest Software Inc.                            
 Windham Classics                                   
 Windsoft International                             
 Wizard Video Games                                 
 Wizardworks                                        
 Woodbury Software                                  
 Working Software, Inc.                             
 Writing Consultants                                
 X-10 Home Controls Inc.                            
 X-10 (USA) Inc.                                    
 Xerox Education Publications                       
 Xiphias                                            
 XLEnt Software                                     
 XONOX                                              
 XOR Corporation                                    
 Ziff-Davis Publishing Company L.P.                 
 ZSoft Corporation                                  
 ZugWare                                            
(934 rows)