Ansar al-Islam

FormedJuly 2001
DisbandedGroup is active.
First AttackSeptember 2001: Ansar al-Islam's precursor group, Jund al-Islam, violently clashed with Patriotic Union of Kurdistan forces in a two-week long battle near Halabjah in northern Iraq (20 killed). [1]
Last AttackMarch 2010: Ansar al-Islam claimed responsibility for 8 attacks against Coalition targets between January and March. (Casualties unknown).[2]
UpdatedAugust 14, 2014

Narrative Summary

Ansar al-Islam (AI), formerly known as Ansar al-Sunna (AS), is a Sunni extremist group primarily made up of Iraqi Kurds intent on establishing a Salafi Islamic state in Iraq governed by its interpretation of Sharia. [3] AI was formed in December 2001, though precursor elements existed. Its formation was the result of a merger of the Islah, al-Tawhid Islamic Front, and Jund al-Islam. [4] The Council on Foreign Relations contends that AI was preceded by Jund al-Islam, which was formed on September 1, 2001, from al-Tawhid, Hamas, and Soran Forces; the group only became Ansar al-Islam after a merger between Jund al-Islam and a breakaway group of the Islamic Movement in Kurdistan. [5] Some AI members participated in the anti-Soviet jihad in Afghanistan and received financial and ideological support from Al Qaeda leaders.[6] AI provided Al Qaeda members safe-haven after they fled Afghanistan in September 2001.[7] Prior to the March 2003 U.S.-led invasion of Iraq, AI was primarily known for its violent clashes with the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK). However, after the invasion, AI became one of the most powerful elements of the Sunni insurgency in Iraq.

After the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq in March 2003, Kurdish and Coalition forces attacked AI's stronghold in northern Iraq, causing group members to flee and disperse throughout the country and into Kurdish territory in northwestern Iran. [8] Some sources incorrectly state that this attack completely destroyed the group. [9] However, AI regrouped; because it viewed itself as the primary Sunni Islamist militant group in Iraq, it renamed itself Ansar al-Sunna and declared itself an umbrella group for Iraqi and Arab jihadists fighting the Coalition in Iraq.[10] Meanwhile, Abu Musab al-Zarqawi's group was conducting the war's earliest spectacular terrorist attacks in August 2003: suicide attacks against the Jordanian Embassy in Baghdad, the United Nations Headquarters in Baghdad, and the Shia Imam Ali Mosque in Najaf. Recognition of AQI's emergence as the most capable jihadist group in Iraq impeded the new Ansar al-Sunna's efforts to become the umbrella group it had declared itself to be, as it did not seem to be the natural focal point for finances, fighters and other resources flowing into Iraq from jihad supporters. 

While at the strategic level AI and AQI competed for influence and had divergent views, at the tactical level the groups often cooperated closely. AI members considered AQI's heavy-handed enforcement of Shariah and indiscriminate attacks counterproductive and have complained to AQI leaders about AQI attacks against AI members.[11] AI was also never a significant supporter of AQI's anti-Shia campaign. Additionally, despite the fact that within Iraqi insurgent group circles AI was most ideologically similar to AQI, AI resisted pressure to officially endorse and join AQI's Islamic State of Iraq (ISI). [12]

In November 2007, Abdullah al-Shafii renamed the group Ansar al-Islam.  Earlier in 2007, internal tension had emerged in the group.  Ansar al-Sunna's legal council criticized AQI for killing some Ansar al-Sunna members and began promoting a partnership with an unknown group that was considered by some members of Ansar al-Sunna to deviate from Shariah. To counter the actions of their legal council, Ansar al-Sunna issued statements supporting prominent acts of the Islamic State of Iraq and claimed joint actions with AQI. To formally distance itself from the high-profile defection of its legal council, the group changed its name back to Ansar al-Islam. After this name change, the group remained aligned with AQI and AQI's increasingly hardline tactics for insurgents and Sunnis who participated in the political process. [13] Following the disbanding of the group on a large scale in 2007, many former AI members became affiliated with Al Qaeda Kurdish Battalions (AQKB). Though AI was weakened considerably, the U.S. State Department still considers them to be an active and capable foreign terrorist organization.

