All Hawaii Publications   Peter Vitousek's CV and Publications


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Peter Morrison Vitousek



Academic Background


B.A. cum laude in Political Science, Amherst College, 1971


Ph.D. in Biology, Dartmouth College, 1975


Assistant Professor of Zoology and Biology, Indiana University, 1975–1979


Associate Professor of Botany and  Biology, University of North Carolina—Chapel Hill, 1980–1983


Associate Professor and Professor of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, 1984–


Clifford G. Morrison Professor of Population and Resource Studies, Stanford University, 1993–



Honors and Awards


Pew Scholar in Conservation and Environment, 1990


W.S. Cooper Award, Ecological Society of America, 1992; R.H. MacArthur Award, Ecological Society of America, 1993; Time/CNN America’s best ecologist, 2002; Princeton Environmental Prize, 2002; Marsh Ecology Book Award, British Ecological Society, 2005; Tansley Lecturer, British Ecological Society, 2005; Award for Scientific Reviewing, National Academy of Sciences, 2006.


Fellow, National Academy of Sciences, 1992; American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1993; American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1994; California Academy of Sciences, 1994


D.Sc., Amherst College, 2003





Ecology (lecture course).  Indiana, North Carolina, and Stanford.


Environmental Biology (non-majors course, lecture).  North Carolina and Stanford.


Ecosystems of the Tropics.  Stanford.


Biology and Global Change.  Stanford.


Terrestrial Biogeochemistry.  Stanford.


Island Ecology. Stanford.




1975    Reiners, W.A., R.H. Marks, and P.M. Vitousek.  Heavy metals in sub-alpine and alpine soils of New Hampshire. Oikos  26: 264-275.


            Vitousek, P.M., and W.A. Reiners.  Ecosystem succession and nutrient retention: a hypothesis. BioScience 25: 376-381.  ISI Citation Classic, 1991.


1976    Vitousek, P.M., and W.A. Reiners.  Ecosystem development and the biological control of streamwater chemistry.  p. 665-680. In Nriagu, J. (ed.), Environmental Biogeochemistry.  Ann Arbor Science, Michigan.


1977    Vitousek, P.M.  The regulation of element concentrations in mountain streams in the northeastern United States. Ecological Monographs 47: 65-87.


1979    Gorham, E., P.M. Vitousek, and W.A. Reiners.  The regulation of element budgets over the course of terrestrial ecosystem succession.  Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 10: 53-84.


            Vitousek, P.M., J.R. Gosz, C.C. Grier, J.M. Melillo, W.A. Reiners, and R.L. Todd.  Nitrate losses from disturbed ecosystems. Science 204: 469-474.


            Vitousek, P.M. and J.M. Melillo.  Nitrate losses from disturbed ecosystems:  patterns and mechanisms. Forest Science 25: 605-619.


1980    Blank, J.L., R.K. Olson, and P.M. Vitousek.  Nutrient uptake by a diverse spring ephermeral community. Oecologia  47: 96-98.


            Foster, M.M., P.M. Vitousek, and P.A. Randolph.  The effect of Ambrosia artemisiifolia on nutrient cycling in a first-year old field.  American Midland Naturalist 103: 106-113.


            Rosswall, T.H. and P.M. Vitousek.  Research priorities and future cooperation in West African nitrogen cycling research.  In Rosswall, T.H. and R. Soderlund (eds.), Nitrogen Cycling in West African Ecosystems.  SCOPE/UNEP International Nitrogen Unit, Stockholm, Sweden. pp. 421-428.


            Vitousek, P.M.  Nitrogen losses from disturbed ecosystems--ecological considerations. In Rosswall, T.H. and R. Soderlund (eds.), Nitrogen Cycling in West African Ecosystems.  SCOPE/UNEP International Nitrogen Unit, Stockholm, Sweden.  pp. 39-53.


1981    Matson, P.A. and P.M. Vitousek.  Nitrification potentials following clearcutting in the Hoosier National Forest, Indiana.  Forest Science 27: 781-791.


            Robertson, G.P. and P.M. Vitousek.  Nitrification potentials in primary and secondary succession. Ecology  62: 376-386.


            Vitousek, P.M. Clearcutting and the nitrogen cycle. Ecological Bulletin (Stockholm) 33: 631-642.


Vitousek, P.M., W.A. Reiners, J.M. Melillo, C.C. Grier, and J.R. Gosz.  Nitrogen cycling and loss following forest perturbation:  the components of response. In Barrett, G.W. and R. Rosenberg (eds.), Stress Effects on Natural Ecosystems.  Wiley and Sons, London.  pp. 115-127.


            Vitousek, P.M. and P.S. White.  Process studies in succession. In Shugart, H.H., D.B. Botkin, and D. West (eds.), Forest Succession:  Concept and Application.  Springer-Verlag, New York.  pp. 267-276.


1982    Vitousek, P.M.  Nutrient cycling and nutrient use efficiency.  American Naturalist 119: 553-572.


            Vitousek, P.M., J.R. Gosz, C.C. Grier, J.M. Melillo, and W.A. Reiners.  A comparative analysis of potential nitrification and nitrate mobility in forest ecosystems.  Ecological Monographs  52: 155-177.


1983    Bolin, B., P.J. Crutzen, P.M. Vitousek, R.G. Woodmansee, E.D. Goldberg, and R.B. Cook.  Interactions of biogeochemical cycles.  p. 8-40.  In Bolin, B. and R.B. Cook (eds.), The Biogeochemical Cycles and Their Interactions.  John Wiley and Sons, Chichester.


            Vitousek, P.M.  The effects of deforestation on air, soil, and water.  p. 223-245. In Bolin, B. and R.B. Cook (eds.), The Biogeochemical Cycles and Their Interactions.  John Wiley and Sons, Chichester.


            Vitousek, P.M.  Nitrogen turnover in a ragweed-dominated first-year old-field in southern Indiana.  American Midland Naturalist  110: 46-53.


            Vitousek, P.M.  Mechanisms of ion leaching in natural and managed ecosystems.  p.  129-144. In Mooney, H.A. and M. Godron (eds.), Disturbance and Ecosystems:  Components of Response.  Springer-Verlag, New York.


            Vitousek, P.M., H.L. Allen, and P.A. Matson.  Impacts of management practices on soil nitrogen status.  p. 25-39.  In Maintaining Forest Site Productivity, Proc. Society of American Foresters, Appalachian Chapter.


            Vitousek, P.M., K. Van Cleve, N. Balakrishnan, and D. Mueller-Dombois.  Soil development and nitrogen turnover on recent volcanic substrates in Hawaii.  Biotropica 15: 268-274.


1984    Mueller-Dombois, D., P.M. Vitousek, and K.W., Bridges.  Canopy dieback and ecosystem processes in Pacific forests.  Hawaii Botanical Science Paper 44, 100 p.  University of Hawaii.


            Saterson, K.A., and P.M. Vitousek.  Fine root biomass and nutrient cycling in Aristida stricta in a North Carolina coastal plain savanna.  Canadian Journal of Botany 62: 823-829.


            Vitousek, P.M.  Litterfall, nutrient cycling, and nutrient limitation in tropical forests. Ecology 65: 285-298.


            Vitousek, P.M.  Anion fluxes in three Indiana forests.  Oecologia 61: 105-108.


            Vitousek, P.M.  Terrestrial nitrogen cycles:  some unanswered questions.  p. 209-218. In Moore, B, and M. Dastoor, The Interactions of Global Biogeochemical Cycles.  Jet Propulsion Lab Publication 84-21.


            Vitousek, P.M.  A general theory of forest nutrient dynamics.  p. 121-135.  In Agren, GI (ed.), State and Change of Forest Ecosystems--Indicators in current research.  Swedish Univ. Agric. Sci. Dept. Ecology and Environmental Research Report 13.


            Vitousek, P.M., and P.A. Matson.  Mechanisms of nitrogen retention in forest ecosystems:  a field experiment.  Science  225: 51-52.


