1990: HuJI was allegedly responsible for numerous small-scale bombings in Bangladesh, Pakistan, India, and Jammu & Kashmir (J&K) in the early 1990s.
September 6, 2011: Bombs exploded throughout Delhi outside of the Delhi High Court (11 killed, 76 wounded). 
November 28, 2012
Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami (HuJI) is a Pakistan-based Deobandi militant group whose main goal is the secession of Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) from India and their eventual incorporation into Pakistan.  HuJI originated in the early 1980s as part of a network of Pakistan-backed mujahedeen groups fighting the Soviets in Afghanistan. Its original name was Jamiat Ansarul Afghaneen (JAA). Established by the Pakistan-based religious groups Jamaat ul-Ulema-e-Islami and Tabligh-I-Jimaat, HuJI was one of the first Jihadi organizations created to fight against Soviet forces in Afghanistan. JAA changed its name to HuJI and began operating as a Kashmiri separatist group towards the end of Soviet occupation.
Following the Cold War, the Pakistani government and its intelligence agency, Inter Services Intelligence (ISI), allegedly assisted HuJI, as well as similar groups, in its operations to promote Kashmiri incorporation into Pakistan. HuJI was one of the largest Jihadi organizations and operated alongside three other groups in the region with similar goals: Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT), Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM) and Harkat-ul-Mujahedeen (HuM). Though unconfirmed, HuJI, LeT, HuM and JeM are believed by some to have ties to the same Pakistani founder, Qari Saifullah Akhtar. HuJI maintains strong links with the Taliban and Al Qaeda and operates in other nations including Afghanistan, Arakan-Burma, Bangladesh, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and parts of Africa.
Following the September 11, 2001 attacks in the U.S., government crackdowns on terrorist activity in Pakistan reduced some of HuJI's influence. HuJI's main cell is in Uttar Pradesh (UP) in India, but the group appears to have sleeper cells in Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan. 
Qari Saifullah Akhtar (1985 to Present): Qari Saifullah Akhtar is the founder and leader of HuJI in Pakistan. He is of Pashtun tribal descent, from Waziristan, and was educated in the Jamia Banoria madrasa in Karachi. This particular madrasa allegedly responsible for producing several high profile terrorists. When Akhtar took the lead in 1985, he began to expand HuJI infrastructure and operations in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Following the end of the Cold War, Akhtar and his operations were largely based in Kandahar. He maintained a low profile until 1995, when he was implicated along with several senior Pakistani army officials in an attempt to overthrow the Pakistani government. The charges against him were dropped after he testified against his conspirators. After U.S. military operations commenced in 2001, he took refuge in Pakistan’s Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA).
Muhammad Ilyas Kashmiri (1991 to Present): Kashmiri was the operational commander of HuJI and head of Brigade 313, which was responsible for beginning HuJI operations in J&K in 1991. He was reportedly killed by a U.S. drone strike in June 2011.
Shahid Bilal (2003 to Unknown): Bilal was the operations chief of HuJI. Some reports have indicated that he was killed by unidentified assailants in Karachi on August 30, 2007, while others have reported that Bilal is alive and living in Bangladesh and Karachi. Bilal is alleged to have masterminded several bomb blasts across the Indian hinterland.
Mohammad Tariq Qasmi (2007 to Present): Qasmi is the leader of HuJI’s Hyderabad cell. He is a qualified Unani doctor and, as the area commander of HuJI in Uttar Pradesh, was supposedly in charge of the group responsible for the November 23, 2007 serial bomb blasts and the May 22, 2007 Gorakhpur blasts. These attacks also reinforced the extent of the group's influence in Uttar Pradesh. 
Ideology & Goals
HuJI is associated with Deobandi movement within Sunni Islam, a movement that originates in Uttar Pradesh, India, where HuJI now has extensive operations. HuJI's main goal is purportedly the secession of Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) from India and merging with Pakistan. HuJI also believes Pakistan and India should be Islamic states, ruled under its strict interpretation of Shariah law.The group believes in achieving its goals through waging jihad. 
HuJI has been known to support the Taliban, as well as the integration of Afghan culture into Bangladesh, evidenced by a slogan it allegedly issued, "Amra Sobai Hobo Taliban, Bangla Hobe Afghanistan (We will all become Taliban and we will turn Bangladesh into Afghanistan)."
1980: Jamiat Ansarul Afghaneen (JAA). “Party of the Friends of the Afghan People.” This was the group’s original name.
1989: Harkatul Jihad-e-Islami. JAA was renamed HuJI towards the end of Soviet occupation around 1989 when it began to focus on fighting for the liberation of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir (J&K).
1989: Harkat-ul-Ansar. HuJI soon merged with another Pakistani militant group known as the Harkat-ul-Mujahedeen to form the Harkat-ul-Ansar, which subsequently began terrorist operations in J&K.
