In our first post, we described a few key concepts and findings that have emerged from research on boundary organizations. What does this look like in practice? Here are a few examples from our work at the Ocean Science Trust.
Science Needs Assessment
Scientists and decision-makers operate in different worlds, at different paces, and with different priorities, which can often lead to missed opportunities. One way to remedy the disconnect is by developing a deeper understanding of how agencies interact with and use science. Through “Science Needs Assessment,” we map decision makers’ science needs using interviews, focus groups, and surveys. Conducting these interviews helps us capture the priority information needs of managers, and the processes by which new scientific information could be used. With this knowledge in hand, we can work more effectively with the scientific community to align its activities with decision making.
Expert judgment can be a valuable tool in helping to translate science for decision makers. We define expert judgment as a process that takes advantage of specialized knowledge and experience to inform a management or decision making need. Expert judgment can be helpful in cases where empirical evidence is lacking or insufficient. Or in deriving useful information from large amounts of data, or in assessing complex situations. Expert judgment is used in an extremely wide range of circumstances. In our own context, we see an increasing need for expert judgment processes that inform adaptive management of complex socio-ecological systems.
Scientific & Technical Review
Ocean Science Trust employs scientific review on behalf of ocean and coastal management agencies in California to help ensure that decisions are supported by the highest quality science. Unlike academic journal articles, agency products often have diverse review needs due to the fact that scientific and technical aspects are intertwined with regulatory components, and there is often significant public interest involved. While there is no “one size fits all” review process, review processes must be considered transparent, credible, and scientifically rigorous.
These are just a few examples of the work of one boundary organization. They do not represent everything Ocean Science Trust does to help link science with decision making. Moreover, the boundary space is diverse. One of the exciting aspects of this growing field is that different boundary organizations are using different models and approaches, and focus on different skill sets or areas of expertise (e.g., science communications, law, management processes, etc.). The producers and users of scientific knowledge will benefit most when all these institutions are functioning well and working together constructively.
So why should scientists care about boundary organizations? They can efficiently improve your relevance and impact by:
1) Taking care of process
These examples have one element in common, and that’s process, process, process! In having access to an organization with the expertise and capacity to design and implement strong processes, scientists and decision makers gain the support and guidance they need to constructively collaborate and learn from each other. Often the gap between science and decision making is bridged by the right process at the right time.
2) Finding the right audience for your work
Boundary organizations can serve as a valuable guide to the policy issues and decision making audiences where your research might be relevant. An effective boundary organization can relieve some of the pressure that gets heaped onto scientists through mechanisms such as the NSF’s “broader impacts” criterion by pointing out credible avenues through which your work can make a difference.
3) Identifying new collaborations
In the course of working with scientists and decision makers to align information with users’ needs, boundary organizations often generate new opportunities for collaboration and for expanding the utility of scientific research.
Do you engage with a boundary organization as part of your work? Leave a comment about your experiences!
Senior Scientist Ryan Meyer and Program Manager Emily Knight work for the California Ocean Science Trust, a boundary organization that advances a constructive role for science in decision-making by promoting collaboration and mutual understanding among scientists, citizens, managers, and policy-makers.