1985    Pye, J.M., and P.M. Vitousek.  Soil and nutrient removals by erosion and windrowing at a Southeastern U.S. Piedmont site. Forest Ecology and Management 11: 145-155.


            Vitousek, P.M. Plant community turnover and ecosystem nutrient flux.  p. 325-333. In Pickett, S.T.A. and P.S. White (eds.), The Ecology of Natural Disturbance and Patch Dynamics.  Academic Press, New York.


            Vitousek, P.M. Plant and animal invasions:  can they alter ecosystem processes.  p. 169-176.  In Halvorson, H.O., D. Pramer, and M. Rogul (eds.), Engineered organisms in the environment:  Scientific issues. Am. Soc. Microbiology, Washington, D.C.


            Vitousek, P.M., and P.A. Matson.  Causes of delayed nitrate production in two Indiana forests. Forest Science 31: 122-131.


            Vitousek, P.M., and P.A. Matson.  Intensive harvesting and site preparation decrease soil nitrogen availability in young plantations.  Southern Journal of Applied Forestry 9: 120-125.


            Vitousek, P.M., and P.A. Matson.  Disturbance, nitrogen availability, and nitrogen losses in an intensively managed loblolly pine plantation.  Ecology 66: 1360-1376.


1986    Birk, E.M., and P.M. Vitousek.  Nitrogen availability and nitrogen use efficiency in loblolly pine stands on the Savannah River Plant, South Carolina.  Ecology 67: 69-79.


            Chapin, F.S. III, P.M. Vitousek, and K. Van Cleve.  The nature of nutrient limitation in plant communities.    American Naturalist 127:  48-58.


            Heal, O.W., and P.M. Vitousek.  Environmental controls over  ecosystem processes.  p. 155-159.  In Van Cleve, K., F.S. Chapin, P.W. Flanagan, L.A. Viereck, and C.T. Dyrness (eds.), Forest Ecosystems in the Alaskan Taiga:  A Synthesis of Structure and Function.  Springer-Verlag, New York.


            Vitousek, P.M.  Biological invasions of ecosystem properties:  can species make a difference?  p. 163-176. In Mooney, H.A., and J. Drake  (eds.), Biological Invasions of North America and Hawaii.  Springer-Verlag.


            Vitousek, P.M., and S.W. Andariese.  Microbial transformations of labelled nitrogen in a clearcut pine plantation. Oecologia 68: 601-605.


            Vitousek, P.M., and J.S. Denslow.  Nitrogen and phosphorus availability in treefall gaps in a lowland tropical rainforest.  Journal of Ecology 74: 1167-1178.


            Vitousek, P.M., P.R. Ehrlich, A.H. Ehrlich, and P.A. Matson.  Human appropriation of the products of photosynthesis.  Bioscience  36: 368-373.


            Vitousek, P.M., and R.L. Sanford, Jr.  Nutrient cycling in moist tropical forest.  Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 17: 137-167.


            Williams, W.E., K. Garbutt, F.A. Bazzaz, and P.M. Vitousek.  The effect of elevated CO2 on plants.  IV.  Two deciduous-forest tree communities.  Oecologia 69: 454-459.


1987    Denslow, J.S., P.M. Vitousek, and J.C. Schultz.  Bioassays of nutrient limitation in a tropical rainforest soil.  Oecologia 74: 370-376.


            Matson, P.A., and P.M. Vitousek.  Cross-system comparison of soil nitrogen transformations and nitrous oxide fluxes in tropical forests.  Global Biogeochemical Cycles 1: 163-170.


            Matson, P.A., P.M. Vitousek, J.J. Ewel, M.J. Mazzarino, and G.P. Robertson.  Nitrogen transformations following tropical forest felling and burning on a volcanic soil.  Ecology 68: 491-502.


            Mooney, H.A., P.M. Vitousek, and P.A. Matson.  Exchange of materials between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere.  Science 238: 926-932.


            Robertson, G.P., P.M. Vitousek, P.A. Matson, and J.M. Tiedje.  Denitrification in a clearcut loblolly pine location in the Southeastern U.S.  Plant and Soil 97: 119-129.


            Turner, D.R., and P.M. Vitousek.  Nodule biomass of the nitrogen-fixing alien Myrica faya Ait. in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.  Pacific Science  41: 186-190.


            Vitousek, P.M. and J.S. Denslow.  Differences in soil phosphorus among soils of the La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica.  Biotropica 19:  167-170.


            Vitousek, P.M., L.L. Loope, and C.P. Stone.  Introduced species in Hawai'i:   Biological effects and opportunities for ecological research.  Trends in Ecology and Evolution 2: 224-227.


            Vitousek, P.M. and L.R. Walker.  Colonization, succession, and resource availability; ecosystem-level interactions.  p. 207-223.  In Gray, A., M. Crawley, and P.J. Edwards (eds.), Colonization, Succession, and Stability.  Blackwell Scientific, Oxford.


            Vitousek, P.M., L.R. Walker, L.D. Whiteaker, D. Mueller-Dombois, and P.A. Matson.  Biological invasion by Myrica faya alters ecosystem development in Hawaii.  Science 238: 802-804.


            Walbridge, M.R., and P.M. Vitousek.  Processes affecting the measurement of phosphorus mineralization by 32PO4 isotope dilution in acid organic soils.  Soil Biology and Biochemistry  19: 709-717.


1988    Andariese, S.W., and P.M. Vitousek.  Soil nitrogen turnover is altered by herbicide treatment in a piedmont forest soil.  Forest Ecology and Management 23: 19–25.


            Livingston, J., P.M. Vitousek, and P.A. Matson.  Nitrous oxide flux and nitrogen transformations across a landscape gradient in Amazonia.  Journal of Geophysical Research 93: 1593–1599.


            Vitousek, P.M. Diversity and biological invasions of oceanic islands.  p. 181–189.  In Wilson, E.O. (ed.), BioDiversity.  National Academy Press.


            Vitousek, P.M., T. Fahey, D.W. Johnson, and M.J. Swift.  Element interactions in forest ecosystems:  succession, allometry, and input-output budgets.   Biogeochemistry  5: 7–34.


            Vitousek, P.M. and P.A. Matson.  Nitrogen transformations in tropical forest soils.  Soil Biology and Biochemistry  20: 361–367.


            Vitousek, P.M., P.A, Matson, and D.R. Turner.  Elevational and age gradients in Hawaiian montane rainforest:  foliar and soil nutrients.  Oecologia  77: 565–570.


1989    Binkley, D., and P.M. Vitousek.  Soil nutrient availability.  p. 75–96. In Pearcy, R.W., J.R. Ehleringer, H.A. Mooney and P.W. Rundel (eds.), Physiological Plant Ecology:  Field Methods and Instrumentation.  Chapman and Hall, London.


            Ehrlich, P.R., G.C. Daily, A.H. Ehrlich, P.A. Matson, and P.M. Vitousek.  Global change and carrying capacity:  implications for life on Earth. p. 19–27.  In DeFries, R.S., T.F. Malone (eds), Global Change and Our Common Future,  National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.


            Gower, S.T., and P.M. Vitousek.  Effects of nutrient amendments on fine root biomass in a primary successional forest in Hawai’i.   Oecologia  81: 566–568.


            Luizão, F.J., P.A. Matson, G.L. Livingston, R. Luizão, and P.M. Vitousek.  Nitrous oxide flux following tropical land clearing.  Global Biogeochemical Cycles  3: 281–285.


            Matson, P.A., P.M. Vitousek, and D.S. Schimel.  Regional extrapolation of trace gas flux based on soils and ecosystems. p. 97–108. In Andreae, M.O., and D.S. Schimel (eds.), Exchange of Trace Gases Between Terrestrial Ecosystems and the Atmosphere.  John Wiley and Sons, Chichester.


            Palm, C., P. Robertson, and P.M. Vitousek.  Nitrogen availability.  p. 162–168.  In Anderson, J.M., and J.S. Ingram (eds.), Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility:  A Handbook of Methods.  CAB International, Wallingford, England.


