National Vanguard

FormedDecember 1959
Disbanded1976
UpdatedFebruary 12, 2012

Narrative Summary

National Vanguard was one of the two main neo-fascist Italian terrorist groups, along with New Order.[1]

National Vanguard was officially banned in 1975 under a law forbidding the reconstruction of the fascist party.

was dissolved in 1965, reconstituted in 1970, and then redissolved in 1975[2], whereupon its remnants merged with those of New Order and National Front and were absorbed into Black Order.

Leadership

  1. Mario Merlino (Unknown to Unknown):
  2. Stefano Delle Chiaie (1962 to Unknown): The founder of National Vanguard.[3]

Ideology & Goals

National Vanguard had a more explicitly anti-Communist stance than did other neo-fascist groups. It sought to rescue the Italian republic from a feared Communist takeover.[4]

The group's longer-term goals were vague. It sought to unite Europe into one totalitarian nation but had no clear plan of how to do so.[5]


Size Estimates

Geographical Locations

*Rome 
*Campania 
*Puglia 
*Milan 
*Turin[8]

National Vanguard had its headquarters in Rome and had bases or members in some 30 cities throughout Italy.[9]

Targets & Tactics

Clashed with leftist student groups.[10]

Relationships with Other Groups

National Vanguard broke from New Order in 1960.[11] It later coordinated with that group and other armed neo-fascist movements.There is evidence that National Vanguard, New Order, and National Front jointly planned a coup attempt in 1970.[12] The remnants of the groups merged after being formally banned in the mid-1970s[13] and were then absorbed into Black Order.

Thereafter they also attempted to collaborate with left-wing groups and began adopting left-wing tactics.[14]

References

  1. ^ Weinberg, Leonard, and William Lee Eubank. The Rise and Fall of Italian Terrorism. Boulder: Westview Press, 1987. p. 46.
  2. ^ Ferraresi, Franco. Threats to Democracy. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1996. pp. 63-64
  3. ^ Il Terrorismo In Italia Negli Anni Settanta : Cronaca E Documentazione. Milano: Bibliografica, 1980. p. 25.
  4. ^ Weinberg, Leonard, and William Lee Eubank. The Rise and Fall of Italian Terrorism. Boulder: Westview Press, 1987. p. 37.
  5. ^ Ferraresi, Franco. Threats to Democracy. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1996. p. 65
  6. ^ Barbato, 25
  7. ^ Weinberg and Eubank, 38
  8. ^ Weinberg, Leonard, and William Lee Eubank. The Rise and Fall of Italian Terrorism. Boulder: Westview Press, 1987. p. 37.
  9. ^ Ferraresi, Franco. Threats to Democracy. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1996. p. 64
  10. ^ Weinberg, Leonard, and William Lee Eubank. The Rise and Fall of Italian Terrorism. Boulder: Westview Press, 1987. p. 37.
  11. ^ Weinberg, Leonard, and William Lee Eubank. The Rise and Fall of Italian Terrorism. Boulder: Westview Press, 1987. p. 37.
  12. ^ Weinberg, Leonard, and William Lee Eubank. The Rise and Fall of Italian Terrorism. Boulder: Westview Press, 1987. p. 47.
  13. ^ Weinberg, Leonard, and William Lee Eubank. The Rise and Fall of Italian Terrorism. Boulder: Westview Press, 1987. p. 46.
  14. ^ Weinberg, Leonard, and William Lee Eubank. The Rise and Fall of Italian Terrorism. Boulder: Westview Press, 1987. p. 46.