While AI has claimed over 50 attacks between January 2009 and July 2011, there has been no independent verification of that these attacks were indeed carried out by AI. [14] On May 3, 2010, Iraqi security forces captured Abu Abdullah al-Shafi along with several other AI members. On January 4, 2012, AI announced that Abu Hashim Muhammad bin Abdul Rahman al-Ibrahim was its new leader; all members quickly declared their allegiance to Ibrahim. [15] Ibrahim reportedly continues to lead AI.

AI has a history of conflict with ISIS and its predecessor, AQI. AI has attempted to repair relations with ISIS since 2012, but to no avail. AI even contacted Ayman al-Zawahiri, leader of AQ Central, for assistance against ISIS; Zawahiri offered no help even though he has spoken out for other groups, including al-Nusra, against ISIS. [16]

Despite the increase of ISIS operations in Iraq, AI remains active, and has claimed responsibility for many attacks against Iraqi police and security forces beginning in the month of June 2014 through its Twitter account. [17] AI has also posted photographs to its Twitter account in June 2014, apparently in the attempt to demonstrate that it has retained potency in Iraq. However, neither these photographs nor its purported attacks can be verified. [18] 

Leadership

  1. Mullah Krekar (December 2001 to February 2003): Mullah Krekar is a former Emir of AI (2001-2003), who was ousted in 2003 due to prolonged absence from Iraq. Krekar was previously the leader of Islah, one of the precursor groups to AI. His deputy, Abdullah al-Shafii, succeeded him as Emir.[19]
  2. Abdullah al-Shafii (February 2003 to May 3, 2010): Abdullah al-Shafii replaced Krekar as Emir. He was later arrested by Iraqi security forces on May 3, 2010.[20]
  3. Sheikh Abu Hashim Muhammad bin Abdul Rahman al Ibrahim (December 15, 2011 to Present): In late 2011, Ibrahim was announced as new Emir of Ansar al-Islam.[21]

Ideology & Goals

AI is a violent, Sunni extremist group advocating imposition of its interpretation of Shariah in Kurdish territory and Iraq. 

Name Changes


Size Estimates

Designated/Listed

• Listed as a Foreign Terrorist Organization by the State Department on March 22, 2004 [28]

• Listed as being associated with Al-Qaida, Osama Bin Laden or the Taliban pursuant to UNSC Resolution 1390 : October 18, 2004 to Present on February 24, 2003 [29] 

Resources

AI receives funds from the Iraqi diaspora, particularly in Jordan, Turkey and Europe, as well as from former Ba’athist officials and local sheiks. AI also engages in local criminal activities from which it gains revenue. It has also been reported that AI has received funds from AQ Central, the former Al Qaeda in Iraq (AQI) and Iran. [30] 

External Influences

Al Qaeda has provided money as well as training, equipment and combat support to AI.[31] The Council on Foreign Relations reports that some experts believe AI has received support from Iran; particularly, Iran has harbored AI fighters and created safe routes for new recruits to enter Iraq and join AI. [32]

Geographical Locations

Prior to March 2003, AI had strongholds in Biyara and Tawela. [33] After the invasion until about 2008, AI operated in Sulaimaniya, Arbil, Ninewa, Kirkuk, Baghdad, Salah al-Din, Diyala, and al-Anbar. [34] As of 2012, AI was predominantly based in northern Iraq, with a presence in al-Anbar, Diyala, and Salah al-Din provinces. [35] There are also reports that AI has expanded its operations into Syria, particularly around Aleppo. [36] 