Ramakrishnan, P.S., and P.M. Vitousek.  Ecosystem-level consequences of biological invasions.  p. 281–300.  In Drake, J., F. DiCastri, R. Groves, F. Kruger, H.A. Mooney, M. Rejmanek, and M. Williamson (eds.), Biological Invasions:  a Global Perspective.  Wiley and Sons, Chichester.


            Vitousek, P.M.  Terrestrial Ecosystems.  p. 78–83.  In DeFries, R.S., and T.F. Malone (eds.), Global Change and Our Common Future.  National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.


            Vitousek, P.M. What are the relative roles of biological production, micrometeorology, and photochemistry in controlling the flux of trace gases between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere.  p. 249–261.  In Andreae, M.O. and D.S. Schimel (eds.), Exchange of Trace Gases Between Terrestrial Ecosystems and the Atmosphere.  John Wiley and Sons, Chichester.


            Vitousek, P.M., P.A. Matson, and K. Van Cleve.  Nitrogen availability and nitrification during succession:  primary, secondary, and old-field seres.  Plant and Soil 115: 229–239.


            Vitousek, P.M., P.A. Matson, C. Volkmann, J.M. Maass, and G. Garcia.  Nitrous oxide flux from seasonally-dry tropical forests:  a survey.  Global Biogeochemical Cycles  3: 375–382.


            Vitousek, P.M., G. Shearer, and D.H. Kohl.  Foliar 15N natural abundance in Hawaiian rainforest:  patterns and possible mechanisms.  Oecologia 78: 383–388.


            Vitousek, P.M., and L.R. Walker.  Biological invasion by Myrica faya in Hawai'i:  plant demography, nitrogen fixation, and ecosystem effects.  Ecological Monographs 59: 247–265.  W.S. Cooper Award, 1992.


1990    Denslow, J.S., J.C. Schultz, and P.M. Vitousek, and B.R. Strain.  Growth responses of tropical shrubs to treefall gap environments.   Ecology 71: 165–179.


            Huenneke, L.F., S.P. Hamburg, R. Koide, H.A. Mooney, and P.M. Vitousek.  Effects of soil resources on plant invasion and community structure in Californian serpentine grassland.  Ecology 71: 478–491.


            Huenneke, L.F., and P.M. Vitousek.  Seedling and clonal recruitment of the invasive tree Psidium cattleianum:  implications for management of native Hawaiian forests. Biological Conservation 53: 199–211.


            Matson, P.A., and P.M. Vitousek.  Remote sensing and trace gas flux.  p. 157–167.  In Hobbs, R., and H.A. Mooney (eds.), Remote Sensing and Global Change.  Springer-Verlag.


            Matson, P.A., and P.M. Vitousek.  Ecosystem approach to a global nitrous oxide budget. BioScience  40: 667–672.


            Matson, P.A., P.M. Vitousek, G. Livingston, and N. Swanberg.  Sources of variation in N2O flux from forest ecosystems of central Amazonia.  Journal of Geophysical Research 95: 16,789–16,798.


            Vitousek, P.M.  Biological invasions and ecosystem processes:  towards an integration of population biology and ecosystem studies.  Oikos 57: 7–13.


            Vitousek, P.M., C.B. Field, and P.A. Matson.  Variation in foliar d13C in Hawaiian Metrosideros polymorpha:  a case of internal resistance?  Oecologia 84: 362–370.


            Woodward, S.A., P.M. Vitousek, K.A. Matson, R.F. Hughes, K. Benvenuto, and P.A. Matson.  Avian use of the introduced nitrogen-fixer Myrica faya in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.  Pacific Science 44: 88–93.


1991    Davidson, E.A., P.M. Vitousek, P.A. Matson, R. Riley, G. Garcia-Méndez, and J.M. Maass.  Soil emissions of nitric oxide in a seasonally dry tropical forest of Mexico. Journal of Geophysical Research 96: 15,439–15,445.


            Garcia-Méndez, G., J.M. Maass, P.A. Matson, and P.M. Vitousek.  Nitrogen transformations and nitrous oxide flux in a tropical deciduous forest in Mexico.  Oecologia 88: 362–366.


            Hughes, R.F., P.M. Vitousek, and J.T. Tunison.  Effects of invasion by fire-enhancing C4 grasses on native shrubs in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.  Ecology 72: 743–747.


            Vitousek, P.M.  An analysis of forests as a means for counteracting the build-up of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.  Journal of Environmental Quality  20: 348–354.


            Vitousek, P.M., and R.W. Howarth.  Nitrogen limitation on land and in the sea:  how can it occur?  Biogeochemistry 13: 87–115.


            Vitousek, P.M., and P.A. Matson.  Gradient analysis of ecosystems.  p. 287–298.  In Cole, J.J., G. Lovett, and S. Findlay  (eds.), Comparative Analysis of Ecosystems:  Patterns, Mechanisms, and Theories.  Springer-Verlag.


            Vitousek, P.M., and P.A. Matson.  Commentary:  Ecological perspectives on tropical deforestation and biosphere-atmosphere interaction.  Climatic Change 19: 159–162.


            Walker, L.R., and P.M. Vitousek.  Interactions of an alien and a native tree during primary succession in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.  Ecology 72: 1449–1455.


1992    D’Antonio, C.M., and P.M. Vitousek.  Biological invasions by exotic grasses, the grass-fire cycle, and global change.  Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 23: 63–87.


            Townsend, A., P.M. Vitousek, and E. Holland.  Tropical soils could dominate the short-term carbon cycle feedbacks to increased global temperatures.   Climatic Change  22: 293–303.


Vitousek, P.M.  Perspectives on the nitrogen cycle.  p. 151–163. In Moore, B., and D.S. Schimel (eds.), Trace Gases and the Biosphere.  Office of Interdisciplinary Earth Studies, University Corp. for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado.


            Vitousek, P.M.  Global environmental change:  An introduction.  Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 23: 1–14.


            Vitousek, P.M.  Effects of alien plants on native ecosystems. p. 29–41.  In Stone, C.P., C.W. Smith, and J.T. Tunison (eds.), Alien Plant Invasions in Native Ecosystems of Hawai’i:  Management and Research. Cooperative National Park Resources Study Unit, University of Hawaii.


            Vitousek, P.M., S.W. Andariese, P.A. Matson, L. Morris, and R.L. Sanford.  Effects of harvest intensity, site preparation, and herbicide use on soil nitrogen transformations in a young loblolly pine plantation.  Forest Ecology and Management 49: 277–292. 


            Vitousek, P.M., G. Aplet, D.R. Turner, and J.J. Lockwood.  The Mauna Loa environmental matrix:  foliar and soil nutrients.  Oecologia  89: 372–382.


            Vitousek, P.M., and P.A. Matson.  Tropical forests and trace gases:  potential interactions between tropical biology and the atmospheric sciences.  Biotropica 24: 233–239.


1993    Davidson, E.A., P.A. Matson, P.M. Vitousek, R. Riley, K. Dunkin, G. Garcia-Mendez, and J.M. Maass.  Processes regulating soil emissions of NO and N2O in a seasonally dry tropical forest.  Ecology 74: 130–139. 


            Hughes, F., and P.M. Vitousek.  Barriers to shrub reestablishment following fire in seasonal submontane woodland in Hawaii.  Oecologia 93: 557–563.


            Menaut, J.C., L. Abbadie, and P.M. Vitousek.  Nutrient and organic matter dynamics in tropical ecosystems.  p. 215–231.  In Crutzen, P., and J. Goldammer (eds), Fire in the Environment:  The Ecological, Atmospheric, and Climatic Importance of Vegetation Fires.  John Wiley and Sons, Chichester.  


            Potter, C.S., J.T. Randerson, C.B. Field, P.A. Matson, P.M. Vitousek, H.A. Mooney, and S.A. Klooster.  Terrestrial ecosystem production:  a process model based on global satellite and surface data.  Global Biogeochemical Cycles 7: 811–842.


