July 23, 2004: The group took hostage one Iraqi and two Pakistanis near Baghdad. The Pakistanis were shown dead on video five days later; the Iraqi was subsequently released (2 killed).
March 13, 2010: The group claimed responsibility for an attack on a US military vehicle north of Baghdad, Iraq (Casualties unknown).
July 23, 2014
Islamic Army in Iraq was established after the March 2003 U.S.-led invasion of
Iraq, though plans for its creation existed earlier, in anticipation of the
invasion.  Reportedly one of the
largest Sunni insurgent groups in Iraq, IAI's Islamist narrative is more
inclusive than that of many other groups within the Iraqi jihadist movement.  IAI
includes members who espouse an Iraqi nationalist platform as well as members
who espouse an Islamic one. IAI was not only anti-coalition, also anti-Iran.
The group conducted attacks against Iranian and Shiite interests throughout the
course of the conflict, including the kidnapping and interrogation of an
Iranian diplomat. ,
has few, if any, foreign members. Its members are drawn from various Iraqi
factions and include former members of the Hussein regime.IAI is most active in
and around the Baghdad area.
rejected AQI and was one of the leading Sunni insurgent groups actively opposed
to AQI. IAI and AQI clashed
occasionally, both in their public rhetoric and in actual force-on-force
2006-2007, IAI’s operations decreased substantially as many members left to
join the Awakening Councils in order to fight AQI. However, beginning in 2011,
the group regained strength as it used anti-government protests to recruit
supporters. The group affirmed an anti-al-Maliki stance and also advocated for
the creation of a new, federal government. 
since Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi created ISIS out of AQI, many of IAI’s fighters have
left to join the tribal police forces called Sahwa, which are focused on
battling ISIS in Iraq. While IAI continues operations, these are mostly in
combination with other groups, indicating decreased capability to act
Ali al-Naimi, Mishan al-Jabouri and Ibrahim al-Shammari are all official
spokesmen for the IAI.  However, little is
known about the leadership of IAI.
Ishmael Jubouri (2004 to Unknown): Leader of Islamic Army in Iraq. He is a Sunni tribal member in central Iraq, and seeks to use insurgent tactics to achieve the group's goals.
Mishan al-Jabouri (2007 to Unknown): Little is known about IAI's leadership, and al-Jubouri's current status is unknown.
Ideology & Goals
original goal was the expulsion of all coalition forces and the creation of a
new government. In addition, IAI remains highly nationalistic.  IAI has dismissed excessive
and civilian violence.  IAI stated in 2012 that
it would continue its insurgency after the US withdrawal in order to remove all
traces of US influence. IAI
now intends to remove al-Maliki and create a new federal government. 
July 2007: 10400 (Globe and Mail.
Note: believed to be composed of very compartmentalized groups.)
September 2007: Believed to be the largest armed group in Iraq (Al Jazeera)
Not designated as a terrorist organization.
The IAI has consistently carried out attacks north of Baghdad as well as in Anbar.
Targets & Tactics
IAI's attacks were consistently against foreign (mostly American) forces and
the Iraqi troops aiding them. These attacks were
carried out using improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and car bombs. Some
attacks were also carried out using rocket-propelled grenades (RPGs) against
helicopters. Another of the group's tactics was taking hostages, typically
June of 2005, the IAI and the Mujahideen Army allegedly indicated initial
willingness to negotiate with the Iraqi government and disarm.  However, these
proceedings did not move past their initial stages, with demands for increased
Sunni participation in government largely unmet and harsh, broad military
attacks targeting insurgents pushing groups away from negotiations.
2012, following the withdrawal of foreign forces from Iraq, IAI created a
political branch called the Sunni Popular Front. The media spokesman of the
Sunni Popular Front is Sheikh Ahmad Dabbash. 
July 23, 2004: Took one Iraqi and two Pakistani civilians hostage near Baghdad. Five days later, the two Pakistanis were killed, and the Iraqi was released (2 killed).
August 2004: Took two French journalists hostage between Baghdad and Najaf, demanding French schools lift their ban on Islamic headscarves. The two were released in December 2004 (unknown).
March 2005: Four distinct attacks-an ambush on three trucks north of Baghdad that killed seven National Guards; the destruction of two American Hummers in Mosul; the detonation of a vehicle-borne IED in Al Anbar, killing 11 Iraqi police and wounding 14 other people; and a mortar attack on the Iraq National Assembly building in the Green Zone (unknown).
April 21, 2005: Downed a commercial helicopter north of Baghdad (11 killed).
November 9, 2007: Attacked al-Qaeda north of Baghdad (18 killed, 16 captured).
March 2008: The group claimed an attack on American forces north of Baghdad (unknown).
Relationships with Other Groups
May 2007, IAI joined the Mujahideen Army and Ansar al Islam to form the Jihad
and Reform Front (RJF), an anti-AQI umbrella group.  The groups had cooperated
previously, as IAI joined Ansar al-Islam and the Mujahideen Army on June 23,
2005, in detonating two vehicle-borne IEDs in Baghdad, killing 10 civilians and
police officers and wounding 10 more.IAI and the Mujahideen Army officially
announced their operational coordination in mid-2005.  The RJF published
joint statements, engaged in joint operations, and was aligned in opposition to
the U.S.-led coalition, Iran, Shiite militias, and AQI. Some reports suggested
that the IAI and other RJF elements negotiated with coalition forces and sought
to create anti-AQI alliances throughout the country. By the middle of 2007,
however, the RJF became largely inactive. 
and AQI had a fluctuating relationship, one that started in cooperation but
resulted in conflict between the groups, largely over the killing of civilians
and attacks on other resistance fighters.In
April 2007, after the AQI's Islamic State of Iraq (ISI) killed more than 30
members of IAI for refusing to join the group, IAI and members of the 1920s
Revolution Brigades publicly stated their opposition to AQI’s killing of
civilians and attacks on other resistance forces.In
June 2007, members of the Brigades reinforced fighters of the Islamic Army in
Iraq (IAI) in fighting ISI.  After Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi created ISIS out of
AQI, many IAI fighters left to join tribal police forces called Sahwa, which
are focused on battling ISIS in Iraq. 
reported in 2012 that IAI was part of the Political Council of the Iraqi Armed
Resistance, which includes several Sunni militant groups and opposes the Shiite
Iraqi government.  Most IAI operations
are in combination with other groups, indicating the group’s decreased
capability to act independently. 
2007, IAI opposed the tribal awakening councils because they were typically
aligned with and supported by coalition forces.  Nevertheless, more
recently, many IAI members have joined tribal police forces called Sahwa in
order to counter ISIS operations in Iraq. 
^ "A Chronology of Significant International Terrorism for 2004," National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC), April 27, 2005, p. 39.
^ "Islamic Army Video Claims Bombing of US Vehicle in Iraq," Al Jazeera via BBC Monitoring Middle East, March 13, 2010, LexisNexis Academic.
^ "A Chronology of Significant International Terrorism for 2004," April 27, 2005, p. 39
^ Karacs, Imre, "French Hostages Held Over Scarf Ban," Sunday Times, August 29, 2004, p. 23, LexisNexis Academic; Buel, Meredith, "Deadly Attack on US Military Base Near Mosul Kills 24," Voice of America, December 2004, Retrieved on May 29, 2010 from http:/