Targets & Tactics

AI targeted mainly Coalition forces, Iraqi security forces, and Iraqi government interests until 2011. It also targeted secular Kurdish leaders, especially those associated with PUK and the Kurdish Democratic Party (KDP). [37] AI conducted numerous improvised explosives device attacks, including suicide bombings, kidnappings, beheadings, and rocket attacks. Especially before 2003, the group experimented with chemical attacks and explored the use of ricin and cyanide gas.[38] 

AI has also been known to carry out attacks on government officials, journalists, humanitarian aid officials, professors, and doctors. Following the US-led invasion of Iraq, AI also targeted persons who worked for the Multinational Force in Iraq (MNF-I) in non-military capacities, such as cleaners and translators. [39]

Between January 2009 and July 2011, AI has claimed responsibility for over 50 attacks, the majority of which involve the use of IEDs against US and Iraqi military targets. The increased frequency of these types of attacks may indicate a shift in AI tactics during this period to rely more heavily of IEDs. However, no government or news agency has publicly verified that these attacks were actually carried out by AI. [40]  

On May 16, 2013, AI created a Twitter account that it uses to provide updates concerning its attacks and policies; it has even used its Twitter account to provide detailed information about its negotiations with ISIS. [41] AI has also claimed responsibility for attacks and post photographs purportedly demonstrating their continued operations in Iraq on the site. However, the verity of these posts has yet to be confirmed independently. [42][43]

Political Activities

AI produces a monthly publication, Hasad al-Mujahidin (Mujahidin Roundup), consisting of summaries of operational press releases. [44] AI also has a twitter account, which it uses to provide updates concerning its operations. [45] 

Major Attacks

  1. June 2002: The group carried out suicide attacks against PUK targets in Sulaimaniya (Casualties unknown).[46]
  2. October 14, 2003: AI bombed the Turkish Embassy in Baghdad (1 killed, 24 wounded).[47]
  3. February 1, 2004: The group carried out simultaneous suicide attacks at the headquarters of the KDP and the PUK in Arbil (105 killed, 100 wounded).[48]
  4. December 2004: AI carried out a suicide attack in U.S. military dining facility at FOB Marez in Mosul, Iraq. (22 killed, 60 wounded).[49]
  5. October 2005: AI beheaded two "spies" from Al-Durah  (2 killed).[50]
  6. July 23, 2006: AI carried out multiple attacks across Diyala and Anbar, including an assassination of a Shia politician and attacks on U.S. soldiers (3 killed).[51]
  7. April 22, 2007: In Ninawa, AI stopped a bus and extracted all the Yazidi passengers. Though the others were left alone, the Yazidi passengers were taken to Mosul and executed (23 killed, 7 wounded).[52]
  8. May 8, 2007: AI carried out a suicide attack in Irbil outside the Kurdish Interior Ministry (15 killed, 65 wounded).[53]
  9. August 13, 2008: AI attacked a barracks in Peshmerga (19 killed).[54]

Relationships with Other Groups

The Islamic Movement of Kurdistan (IMK) formed in 1987.[55] In 1997, IMK split, spawning Hamas (not to be confused with Hamas Iraq or the Palestinian Hamas), al-Tawhid Islamic Front, and the Second Soran Unit.[56] Between July 2001 and August 2001, al-Tawhid, Hamas, and the Second Soran Unit merged to form the Islamic Unity Front, which was renamed Jund al-Islam on September 1, 2001.[57] Jund al-Islam was led by Abdallah al-Shafi[58], who replaced Mullah Krekar as emir of AI in 2003, after the latter's prolonged absence from Iraq. In December 2001, the group was renamed Ansar al-Islam.[59] 

In early May 2007, two leaders of AI left to form the Ansar al-Sunna Sharia Commission, which aligned with the Islamic Army of Iraq (IAI) and the Mujahedeen Army (MA) to form the Jihad and Reformation Front (RJF).[60] AI clarified in May that only the two leaders aligned with IAI and MA and that AI remained separate and unsupportive of the RJF.[61] 