            Vitousek, P.M. Global dynamics and ecosystem processes:  Scaling up or scaling down? p. 169–177.  In Ehleringer, J.R., and C.B. Field (eds), Scaling Physiological Processes:  Leaf to Globe.  Academic Press, San Diego.


            Vitousek, P.M., and D.U. Hooper.  Biological diversity and terrestrial ecosystem biogeochemistry. p. 3–14.  In Schulze, D., and H.A. Mooney (eds), Biological Diversity and Ecosystem Function.  Springer-Verlag.


            Vitousek, P.M., and P.A. Matson.  Agriculture, the global nitrogen cycle, and trace gas flux.  p. 193–208,   In Oremland, R. (ed), Biogeochemistry of Global Change:  Radiatively Active Trace Gases.  Chapman and Hall, New York. 


            Vitousek, P.M., L.R. Walker, L.D. Whiteaker, and P.A. Matson.  Nutrient limitation to plant growth during primary succession in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Biogeochemistry  23: 197–215.


1994    Aplet, G.H., and P.M. Vitousek.  An age-elevation matrix analysis of Hawaiian rainforest succession.  Journal of Ecology  82: 137–147.


            Chorover, J., P.M. Vitousek, D.A. Everson, A.M. Esperanza, and D. Turner.  Solution chemistry profiles of mixed-conifer forests before and after fire.  Biogeochemistry 26: 115–144.


            Joel, G., G. Aplet, and P.M. Vitousek.  Leaf morphology along environmental gradients in Hawaiian Metrosideros polymorpha. Biotropica 26: 17–22.


            Karpa, D.M., and P.M. Vitousek.  Successional development of a Hawaiian montane grassland.  Biotropica 26: 2–11.


            Potter, C.S., P.A. Matson, and P.M. Vitousek.  Evaluation of soil database attributes in a terrestrial carbon cycle model:  implications for global change research.  p. 281–302.  In: Michener, W.K. (ed), Environmental Information Systems Analysis.  Taylor and Francis, U.K.


            Raich, J.W., R.H. Riley, and P.M. Vitousek.  Use of root-ingrowth cores to assess nutrient limitations in forest ecosystems.  Canadian Journal of Forest Research 24: 2135–2138.


            Vitousek, P.M.  Factors controlling ecosystem structure and function.  p. 87–97.  In Amundson, R., J. Harden, and M. Singer (eds.), Factors of Soil Formation; a 50th Anniversary Symposium.  Special Publication of the Soil Science Society of America.


            Vitousek, P.M. Potential nitrogen fixation during primary succession in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.  Biotropica 26: 234–240.


            Vitousek, P.M. Beyond global warming:  ecology and global change.  Ecology 75: 1861–1876. ISI Citation Classic, 2001.


            Vitousek, P.M., D.R. Turner, W.J. Parton, and R.L. Sanford.  Litter decomposition on the Mauna Loa environmental matrix, Hawaii:  Patterns, mechanisms, and models.  Ecology 75: 418–429.


1995    Crews, T.E., K. Kitayama, J. Fownes, D. Herbert, D. Mueller-Dombois, R.H. Riley, and P.M. Vitousek.  Changes in soil phosphorus and ecosystem dynamics across a long soil chronosequence in Hawai’i.  Ecology 76: 1407–1424.


            DeFries, R.S., C.B. Field, I. Fung, C.O. Justice, S. Los, P.A. Matson, E. Matthews, H.A. Mooney, C.S. Potter, K. Prentice, P.J. Sellers, J.R.G. Townshend, C.J. Tucker, S.L. Ustin, and P.M. Vitousek. Mapping the land surface for global atmosphere-biosphere models:  Toward continuous distributions of vegetation's functional properties. Journal of Geophysical Research 100: 20,867–20,882.


            Holland, E.A., A.R. Townsend, and P.M. Vitousek.  Variation in temperature regulation of CO2 fluxes and N mineralization from five Hawaiian soils: Implications for a changing climate.  Global Change Biology 1: 115–123.


            Kitayama, K., D. Mueller-Dombois, and P.M. Vitousek.  Primary succession of the Hawaiian montane rainforest on a chronosequence of eight lava flows.  Journal of Vegetation Science 6: 211–222.


            Koch, G., P.M. Vitousek, W.T. Steffen, and B.H. Walker.  Terrestrial transects for global change research.  Vegetatio 121: 53–65.


            Lohse, K.A., D. Nullet,  and P.M. Vitousek.  The effects of an extreme drought on the vegetation of a single lava flow on Mauna Loa, Hawaii.  Pacific Science 49: 212–220.


            Matson, P.A., and P.M. Vitousek.  Biosphere-atmosphere interactions in a tropical deciduous forest ecosystem. p. 384–398.  In Bullock, S.H., H.A. Mooney, and E. Medina (eds.), Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests. Cambridge University Press, New York.


            Riley, R.H. and P.M. Vitousek.  Nutrient dynamics and trace gas flux during ecosystem development in Hawaiian montane rainforest.  Ecology 76: 292–304.


            Townsend, A.R., P.M. Vitousek, and S.E. Trumbore.  Temperature controls over long-term soil organic matter dynamics.  Ecology  76: 721–733.


            Vitousek, P.M. The Hawaiian Islands as a model system for ecosystem studies.  Pacific Science  49: 2–16.


            Vitousek, P.M., H. Adsersen, and L.L. Loope.  Introduction:  Why focus on islands?  p. 1–4.  In Vitousek, P.M., L.L. Loope, and H. Adsersen (eds.), Biological Diversity and Ecosystem Function on Islands.  Springer-Verlag, Berlin.


            Vitousek, P.M., G.H. Aplet, J.R. Raich, and J.P. Lockwood.  Mauna Loa as a model system for ecological research.  Geophysical Monographs 92: 117–126.


            Vitousek, P.M., and T.L. Benning.  Ecosystem and landscape diversity:  islands as model systems. p. 73–84. In Vitousek, P.M., L.L. Loope, and H. Adsersen (eds.), Biological Diversity and Ecosystem Function on Islands.  Springer-Verlag, Berlin.


            Vitousek, P.M., G. Gerrish, D.R. Turner, L.R. Walker, and D. Mueller-Dombois.  Litterfall and nutrient cycling in four Hawaiian montane rainforests.  Journal of Tropical Ecology 11: 189–203.


            Vitousek, P.M., L.L. Loope, and C.M. D’Antonio.  Biological invasion as a global change.  p. 216–227.  In Elements of Change.  Aspen Global Change Institute, Aspen, CO.


            Vitousek, P.M., and J. Lubchenco.  Limits to sustainable use of resources:   From local effects to global change. p. 57–64.  In Munasinghe, M., and W. Shearer (eds.), Defining and Measuring Sustainability:  The Biogeophysical Foundations.  UN University Publications.


            Vitousek, P.M., D.R. Turner, and K. Kitayama.  Foliar nutrients during long-term soil development in Hawaiian montane rain forest.  Ecology 76: 712–720.


1996    Potter, C.S., P.A. Matson, P.M. Vitousek, and E.A. Davidson.  Process modelling of controls on nitrogen trace gas emissions from soils world-wide.  Journal of Geophysical Research 101: 1361–1377.


            Raich, J.W., A.E. Russell, T.E. Crews, H. Farrington, and P.M. Vitousek.  Both nitrogen and phosphorus limit plant production on young Hawaiian lava flows.  Biogeochemistry 32: 1–14.


            Vitousek, P.M., C.M. D’Antonio, L.L. Loope, and R. Westbrooks.  Biological invasions as global environmental change.  American Scientist 84: 468–478.


            Vitousek, P.M., L.L. Loope, H. Adsersen, and C.M. D’Antonio.  Island ecosystems:  do they represent “natural experiments” in biological diversity?  p. 245–259.  In Mooney, H.A., J.H. Cushman, E. Medina, O.E. Sala, and E.O. Schulze (eds), Functional Roles of Biodiversity:  A Global Perspective.  Springer-Verlag.