1997: Harkat-ul-Mujahedeen . In order to avoid the ramifications of the U.S designation of Harkat-ul-Ansar as a Foreign Terrorist Organization in 1997, the group renamed itself as Harkat-ul-Mujahedeen in certain areas. The group’s Bangladesh-based unit (formed in 1992) is known as the HuJI Bangladesh (HuJI-B).
2009: 500 – 700 (South Asian Terrorist Portal)
The listings section of this profile includes a second entry dated 1997 to account for the listing of one of HuJI's previous incarnations, Harkat ul-Ansar. It is unknown when this specific group was delisted. 
Indian Ministry of Home Affairs: Unknown to Present
U.S. State Department Foreign Terrorist Organizations: 1997 to Present
U.S. State Department Foreign Terrorist Organizations: 2008 to Present
United Nations: August 6, 2010 to Present
HuJI has been supported by sympathizers throughout Pakistan, including various affluent individuals, private sector entities, NGOs, the Pakistani government and peer organizations. For example, the Pakistani Punjabi business community heavily funded HuJI missions primarily during the time of HuJI's founding in 1980.  HuJI allegedly receives funding from international Islamic NGOs and madrassas operating in Pakistan. Al Qaeda and Osama bin Laden have also directly supported the organization. 
Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) have allegedly consistently supported HuJI operations since its inception.  Within Uttar Pradesh, the Student's Islamic Movement of India (SIMI) have provided HuJI shelter and logistical assistance. 
India's Special Operations Group, an intelligence agency, has implicated HuJI for their alleged role between 2011-2012 in funneling upwards of $200,000 of fake currency into the Gujarat region from a base in Bangladesh. 
HuJI operates under the influence and support of sovereign nations and NGOs. For example, HuJI's anti-India operations are supposedly planned by Pakistan's Inter Services Intelligence (ISI), mostly from the Bangladeshi capital Dhaka. HuJI has also received diaspora funding from regions throughout the world.
Finally, the HuJI maintains
links with militant groups operating in India's northeast, including the
Assam-based United Liberation Front of Asom (ULFA) and the Manipur-based
People’s United Liberation Front (PULF). The HuJI is reportedly running some of
ULFA's camps situated in the Chittagong Hill Tracts in Bangladesh along the
border of Tripura. Finally, Taliban leader Mullah Omar allowed HuJI to have its
headquarters in Kandahar from where they launched their campaigns inside
Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Chechnya. 
operations in primarily Asian and Southeast Asian countries, including
Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Philippines, Fiji and
Malaysia. HuJI also has operations in Ireland, the United Kingdom, United
States, and African nations.
The HuJI’s operations in Jammu & Kashmir
(J&K) began in 1991. HuJI has a wide network of seminaries and camps in
Pakistan was close to Mullah Omar (Emir of the Taliban) because of its early
allegiance to Maulvi Nabi Muhammadi whose own Harkat activists formed the new
Taliban cadres. HUJI was the
Taliban spearhead in Central Asia and the Caucasus, especially during its cooperation with Mullah Omar during 2004.  HuJI activities reached what could be considered a height in 2002 when 650 of its soldiers died in a battle with India's army. However, HuJI activities in Jammu and Kashmir have progressively declined
since the September 11, 2001 attacks, resulting in its Bangladesh affiliate becoming increasingly involved, especially with several terrorist attacks in India.
HuJI appears to have a strong network in western Uttar Pradesh. Several arrests and blasts indicate the depth of HuJI's involvement in this area. For example, Mohammad Tariq Qasmi and Khalid
Mujahid, who were involved in the November 23, 2007 bomb blasts and
the May 22 Gorakhpur blasts, were arrested there. Lashkar-e-Toiba (LeT)
and Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM) are also active in Uttar Pradesh. The local SIMI group has been key to sustaining these networks. HuJI also reportedly has a presence throughout the whole state of India. HuJI has also continued to operate in Chechnya, making up a significant portion of the foreign mercenary force in Chechnya.
HuJI has not yet perpetrated known attacks in western regions, but actively recruits in western countries. In 2009, HuJI leader Ahktar convinced five Americans to join the jihad after they found recruitment videos on Youtube. 
Targets & Tactics
HuJI primarily targets political and military leaders, but has also conducted attacks on civilians. For
example, HuJI attacks foreign forces in Afghanistan and government and military
personnel and installations in FATA, and HuJI-B has killed several progressive intellectuals in its effort to establish Islamic rule in Bangladesh. 
HuJI's violent tactics have ranged from single assassinations to medium and large scale explosions. The group has the ability "to operate autonomously in small cells,
deadly use of explosive devices, careful selection of soft and hard targets and
willingness to inflict mass casualties." 
The organization has used explosives that target small and large
groups. Explosives range from military applications like Research Department
Explosives (RDX) to lower-grade explosives. HuJI has engaged in suicide
attacks, such as the October 2007 suicide bombing in Karachi, and attempts assassinations through shootings and bombings.