There are longstanding ties between AI and Al Qaeda, given the group's ideological affinity with Al Qaeda and some members' common participation in the anti-Soviet jihad. Al Qaeda leaders provided AI guidance in the past and reportedly approved funding for the group.[62] Following disputes between AQ Central leadership and the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS), several jihadists have begun spreading the rumor that AI has become an official branch of AQ Central; however, neither AI nor AQ Central have substantiated these claims. [63]

 AI has a history of conflict with ISIS and its precursor, AQI. AI has also cooperated with AQI, but the two were never formally aligned. [64] AQI elements had a history of attacking and killing AI members. [65]

AI has attempted to repair relations with ISIS since 2012, but to no avail. AI even contacted Ayman al-Zawahiri, leader of AQ Central, for assistance against ISIS; Zawahiri offered no help even though he has aided other groups, including al-Nusra, against ISIS. [66] Part of basis for the conflict between AI and ISIS stems from ISIS’s claim that it is a state and its subsequent lack of cooperation with other jihadist groups such as AI. [67] There are some reports that AI is cooperating with al-Nusra against ISIS. [68]

Community Relationships

Members of AI are primarily Kurdish Islamist fighters and Sunni Arabs, including former Baathist regime elements. The group recruits in Iraq, focusing on the areas of Mosul, Kirkuk and Salah al-Din.[69] 

Little information exists regarding AI's relationship with the surrounding population. In general, it is not a popular Kurdish group. It is dominated by PUK and KDP- larger, more successful, and politically active Kurdish groups that oppose AI. 

Soon after its founding in 2001, AI gained control of territory in northeastern Iraq near the border with Iran, where it imposed its interpretation of Shariah law.[70] Its control in this enclave was eliminated when Coalition and Kurdish forces attacked in March 2003. 