1997    Daily, G.C., P.A. Matson, and P.M. Vitousek.  Ecosystem services supplied by soil.   p. 113–132.  In Daily, G.C. (ed.), Nature's Services:  Societal Dependence on Natural Ecosystems.  Island Press, Washington, D.C.


            Fung, I.Y., C.B. Field, J.A. Berry, M.V. Thompson, J.T. Randerson, C.M. Malmstrom, P.M. Vitousek, G.J. Collatz, P.J. Sellers, D.A. Randall, A.S. Denning, F. Badeck, and J. John.  Carbon-13 exchange between the atmosphere and biosphere.  Global Biogeochemical Cycles 11: 507–533.


            Hooper, D.U., and P.M. Vitousek.  Plant composition and diversity effects on ecosystem processes.  Science 277: 1302–1305.


            Raich, J.W., A.E. Russell, and P.M. Vitousek.  Primary production and ecosystem development along an elevational gradient in Hawaii.   Ecology 78: 707–721.


            Russell, A.E., and P.M. Vitousek. Decomposition and potential nitrogen fixation in Dicranopteris linearis litter on Mauna Loa, Hawai’i, USA.  Journal of Tropical Ecology 13: 579–594.


            Thompson, M.V., and P.M. Vitousek.  Asymbiotic nitrogen fixation and decomposition during long-term soil development in Hawaiian montane rain forest.  Biotropica 29: 134–144.


            Torn, M.S., S.E. Trumbore, O.A. Chadwick, P.M. Vitousek, and D.M. Hendricks.  Mineral control of soil carbon storage and turnover.  Nature 389: 170–173.


            Townsend, A.R., P.M. Vitousek, D.J. Des Marais, and A. Tharpe.  Effects of temperature and soil carbon pool structure on CO2 and 13CO2 fluxes from five Hawaiian soils.  Biogeochemistry 38: 1–17.


            Vitousek, P.M. On regression and residuals:  response to Knops et al.  Oecologia 110: 557–559.


            Vitousek, P.M. Stopping biological invasions before they do lasting damage.  Chronicle of Higher Education, January 17  B4–5.


            Vitousek, P.M.  The ecosystems of Mauna Loa Volcano, Hawaii.  Natural History 106(5): 48–53.


Vitousek, P.M., and H. Farrington.  Nutrient limitation and soil development:  experimental test of a biogeochemical theory.  Biogeochemistry 37: 63–75


            Vitousek, P.M., J.D. Aber, R.W. Howarth, G.E. Likens, P.A. Matson, D.W. Schindler, W.H. Schlesinger, and D. Tilman. Human alteration of the global nitrogen cycle:  sources and consequences.  Ecological Applications 7: 737–750.


            Vitousek, P.M., O.A. Chadwick, T. Crews, J. Fownes, D. Hendricks, and D. Herbert.  Soil and ecosystem development across the Hawaiian Islands.  GSA Today 7(9): 1–8.


            Vitousek, P.M., C.M. D’Antonio, L.L. Loope, M. Rejmanek, and R. Westbrooks.  Introduced species:  a significant component of human-caused global change.  New Zealand Journal of Ecology 21: 1–16 (“News and Views,” Nature 388: 627–628).


            Vitousek, P.M., H.A. Mooney, J. Lubchenco, and J.M. Melillo.  Human domination of Earth’s ecosystems.  Science 277: 494–499


1998    Aplet, G.H., R.F. Hughes, and P.M. Vitousek.  Ecosystem development on Hawaiian lava flows:  biomass and species composition.  Journal of Vegetation Science 9: 17–26.


            Aplet, G.H., R.L. Loh, J.T. Tunison and P.M. Vitousek.  Experimental restoration of a closed Faya tree stand. Technical Report 121, Cooperative National Park Resources Study Unit, University of Hawaii.


            Austin, A.T., and P.M. Vitousek. Nutrient dynamics on a precipitation gradient in Hawai’i.  Oecologia 113: 519–529.


            Cordell, S., G. Goldstein, D. Mueller-Dombois, D. Webb, and P.M. Vitousek. Physiological and morphological variation in Metrosideros polymorpha, a dominant Hawaiian tree species, along an altitudinal gradient: the role of phenotypic plasticity. Oecologia 113: 188–196.


            D’Antonio, C.M., R.F. Hughes, M. Mack, D. Hitchcock, and P.M. Vitousek.  The response of native species to removal of invasive exotic grasses in a seasonally-dry Hawaiian woodland.  Journal of Vegetation Science 9: 699–712.


            Freifelder, R., P.M. Vitousek, and C.M. D’Antonio.  Microclimate change and effect on fire following forest-grass conversion in a seasonally dry tropical woodland.  Biotropica 30: 286–297. 


            Hooper, D.U., and P.M. Vitousek.  Effects of plant composition and diversity on nutrient cycling in serpentine grassland.  Ecological Monographs 68: 121–149.


            Kennedy, M.J., O.A. Chadwick, P.M. Vitousek, L.A. Derry, and D.M. Hendricks. Replacement of weathering with atmospheric sources of base cations during ecosystem development, Hawaiian Islands.  Geology 26: 1015–1018.


            Loh, R.K., J.T. Tunison, L.R. Walker and P.M. Vitousek. Population growth and nitrogen-fixation of faya tree, 1986–1993. Technical Report 118, Cooperative National Park Resources Study Unit, University of Hawaii.


            Russell, A.E., J.W. Raich, and P.M. Vitousek.  The ecology of the climbing fern, Dicranopteris linearis, on windward Mauna Loa, Hawai’i.  Journal of Ecology 86: 765–779.


            Tanner, E.V.J., P.M. Vitousek, and E. Cuevas.  Experimental investigation of nutrient limitation of forest growth on wet tropical mountains.  Ecology 79: 10–22.


            Vitousek, P.M. The structure and functioning of montane tropical forests: control by climate, soils, and disturbance.  Ecology 79: 1–2.


            Vitousek, P.M. Foliar and litter nutrients, nutrient resorption, and decomposition in Hawaiian Metrosideros polymorpha.  Ecosystems 1: 401–407.


            Vitousek, P.M., L.O. Hedin, P.A. Matson, J.H. Fownes, and J. Neff.  Within-system element cycles, input-output budgets, and nutrient limitation.  p. 432–451. In Pace, M., and P. Groffman (eds), Successes, Limitations, and Frontiers in Ecosystem Science.


1999    Chadwick, O.A., L.A. Derry, P.M. Vitousek, B.J. Huebert, and L.O. Hedin. Changing sources of nutrients during four million years of ecosystem development. Nature 397: 491–497.


            Ewel, J.J., D.J. O’Dowd, J. Bergelson, C.C. Daehler, C.M. D’Antonio, L.D. Gomez, D.R. Gordon, R.J. Hobbs, A. Holt, K.R. Hopper, C.E. Hughes, M. LaHart, R.R.B. Leakey, W.G. Lee, L.L. Loope, D.H. Lorence, S.M. Louda, A.E. Lugo, P.B. McEvoy, D.M. Richardson, and P.M. Vitousek. Deliberate introductions of species: research needs. Bioscience 49: 619–630.


            Herbert, D.A., J.H. Fownes, and P.M. Vitousek.  Hurricane damage and recovery of a Hawaiian forest:  effects of increased nutrient availability on ecosystem resistence and resilience.  Ecology 80: 908–920.


            Huebert, B., P. Vitousek, J. Sutton, T. Elias, J. Heath, S. Coeppicus, S. Howell, and B. Blomquist. Volcano fixes nitrogen into plant-available forms. Biogeochemistry 47: 111–118.


            Kurina, L.M., and P.M. Vitousek. Controls over the accumulation and decline of a nitrogen fixing lichen, Stereocaulon vulcani, on young Hawaiian lava flows. Journal of Ecology 87: 784–799.


            Martinelli, L.A., M.C. Piccolo, A.R. Townsend, and P.M. Vitousek. Nitrogen stable isotope composition of leaves and soil: tropical versus temperate forests.  Biogeochemistry 46: 45–65.