Its activities reached what could be considered a peak in 2002 when 650 of its soldiers died in a battle with India's army. However, HuJI activities in Jammu and Kashmir have progressively declined since the September 11, 2001 attacks, resulting in its Bangladesh affiliate becoming increasingly involved, especially with several terrorist attacks in India. HuJI's activities were further restricted when its October 12, 2005
suicide attack on the Special Task Force
(STF) office of the Hyderabad Police resulted in increased scrutiny from
Indian intelligence services. HuJI still continued to operate in India,
coming under direct or indirect suspicion for most of the terrorist
attacks on India’s urban centers.
HuJI has been linked to Taliban leader Mullah Omar, and several of its members were part of the Taliban cabinet and judiciary in Afghanistan before the September 11, 2001 attacks in New York. 
1995: HuJI was allegedly responsible for attacks which seemed to target a meeting between Indian security officials and American counterterrorism diplomats. (4 killed, 21 wounded).
October 5, 2005: A suicide attack occurred on the Special Task Force (STF) office of the Hyderabad Police in India. (1 killed, 1 wounded).
March 2, 2006: HuJI was responsible for the suicide bombing of the U.S. Consulate in Karachi, Pakistan, killing four people including U.S. diplomat David Foy. (4 killed, 48 wounded).
March 7, 2006: Bomb attacks across the holy Hindu city of Varanasi, India, destroyed two Hindu temples. (25 killed, 100 wounded).
May 2007: HuJI claimed responsibility for a bomb blast at a Hyderabad mosque. (16 killed, 40 wounded).
August 25, 2007: HuJI claimed responsibility for twin bomb blasts in an open air theater and shop in Hyderabad. (10 killed, 29 wounded; 31 killed, 21 wounded).
November 23, 2007: Bomb blasts occurred at civil court at Varanasi, Faizabad and Lucknow. (15 killed).
2008: Serial bomb blasts exploded throughout Ahmedabad. (49+ killed, 145+ wounded).
May 2008: Serial bomb blasts occurred in Jaipur, India. (60+ killed, 100+ wounded (estimates vary)).
Relationships with Other Groups
HuJI has historically been connected with several other groups that share similar goals and ideologies. The organization has also developed affiliates and merged with other organizations to form entirely new groups.
In 1989, at the conclusion of its conflict with the Soviets, HuJI merged with another Pakistani militant group known as the Harkat-ul-Mujahedeen (HuM) to form the Harkat-ul-Ansar (HuA). . Following the U.S. designation of HuA as a terrorist organization in 1997, HuJI used the name Harkat-ul-Mujahedeen (HuM) in certain areas to continue operating. 
HuJI’s Bangladesh-based unit formed in 1992 and is known as the HuJI
Bangladesh (HuJI-B). The HuJI-B functioned under the Jihad Movement in
Bangladesh led by Fazlur Rahman, one of the signatories of the February 23,
1998 declaration of "holy war" under the banner of Osama bin Laden’s World
Islamic Front for Jihad against the Jews and Crusaders. 
HuJI has historically received patronage and
support from Pakistan’s Inter-Services Intelligence and is linked with several
Islamist groups operating in India including the Lashkar-e-Toiba (LeT) and
Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM). HuJI’s Bangladesh affiliate, HUJI-B, has also operationally coordinated its attacks with the cooperation of the Students' Islamic Movement of India (SIMI), the Lashkar-e-tayyeba (LeT) and Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM). SIMI cadres have provided shelter and logistical help to HUJI-B prior to attacks and some SIMI cadres have joined HUJI-B.
During the 1990s, HuJI assisted the Taliban in their fight against the Soviets, and many operatives died in this civil conflict. More recently, HuJI had ties to Mullah Omar (Emir of the Taliban) in the early 2000s.  Specifically, HuJI leader Qari Saifullah Akhtar was an advisor to Mullah Omar in the
Taliban government, and three Taliban ministers and 22 judges belonged to HuJI.  Taliban
military and police forces were also trained at HuJI camps.
Al Qaeda and HuJI share some training camps, and the relationship between the groups is strengthened by their mutual ties to the Taliban. For example, Osama Bin Laden used the
group as part of his support network inside Pakistan, specifically to convey messages, instructions, and funds. Some evidence indicates HuJI operatives may have been involved in hiding or transporting Bin Laden in Pakistan. In addition, Ilyas Kashmiri, the operational commander for HUJI, also
serves as al Qaeda's military commander and is a senior leader on Al Qaeda's
external operations council. 
HuJI’s community relationships revolve around recruiting resources to
support their operations. Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami Bangladesh (HuJI-B) allegedly recruits children for its sleeper and information cells in West Bengal. These children are also used as messengers between HuJI-B linkmen.
HuJI also recruits members from the United States. In
2009, HuJI leader Ahktar convinced five Americans to join the jihad after watching they discovered recruitment videos on Youtube. 
^ Frontline Pakistan: The Struggle with Militant Islam by Zahid Hussain, Columbia University Press, 2007, page 7