References

  1. ^ "Iraqi Kurds Fear New Islamist Group," BBC News, October 2, 2001, retrieved on July 22, 2010 from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/1572478.stm.
  2. ^ "Ansar Al-Islam Claims Responsibility for Eight Attacks on Coalition Forces in Iraq," Jihadist Websites via Open Source Center, OSC Summary: GMP20100504136006, May 4, 2010.
  3. ^ "Ansar al-Islam (AI)." National Counter Terrorism Center, retrieved on February 5, 2010 from http://www.nctc.gov/site/groups/ai.html.
  4. ^ Lia, Brynjar, "Ansar al-Islam Group Revisited." (Working Paper), Norwegian Defence Research Establishment, June 16, 2006, retrieved on February 5, 2010 from http://www.mil.no/multimedia/archive/00093/The_Ansar_al-Islam_G_93466a.pdf.
  5. ^ Gregory, Kathryn. “Ansar al-Islam (Iraq, Islamists/Kurdish Separatists), Ansar al-Sunnah.” The Council on Foreign Relations.November 5, 2008, retrieved June 30, 2014 from http://www.cfr.org/iraq/ansar-al-islam-iraq-islamistskurdish-separatists-ansar-al-sunnah/p9237.
  6. ^ Ansar al-Islam in Iraqi Kurdistan," Human Rights Watch, February 5, 2003, retrieved on March 29, 2010 from http://www.hrw.org/backgrounder/mena/ansarbk020503.htm.
  7. ^ Ansar al-Islam in Iraqi Kurdistan," Human Rights Watch, February 5, 2003, retrieved on March 29, 2010 from http://www.hrw.org/backgrounder/mena/ansarbk020503.htm.
  8. ^ Schanzer, Jonathan, "Ansar al-Islam: Back in Iraq," Middle East Quarterly,  Volume XI: Number 1 (Winter 2004), retrieved on February 5, 2010 from http://www.meforum.org/579/ansar-al-islam-back-in-iraq.
  9. ^ Barbarani, Sofia. “Young Kurds fight alongside ISIL in Syria.” Al Jazeera. June 14, 2014, retrieved on June 30, 2014 from http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2014/05/young-kurds-fight-alongside-isil-syria-2014517141816564110.html
  10. ^ "Iraq: Statement Announces Formation of the Ansar al-Sunna Army," Movement for Islamic Reform via Open Source Center, October 23, 2003, OSC Translation: GMP20031002000158.
  11. ^ Fishman, Brian, "Ansar al-Sunna Threatens Al-Qa'ida in Iraq,"  Combatting Terrorism Center at West Point, February 26, 2007, retrieved on May 5, 2010 from http://www.ctc.usma.edu/wp-content/uploads/2010/06/AAS_to_AQ-analysis4.pdf.
  12. ^ Gregory, Kathryn, "Backgrounder: Ansar al-Islam," Council on Foreign Relations, November 5, 2008, retrieved on May 5, 2010 from http://www.cfr.org/publication/9237/.
  13. ^ "Ansar al-Islam," Australian Government, March 20, 2009, retrieved on February 5, 2010 from http://www.ag.gov.au/agd/WWW/NationalSecurity.nsf/Page/What_Governments_are_doing_Listing_of_Terrorism_Organisations_Ansar_Al-Islam.
  14. ^ Austrian National Security. “Ansar al-Islam.” Australian National Security. March 9, 2012, retrieved on July 16, 2014 from http://www.nationalsecurity.gov.au/Listedterroristorganisations/Pages/Ansar-alIslam.aspx
  15. ^ Joscelyn, Thomas and Bill Roggio. “Ansar al Islam names new leader.” The Long War Journal. January 5, 2012, retrieved July 16, 2014 from http://www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2012/01/ansar_al_islam_names.php#
  16. ^ Joscelyn, Thomas. “Ansar al Islam claims attacks against Iraqi military, policy.” The Long War Journal. June 20, 2014, retrieved June 30, 2014 from http://www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2014/06/_operating_in_iraq_w.php?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=ansar-al-islam-claims-attacks-against-iraqi-military-police#
  17. ^ Joscelyn, Thomas. “Ansar al Islam claims attacks against Iraqi military, police.” The Long War Journal. June 20, 2014, retrieved July 16, 2014 from http://www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2014/06/_operating_in_iraq_w.php?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=ansar-al-islam-claims-attacks-against-iraqi-military-police#