            Matson, P.A., W.H. McDowell, A.R. Townsend, and P.M. Vitousek. The globalization of N deposition: ecosystem consequences in tropical environments.  Biogeochemistry 46: 67–83.


            Vitousek, P.M. Nutrient limitation to nitrogen fixation in young volcanic sites.  Ecosystems 2: 505–510.


            Vitousek, P.M., and C.B. Field. Ecosystem constraints to symbiotic nitrogen fixers: a simple model and its implications.  Biogeochemistry 46: 179–202.


            Vitousek, P.M., M.J. Kennedy, L.A. Derry, and O.A. Chadwick. Weathering versus atmospheric sources of strontium in ecosystems on young volcanic soils. Oecologia 121: 255–259.


2000    Austin, A. T. and P. M. Vitousek. Precipitation, decomposition and decomposability of Metrosideros polymorpha in native forests on Hawai'i. Journal of Ecology 88: 129–138.


            Blackmore, M., and P.M. Vitousek. Cattle grazing, forest loss, and fuel loading in a Hawaiian dry forest at Pu'u Wa'aWa'a ranch, Hawai'i.  Biotropica 32: 625–632.


            Chapin, F.S. III, E.S. Zavaleta, V.T. Eviner, R.L. Naylor, P.M. Vitousek, S. Lavorel, H.L. Reynolds, D.U. Hooper, O.E. Sala, S.E. Hobbie, M.C. Mack, and S. Diaz. Consequences of changing biodiversity. Nature 405: 234–242.


            Crews, T.E., H. Farrington, and P.M. Vitousek. Changes in asymbiotic, heterotrophic nitrogen fixation on leaf litter of Metrosideros polymorpha with long-term ecosystem development in Hawaii. Ecosystems 3: 386–395.


            Hättenschwiler, S., and P.M. Vitousek. The role of polyphenols in terrestrial ecosystem nutrient cycling. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 15: 238–243.


            Hobbie, S.E., and P.M. Vitousek. Nutrient regulation of decomposition in Hawaiian forests. Ecology 81: 1867–1877.


            Hotchkiss, S.C., P.M. Vitousek, O.A. Chadwick, and J.P. Price. Climate cycles, geomorphological change, and the interpretation of soil and ecosystem development. Ecosystems 3: 522–533.


            Neff, J.C., S.E. Hobbie, and P.M. Vitousek. Nutrient and minerological control on dissolved organic C, N and P fluxes and stoichiometry in Hawaiian soils. Biogeochemistry 51: 283–302.


            Olander, L.P., and P.M. Vitousek. Regulation of soil phosphatase and chitinase activity by N and P availability. Biogeochemistry 49: 175–190.


            Raich, J.W., W.J. Parton. A.E. Russell, R.L. Sanford Jr., and P.M. Vitousek. Analysis of factors regulating ecosystem development on Mauna Loa using the Century model. Biogeochemistry 51: 161–191.


            Riley, R.H., and P.M. Vitousek.  Hurricane effects on nitrogen trace gas emissions in Hawaiian montane rainforest.  Biotropica 32: 751–756.


            Scowcroft, P.G., D.R. Turner, and P.M. Vitousek. Decomposition of Metrosideros polymorpha leaf litter along elevational gradients in Hawaii. Global Change Biology 6: 73–85.


            Vitousek, P.M., and S.E. Hobbie. The control of heterotrophic nitrogen fixation in decomposing litter. Ecology 81: 2366–2376.


            Vitousek, P.M., J.D. Aber, C.L. Goodale, and G.H. Aplet. Global change and wilderness science. p. 5–9. In Cole, D.N., S.F. McCool, W. Freimund, and J. O’Laughlin (eds), Proceedings: Wilderness Science in a Time of Change. Proc. RMRS-P-000, Ogden, Utah.



            Cordell, S., G. Goldstein, F.C Meinzer, and P.M Vitousek. Morphological and physiological adjustment to N and P fertilization in nutrient-limited Metrosideros polymorpha canopy trees in Hawaii. Tree Physiology 21: 43–50.


            Cordell, S., G. Goldstein, F.C Meinzer, and P.M Vitousek. Regulation of leaf life-span and nutrient-use efficiency of Metrosideros polymorpha trees at two extremes of a long chronosequence in Hawaii. Oecologia 127: 198–206.


            Crews, T.E., L.M. Kurina, and P.M. Vitousek. Organic matter and nitrogen accumulation and nitrogen fixation during early ecosystem development in Hawaii. Biogeochemistry 52: 259–279.


            D’Antonio, C.M., R.F. Hughes, and P.M. Vitousek. Factors influencing dynamics of two invasive C4 grasses in seasonally dry Hawaiian woodlands: Resource limitation and priority effects. Ecology 82: 89–104.


            Harrington, R.A., J.H. Fownes, and P.M. Vitousek. Production and resource-use efficiencies in N- and P-limited tropical forest ecosystems. Ecosystems 4: 646–657.


            Kurina, L.M., and P.M. Vitousek. Nitrogen fixation rates at Stereocaulon vulcani on young Hawaiian lava flows. Biogeochemistry 55: 179–194.


            Pearson, H.L., and P.M. Vitousek. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation in regenerating stands of Acacia koa, a tropical leguminous tree. Ecological Applications 11: 1381–1394.


            Rastetter, E.B., P.M. Vitousek, C. Field, G.R. Shaver, D. Herbert, and G.A. Ågren. Resource optimization and symbiotic N fixation. Ecosystems 4: 369–388.


            Restrepo, C., and P.M. Vitousek. Landslides, alien species, and the diversity of a Hawaiian montane mesic ecosystem. Biotropica 33: 409–420.


            Treseder, K.K., and P.M. Vitousek. Effects of soil nutrient availability on investment in acquisition of N and P in Hawaiian rain forests. Ecology 82: 946–954.


            Treseder, K.K., and P.M. Vitousek. Potential ecosystem-level effects of genetic variation among populations of Metrosideros polymorpha from a soil fertility gradient in Hawaii. Oecologia 126: 266–275.


            Vitousek, P.M., and C.B. Field. Input-output balances and nitrogen limitation in terrestrial ecosystems. Pp. 217–235 in Schulze E.D., S.P. Harrison, M. Heimann, E.A. Holland, J. Lloyd, I.C. Prentice, and D. Schimel (eds), Global Biogeochemical Cycles in the Climate System. Academic Press, San Diego.



            Benning, T., D. LaPoint, C. Atkinson, and P.M. Vitousek. Interactions of climate change with biological invasions and land use in the Hawaiian Islands: Modeling the fate of endemic birds using a geographic information system. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99: 14246–14249.


            Pearson, H.L., and P.M. Vitousek. Nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics and symbiotic nitrogen fixation across a substrate-age gradient in Hawaii. Ecosystems 5: 587-596.


            Vitousek, P.M. Oceanic islands as model systems for ecological studies. Journal of Biogeography 29: 573–582.


            Vitousek, P.M., S. Hättenschwiler, S. Allison, and L. Olander. Nitrogen and nature. Ambio 31: 97–101.


            Vitousek, P.M., K. Cassman, C. Cleveland, T. Crews, C.B. Field, N.B. Grimm, R.W. Howarth, R. Marino, L. Martinelli, E.B. Rastetter, and J.I. Sprent. Towards an ecological understanding of biological nitrogen fixation. Biogeochemistry 57: 1–45.



            Goodale, C.L., J.D. Aber, and P.M. Vitousek. Changes in streamwater chemistry on Mt. Moosilauke and Mt. Washington, New Hampshire between 1973–74 and 1996–97. Ecosystems 6: 75–86.


            Hättenschwiler, S., A.E. Hagerman, and P.M. Vitousek. Polyphenols in litter from tropical montane forests across a wide range in soil fertility. Biogeochemistry 64: 129–148.