  18. ^ Joscelyn, Thomas. “Ansar al Islam releases propaganda photos showing operations in Iraq.” The Long War Journal. June 23, 2014, retrieved on July 16, 2014 from http://www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2014/06/ansar_al_islam_relea.php#
  19. ^ Al-Shafi'I, Muhammad, "Iraq: Ansar al-Islam Dismisses Krekar as Leader," Al-Sharq al-Aswat via BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, August 23, 2003, p. 3, LexisNexis Academic.
  20. ^ Roggio, Bill, "Iraqi Forces Arrest Leader of Ansar al Islam," The Long War Journal, May 4, 2010, retrieved on July 27, 2010 from http://www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2010/05/iraqi_forces_arrest.php
  21. ^ Joscelyn, Thomas and Bill Roggio. "Ansar al Islam names new Leader." The Long War Journal. January 5, 2012. http://www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2012/01/ansar_al_islam_names.php. Accessed August 3, 2012.
  22. ^ Lia, Brynjar, "Ansar al-Islam Group Revisited," (Working Paper), Norwegian Defence Research Establishment, June 16, 2006, retrieved on February 5, 2010 from http://www.mil.no/multimedia/archive/00093/The_Ansar_al-Islam_G_93466a.pdf.
  23. ^ "Ansar al-Islam," Australian Government, March 20, 2009, retrieved on February 5, 2010 from http://www.ag.gov.au/agd/WWW/NationalSecurity.nsf/Page/What_Governments_are_doing_Listing_of_Terrorism_Organisations_Ansar_Al-Islam.
  24. ^ "Ansar al-Islam," Australian Government, March 20, 2009, retrieved on February 5, 2010 from http://www.ag.gov.au/agd/WWW/NationalSecurity.nsf/Page/What_Governments_are_doing_Listing_of_Terrorism_Organisations_Ansar_Al-Islam.
  25. ^ Taylor, Catherine, "Taliban Style Group Grows in Iraq," Christian Science Monitor, March 15, 2002, retrieved on February 5, 2010 from http://www.csmonitor.com/2002/0315/p01s04-wome.html
  26. ^ Taylor, Catherine, "Taliban Style Group Grows in Iraq," Christian Science Monitor, March 15, 2002, retrieved on February 5, 2010 from http://www.csmonitor.com/2002/0315/p01s04-wome.html
  27. ^ "Ansar al-Islam," Australian Government, March 20, 2009, retrieved on February 5, 2010 from http://www.ag.gov.au/agd/WWW/NationalSecurity.nsf/Page/What_Governments_are_doing_Listing_of_Terrorism_Organisations_Ansar_Al-Islam
  28. ^ US Department of State. “Foreign Terrorist Organizations: Bureau of Counterterrorism.” US Department of State. Retrieved June 30, 2014 from http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/other/des/123085.htm.
  29. ^ United Nations Security Council, Al-Qaida Sanctions Committee. “Narrative Summaries of Reasons for Listing: QE.A.98.03. Ansar Al-Islam.” The United Nations. Retrieved June 30, 2014 from http://www.un.org/sc/committees/1267/NSQE09803E.shtml.
  30. ^ Department of the Australian Attorney General. “Ansar al-Islam.” Australian National Security. March 9, 2012, retrieved on June 30, 2014 from http://www.nationalsecurity.gov.au/Listedterroristorganisations/Pages/Ansar-alIslam.aspx
  31. ^ "Ansar al-Islam," Australian Government, March 20, 2009, retrieved on February 5, 2010 from http://www.ag.gov.au/agd/WWW/NationalSecurity.nsf/Page/What_Governments_are_doing_Listing_of_Terrorism_Organisations_Ansar_Al-Islam.
  32. ^ Gregory, Kathryn. “Ansar al-Islam (Iraq, Islamists/Kurdish Separatists), Ansar al-Sunnah.” The Council on Foreign Relations. November 5, 2008, retrieved June 30, 2014 from http://www.cfr.org/iraq/ansar-al-islam-iraq-islamistskurdish-separatists-ansar-al-sunnah/p9237.
  33. ^ Ansar al-Islam in Iraqi Kurdistan," Human Rights Watch, February 5, 2003, retrieved on March 29, 2010 from http://www.hrw.org/backgrounder/mena/ansarbk020503.htm.
  34. ^ Kimmage, Daniel and Ridolfo, Kathleen, "Iraqi Insurgent Media: The War of Images and Ideas," Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, 2007.
  35. ^ Department of the Australian Attorney General. “Ansar al-Islam.” Australian National Security. March 9, 2012, retrieved on June 30, 2014 from http://www.nationalsecurity.gov.au/Listedterroristorganisations/Pages/Ansar-alIslam.aspx
  36. ^ Ali, Abdullah Suleiman. “ISIS on offensive in Iraq.” Al-Monitor. June 10, 2014, retrieved June 30, 2014 from http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/security/2014/06/syria-iraq-isis-invasions-strength.html#
  37. ^ "Ansar al-Islam (AI)." National Counter Terrorism Center, retrieved on February 5, 2010 from http://www.nctc.gov/site/groups/ai.html.
  38. ^ Schanzer, Jonathan, "Ansar al-Islam: Back in Iraq," Middle East Quarterly,  Volume XI: Number 1 (Winter 2004), retrieved on February 5, 2010 from http://www.meforum.org/579/ansar-al-islam-back-in-iraq.
  39. ^ Gregory, Kathryn. “Ansar al-Islam (Iraq, Islamists/Kurdish Separatists), Ansar al-Sunnah.” The Council on Foreign Relations.November 5, 2008, retrieved June 30, 2014 from http://www.cfr.org/iraq/ansar-al-islam-iraq-islamistskurdish-separatists-ansar-al-sunnah/p9237.
  40. ^ Austrian National Security. “Ansar al-Islam.” Australian National Security. March 9, 2012, retrieved on July 16, 2014 from http://www.nationalsecurity.gov.au/Listedterroristorganisations/Pages/Ansar-alIslam.aspx
  41. ^ Site Intelligence Group. “Al-Qaeda-Affiliates Expand Online Platform on Twitter.” Site Intelligence Group. June 18, 2014, retrieved June 30, 2014 from https://news.siteintelgroup.com/Articles-Analysis/al-qaeda-affiliates-expand-online-platform-to-twitter.html
  42. ^ Joscelyn, Thomas. “Ansar al Islam claims attacks against Iraqi military, police.” The Long War Journal. June 20, 2014, retrieved July 16, 2014 from http://www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2014/06/_operating_in_iraq_w.php?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=ansar-al-islam-claims-attacks-against-iraqi-military-police#
  43. ^ Joscelyn, Thomas. “Ansar al Islam releases propaganda photos showing operations in Iraq.” The Long War Journal. June 23, 2014, retrieved on July 16, 2014 from http://www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2014/06/ansar_al_islam_relea.php#
  44. ^ Kimmage, Daniel and Ridolfo, Kathleen, "Iraqi Insurgent Media: The War of Images and Ideas," Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, 2007.
  45. ^ Site Intelligence Group. “Al-Qaeda-Affiliates Expand Online Platform on Twitter.” Site Intelligence Group. June 18, 2014, retrieved June 30, 2014 from https://news.siteintelgroup.com/Articles-Analysis/al-qaeda-affiliates-expand-online-platform-to-twitter.html
  46. ^ "Ansar al-Islam in Iraqi Kurdistan," Human Rights Watch, February 5, 2003, retrieved on March 29, 2010 from http://www.hrw.org/backgrounder/mena/ansarbk020503.htm
  47. ^ Hider, James, "Suicide Bomb Hits Turkish Embassy," The Times, October 15, 2003, p. 18, LexisNexis Academic
  48. ^ "Hawlati Reveals the Secret of Arbil Explosions," Hawlati via BBC Summary of World Broadcast, February 11, 2004, LexisNexis Academic
  49. ^ "Jaish Ansar al-Sunna," GlobalSecurity.org, April 27, 2005, retrieved on February 5, 2010 from http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/para/ansar-al-sunna.htm
  50. ^ "Ansar al-Sunnah Army Group Claims Executing Two 'Spies' from Al-Durah," Jihadist Websites via Open Source Center, FBIS Report: GMP20051005398002, October 5, 2005
  51. ^ "Ansar al-Islam," Australian Government, March 20, 2009, retrieved on February 5, 2010 from http://www.ag.gov.au/agd/WWW/NationalSecurity.nsf/Page/What_Governments_are_doing_Listing_of_Terrorism_Organisations_Ansar_Al-Islam
  52. ^ "2007 Report on Terrorism," National Counterterrorism Center, April 30, 2008, p. 59.
  53. ^ "Ansar al-Islam," Australian Government, March 20, 2009, retrieved on February 5, 2010 from http://www.ag.gov.au/agd/WWW/NationalSecurity.nsf/Page/What_Governments_are_doing_Listing_of_Terrorism_Organisations_Ansar_Al-Islam