            Hedin, L.O., P.M. Vitousek, and P.A. Matson. Pathways and implications of nutrient losses during four million years of tropical forest ecosystem development. Ecology 84: 2231–2255.


            Hungate, B.A., R.J. Naiman, M. Apps, J.J. Cole, B. Moldan, K. Satake, J. Stewart, R. Victoria, and P.M. Vitousek. p. 47–62. In J.M. Melillo, C.B. Field, and B. Moldan (eds.) Interactions of the Major Element Cycles: Global Change and Human Impacts. Island Press, Washington, D.C.


            Matzek, V.A., and P.M. Vitousek. Nitrogen fixation in bryophytes, lichens, and decaying wood along a soil age gradient in Hawaiian montane rainforest. Biotropica 35: 12–19.


            Neff, J.C., F.S. Chapin III, and P.M. Vitousek. Leaks and short-circuits in the nitrogen cycle: Dissolved organic nitrogen and its role in terrestrial ecosystems. Frontiers in Ecology and Environmental Science 1: 205–211.


            Restrepo, C., P. Vitousek, and P. Neville. Landslides significantly alter land cover and the distribution of biomass: an example from the Ninole Ridges of Hawai‘i. Plant Ecology 166: 131–143.


            Vitousek, P.M. Stoichiometry and flexibility in the Hawaiian model system. p. 117–133. In J.M. Melillo, C.B. Field, and B. Moldan (eds.) Interactions of the Major Element Cycles: Global Change and Human Impacts. Island Press, Washington, D.C.


            Vitousek, P.M., O.A. Chadwick, P.A. Matson, S. Allison, L.A. Derry, L. Kettley, A. Luers, E. Mecking, V. Monastra, and S. Porder. Erosion and the rejuvenation of weathering-derived nutrient supply in an old tropical landscape. Ecosystems 6: 762–772.



            Allison, S.D., and P.M. Vitousek. Extracellular enzyme activities and carbon chemistry as drivers of tropical plant litter decomposition. Biotropica 36: 285–296.


            Allison, S.D., and P.M. Vitousek. Decomposition and nutrient dynamics of native and exotic Hawaiian understory plants. Oecologia 141: 612–619.


            Kirch, P.V., A.S. Hartshorn, O.A. Chadwick, P.M. Vitousek, D.R. Sherrod, J. Coil, L. Holm, and W.D. Sharp.  Environment, agriculture, and settlement patterns in a marginal Polynesian landscape.  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101: 9936–9941.


            Olander, L.P., and P.M. Vitousek. Biological and geochemical sinks for phosphorus in a wet tropical forest soil. Ecosystems 7: 404–419.


            Rothstein, D.E., P.M. Vitousek, and B.L Simmons. An exotic tree accelerates decomposition and nutrient turnover in a Hawaiian montane rainforest. Ecosystems 7: 805–814.


            Vitousek, P.M. Nutrient Cycling and Limitation: Hawai‘i as a Model System. Princeton University Press.


            Vitousek, P.M., T.L. Ladefoged, P.V. Kirch, A.S. Hartshorn, M.W. Graves, S.C. Hotchkiss, S. Tuljapurkar, and O.A. Chadwick.  Agriculture, soils, and society in precontact Hawai’i.  Science 304: 1665–1669.



            Allison, S.D., and P.M. Vitousek. Responses of extracellular enzymes to simple and complex nutrient inputs. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 37: 937-944


            Asner, G.P., and P.M. Vitousek. Remote analysis of biological invasion and biogeochemical change. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102: 4383–4386.


Asner, G.P., A.J. Elmore, R.F. Hughes, A.S. Warner, and P.M. Vitousek. 2005. Ecosystem structure along bioclimatic gradients in Hawaii from imaging spectroscopy. Remote Sensing of Environment 96:497-508.


Goodale, C.L., J.D. Aber, P.M. Vitousek, and W.H. McDowell.  Long-term decreases in stream nitrate:  successional causes unlikely, possible links to DOC?  Ecosystems 8: 334-337.


            Henry, H.A.L., E.E. Cleland, C.B. Field, and P.M. Vitousek. Interactive effects of elevated CO2, N deposition and climate change on plant litter quality in a California annual grassland. Oecologia 142: 465–469.


Henry, H.A.L, J.D. Juarez, C.B. Field & P.M. Vitousek. Interactive effects of elevated CO2, N deposition and climate change on extracellular enzyme activity and soil density fractionation in a California annual grassland. Global Change Biology 11: 1808-1815.


Kirch, P.V., J. Coil, A. S. Hartshorn, M. Jeraj, P. M. Vitousek, and O. A. Chadwick.  Intensive Dryland Farming on the Leeward Slopes of Haleakala, Maui, Hawaiian Islands:  Archaeological, Archaeobotanical, and Geochemical Perspectives.  World Archaeology 37: 240-258.


Ladefoged, T., C. Stevenson, P. Vitousek, and O.A. Chadwick.  Soil nutrient depletion and the collapse of Rapa Nui society.  Rapa Nui Journal 19: 100-105.


            Olander, L.P., and P.M. Vitousek. Short-term controls over inorganic phosphorus during soil and ecosystem development. Soil Biol. Biochem. 37: 651–659.


            Parton, W.J., J. Neff, and P.M. Vitousek. Modelling phosphorus, carbon, and nitrogen dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems. Pp. 325–327 in Turner, B.L., E. Frosserd, and D.S. Baldwin (eds.), Organic Phosphorus in the Environment. CABI Publishing, Oxford.


Porder, S.J., P.M. Vitousek, and G. Asner. Ground-based and remotely-sensed nutrient availability across a tropical landscape. PNAS 102: 10909-10912.


            Porder, S., A. Paytan, and P.M. Vitousek. Erosion and landscape development affect plant nutrient status in the Hawaiian Islands. Oecologia 142: 440–449.


Torn, M.S., P.M. Vitousek, and S.E. Trumbore. The influence of nutrient availability on soil organic matter turnover estimated by incubating and radiocarbon modeling. Ecosystems 8: 352-372.


Walther, G.-R., L. Hughes, P. Vitousek, and N.C. Stenseth.  Consensus on climate change.  TREE 20: 648-649.


Wiegand, B.A., O.A. Chadwick, P.M. Vitousek, and J.L. Wooden. Ca cycling and isotopic fluxes in forested ecosystems in Hawaii.  Geophysical Research Letters 32: L11404, doi: 10.1029/2005GL022746




Asner, G.P., R.E. Martin, K.M. Carlson, U. Rascher, and P.M. Vitousek. Vegetation-climate interactions among native and invasive species in Hawaiian rainforest. Ecosystems 9:1106-1117.

Goldstein, J.H., G.C. Daily, J.B. Friday, P.A. Matson, R.L. Naylor, and P.M. Vitousek.  Business strategies for conservation on private lands: koa forestry as a case study.  PNAS 103: 10140-10145.


Hartshorn, A.S., O. A. Chadwick, P.M. Vitousek, and P.V. Kirch.  Prehistoric agricultural depletion of soil nutrients in Hawaii.  PNAS 103: 11092-11097.


Henry, H.A.L., N.R. Chiariello, P.M. Vitousek, H.A. Mooney & C.B. Field. Interactive effects of fire, elevated CO2 and N deposition on a California annual grassland. Ecosystems 9: 1066-1075.


Lee, C., S. Tuljapurkar, and P. Vitousek. Risky business: temporal and spatial variation in pre-industrial dryland agriculture. Human Ecology 34: 739-763.


Matson, P.A., and P.M. Vitousek.  Agricultural intensification: Will land spared from farming be land spared for nature?  Conservation Biology 20: 709-710.


Porder, S., D.A. Clark, and P.M. Vitousek.  Persistence of rock-derived nutrients in the wet tropical forests of La Selva, Costa Rica.  Ecology 87: 594-602.


Raich, J.W., A.E. Russell, K. Kitayama, W.J. Parton, and P.M. Vitousek. Temperature influences carbon accumulation in moist tropical forests.  Ecology 87: 76-87.