  54. ^ "Ansar al-Islam," Australian Government, March 20, 2009, retrieved on February 5, 2010 from http://www.ag.gov.au/agd/WWW/NationalSecurity.nsf/Page/What_Governments_are_doing_Listing_of_Terrorism_Organisations_Ansar_Al-Islam
  55. ^ "Ansar al-Islam in Iraqi Kurdistan," Human Rights Watch, February 5, 2003, retrieved on March 29, 2010 from http://www.hrw.org/backgrounder/mena/ansarbk020503.htm.
  56. ^ Schanzer, Jonathan, "Ansar al-Islam: Back in Iraq," Middle East Quarterly,  Volume XI: Number 1 (Winter 2004), retrieved on February 5, 2010 from http://www.meforum.org/579/ansar-al-islam-back-in-iraq.
  57. ^ Schanzer, Jonathan, "Ansar al-Islam: Back in Iraq," Middle East Quarterly,  Volume XI: Number 1 (Winter 2004), retrieved on February 5, 2010 from http://www.meforum.org/579/ansar-al-islam-back-in-iraq.
  58. ^ "Ansar al-Islam," Global Jihad, April 3, 2007, retrieved on February 5, 2009 from http://globaljihad.net/view_page.asp?id=141.
  59. ^ Lia, Brynjar, "Ansar al-Islam Group Revisited." (Working Paper), Norwegian Defence Research Establishment, June 16, 2006, retrieved on February 5, 2010 from http://www.mil.no/multimedia/archive/00093/The_Ansar_al-Islam_G_93466a.pdf.
  60. ^ "Islamist Websites Monitor" The Middle East Media Research Institute, No. 95. (May 4, 2007), retrieved on January 29, 2010 from http://www.memri.org/report/en/0/0/0/0/0/0/2177.htm
  61. ^ "Ansar al-Sunnah Group Denies Joining 'Jihad and Reformation Front'," Jihadist Websites via Open Source Center, OSC Summary: GMP20070503338001[0], May 3, 2007.
  62. ^ Roggio, Bill, "Iraqi Troops Detain Deputy Leader of Ansar al-Islam,"  Long War Journal, August 4, 2009, retrieved on February 5, 2010 from http://www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2009/08/iraqi_troops_detain.php.
  63. ^ Joscelyn, Thomas. “Ansar al Islam claims attacks against Iraqi military, policy.” The Long War Journal. June 20, 2014, retrieved June 30, 2014 from http://www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2014/06/_operating_in_iraq_w.php?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=ansar-al-islam-claims-attacks-against-iraqi-military-police#
  64. ^ Roggio, Bill, "Iraqi Forces Arrest Leader of Ansar al Islam," The Long War Journal, May 4, 2010, retrieved on July 27, 2010 from http://www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2010/05/iraqi_forces_arrest.php
  65. ^ "Letters to the Leadership of ISI about Issues of Single-party Control," National Media Exploitation Center Document, (NMEC-2007-637001), United States Military Academy, Combating Terrorism Center, 2007, retrieved on February 5, 2010 from http://www.ctc.usma.edu/harmony/pdf/Combined%20Orig_Trans/NMEC-2007-637001_comb.pdf.
  66. ^ Joscelyn, Thomas. “Ansar al Islam claims attacks against Iraqi military, policy.” The Long War Journal. June 20, 2014, retrieved June 30, 2014 from http://www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2014/06/_operating_in_iraq_w.php?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=ansar-al-islam-claims-attacks-against-iraqi-military-police#
  67. ^ Terrorism Research and Analysis Consortium. “Ansar al Islam (AI).” Terrorism Research and Analysis Consortium. Retrieved June 30, 2014 from http://www.trackingterrorism.org/group/ansar-al-islam-ai.
  68. ^ Ali, Abdullah Suleiman. “ISIS on offensive in Iraq.” Al-Monitor. June 10, 2014, retrieved June 30, 2014 from http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/security/2014/06/syria-iraq-isis-invasions-strength.html#
  69. ^ "Ansar al-Islam," Australian Government, March 20, 2009, retrieved on February 5, 2010 from http://www.ag.gov.au/agd/WWW/NationalSecurity.nsf/Page/What_Governments_are_doing_Listing_of_Terrorism_Organisations_Ansar_Al-Islam.
  70. ^ Roggio, Bill, "Iraqi Troops Detain Deputy Leader of Ansar al-Islam,"  Long War Journal, August 4, 2009, retrieved on February 5, 2010 from http://www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2009/08/iraqi_troops_detain.php.