Vitousek, P.M.  Ecosystem science and human-environment interactions in the Hawaiian Archipelago.  Journal of Ecology 94: 510-521.




Benner, J.W., S. Conroy, C.K. Lunch, N. Toyoda, and P.M. Vitousek. Phosphorus fertilization increases the abundance and nitrogenase activity of the cyanolichen Pseudocyphellaria crocata in Hawaiian montane forests.  Biotropica 39: 400-405.


Benner, J., and P.M. Vitousek.  Development of a diverse epiphyte community in response to phosphorus fertilization.  Ecology Letters.10:628-636.


Chadwick, O.A., E.F. Kelly, S.C. Hotchkiss, and P.M. Vitousek. Precontact vegetation and soil nutrient status in the shadow of Kohala Volcano, Hawaii. Geomorphology.89: 70-83.


Funk, J. and P.M. Vitousek.  Resource use efficiency and plant invasion in low-resource systems.  Nature 446: 1078-1081.


Meyer, M., T. Ladefoged, and P.M. Vitousek.  Soil  phosphorus and agricultural development in the Leeward Kohala Field System.  Pacific Science 61: 347-353.


Kirch PV, Chadwick OA, Tuljapurkar S, Ladefoged TN, Graves MW, Hotchkiss S, Vitousek PM. Human ecodynamics in the Hawaiian ecosystem, 1200-200 BP. Kohler TA, van der Leeuw SE, editors.  The model-based archaeology of socionatural systems. Santa Fe: School for Advanced Research. p 121-139.


Porder, S., P.M. Vitousek, O.A. Chadwick, C.P. Chamberlain, and G.E. Hilley.  Uplift, erosion, and phosphorus limitation in terrestrial ecosystems.  Ecosystems 10: 158-170.


Vitousek, P.M.  Islands and global environmental change.  p. 99-103, in Wai ki UtaWai ki Tai: A Ngai Tahu Leadership Initiative to Sustain the Freshwater Resources of Aotearoa / Te Waipounamu.



 Amatangelo, K.L., and P.M. Vitousek.  Fern phylogeny and nutrient stoichiometry.  Oecologia  157: 619-627

Anderson-Teixeira, K.J., P.M. Vitousek, and J.H. Brown.  Positive feedbacks drive exceptional temperature dependence in ecosystems developing on the lava flows of Mauna Loa, Hawaii.  PNAS 105: 228-233

Asner, G.P., R.F. Hughes, P.M. Vitousek, D.E. Knapp, T. Kennedy-Bowdoin, J. Boardman, R.E. Martin, M. Eastwood, and R.O. Green.  Invasive plants transform the 3-D structure of rainforests.  PNAS 105: 4519-4523.

Houlton, B.Z., Y.-P. Wang, P.M. Vitousek, and C.B. Field.  A unifying framework for di-nitrogen (N2) fixation in the land biosphere.  Nature 454: 327-330.

Kurten, E.L., C.P. Snyder, T. Iwata, and P.M. Vitousek.  Morella cerifera invasion and nitrogen cycling on a lowland Hawaiian lava flow.  Biological Invasions 10: 19-24.




Amatangelo, K.A., and P.M. Vitousek.  Contrasting predictors of fern versus angiosperm decomposition in a common garden.  Biotropica 41: 154-161.


Chadwick, O.A., L.A. Derry, C.R. Bern, and P.M. Vitousek. Sources of strontium to soil minerals and ecosystems across the Hawaiian Islands.  Chemical Geology doi:10.1016/jchemgeo.2009.01.009.


In press

Benner, J., P.M. Vitousek, and R. Ostertag. Nutrient cycling in tropical montane cloud forest. In Bruijnzeel, L.A., J. Juvik, and F. Scatena (eds.), Tropical Montane Cloud Forests.


Busby, P.E., P. Vitousek, and R. Dirzo.  Prevalence of tree regeneration by sprouting and seeding along a rainfall gradient in Hawai`i.  Biotropica


Matzek, V., and P.M. Vitousek. N:P stoichiometry and protein:RNA ratios in vascular plants: an evaluation of the growth rate hypothesis.  Ecology Letters.


Palmer, M.A., M. Graves, T.N. Ladefoged, O.A. Chadwick, T.K. Duarte, S. Porder, and P.M. Vitousek.  Sources of nutrients to windward agricultural systems in pre-contact Hawai`i.  Ecological Applications.


Robertson, G.P., and P.M. Vitousek.  Nitrogen in Agriculture: Balancing the Cost of an Essential Resource.  Annual Review of Environment and Resources.


Vitousek, P.M., and P.A. Matson.  Nutrient cycling and biogeochemistry.  In: Loreau, M. (editor), Ecology.  Princeton University Press.


Vitousek, P.M., G.P. Asner, O.A. Chadwick, and S.C. Hotchkiss.  Landscape-level variation in forest structure and biogeochemistry across a substrate age gradient in Hawai`i.  Ecology.


Vitousek, P.M., R.L. Naylor, T. Crews, M.B. David, L.E. Drinkwater, E. Holland, P. Johnes, J. Katzenberger, L.A. Martinelli, P.A. Matson, G. Nziguheba, D. Ojima, C. A. Palm, G.P. Robertson, P.A. Sanchez, A.R. Townsend, and F.-S. Zhang. Nutrient imbalances in agricultural development.  Science.


Vitousek, P.M., S. Porder, B.Z. Houlton, and O.A. Chadwick.  Terrestrial phosphorus limitation: mechanisms, implications, and nitrogen-phosphorus interactions.  Ecological Applications.



Ladefoged. T.N., P.V. Kirch, S.O. Gon III, O.A. Chadwick, A.S. Hartshorn, and P.M. Vitousek.  Opportunities and constrains for intensive agriculture in the Hawaiian Archipelago prior to European contact.  Journal of Archaeological Science.


Ladefoged, T.N., P.V. Kirch, O.A. Chadwick, S.M. Gon III, A.S. Hartshorn, and P.M. Vitousek.  Hawaiian agro-ecosystems and their spatial distribution. In P.V. Kirch, Roots of Conflict: Soils, Agriculture, and Sociocultural Complexity in Ancient Hawai`i.  School of Advanced Research Press, Santa Fe, N.M.


Vitousek, P.M., O.A. Chadwick, A.S. Hartshorn, and S.C. Hotchkiss. The “model system” approach and its application to understanding agriculture and intensification in Hawai`i. In P.V. Kirch, Roots of Conflict: Soils, Agriculture, and Sociocultural Complexity in Ancient Hawai`i.  School of Advanced Research Press, Santa Fe, N.M.


Vitousek, P.M., M.A. Tweiten, J. Kellner, S.C. Hotchkiss, O.A. Chadwick, and G.P. Asner.  Top-down analyses of forest structure and biogeochemistry across Hawaiian landscapes.  Pacific Science




Professional Service

Editorial Boards (various times):

American Naturalist, Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, Biogeochemistry, Biotropica, Climatic Change, Conservation Ecology, Ecology/Ecological Monographs, Ecosystems (Current), Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Oecologia.

NASA Life Sciences Strategic Planning Study Committee, 1986-1988

National Science Foundation (NSF) Task Force on Biological, Behavioral, and Social

       Sciences in the 21st Century, 1990–1991

Coordinating Panel on Terrestrial Ecosystem/Climate Interactions, International

       Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP), 1988–1990

Steering Committee Member for IGBP Core Project Global Change in Terrestrial

       Ecosystems; Activity Leader for Biogeochemistry, 1990–1993

`Alala (Hawaiian Crow) Recovery Team member, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service,


NRC Panel “Valuation of Biodiversity,” 1995–1996

NRC Board on Global Change, 1995–1998

NSF Ecosystem Studies Panel, 2000–2003

Co-Director, First Nations Futures Institute (Consortium of Stanford, Kamehameha Schools, and the Ngai Tahu Tribe) 2005-

Board of the National Park and Conservation Association, 2009-


                                                                                                     (revised 1/16/09)